The General Description of the Path
This path is parallel to the earth from Hod to Malkhut. Both paths are related to the imposition of structure and definition upon an unknown world. In the path from Hod to Yesod the world of thing is larger, because each thing exists within a cultural context and web of associations. For example, gold is not just a metal: it is a currency; it is a signifier of value; it is a basis for decorative jewellery; and it is a metaphor for what is finest and incorruptible. Gold is a close neighbour to the metal lead in the periodic table of elements, but it arouses different passions. Gold stand for everything fine and superior; lead is considered ‘base’ and in Roman times lead sheet was used for making curse spells. The idea of holliness demonstrates how material objects can be invested with qualities that make them more than material. A location can be holy; a book can be holy; a person can be holy. The high altar of a church is treated with reverence that cannot be understood from its composition or the items placed on it. We see a similar reverence for flags and national symbols, for graves and consecrated ground, for historical sites and memorials. The path from Hod to Malkhut is the first level in what we might call ‘the construction of the material world’. The path from Hod to Yesod adds another level of complexity and substance on top of the first. A word that is sometimes used to describe the extended world as it exists in the human mind and in human culture is noosphere – litterally ‘mind-sphere’. The path from Hod to Yesod is the path of the noosphere. (Collin A. Low, The Hermetic Kabbalah, p. 325-326)
The Hebrew Letter Correspondence: Resh
This is the twentieth letter of alphabet. Its numerical value is 200. Resh is its prfonunciation and means “a head.” The Sun attributed to this path, and all the symbols are clearly solar. The Sepher Yetzirah denominates Resh a “double letter,” but I have been unable to discover any sound other than “R” for this letter ; nor is any other so recognized by modern Hebrew grammarians. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 87) Perhaps the French form of “R” – pronounced with a decided roll – is the sound in question. Its title is “the Collecting Intelligence.”
The Tarot Trump Correspondence: XIX – The Sun
The Tarot card attributed to Resh is The Sun. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 87) This card Regardie tells us, “corresponds beautifully” and find it pretty hard to understand why so many writters on the Qabalah attibute this card to the letter Qoph. (51) (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 87) The card, Regardie tells is readers, “depicts a blazing Sun above the Crowned and Conquering Child Horus who rides triumphantly on a white horse – the symbol off the Kalki Avatara.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 87) In the background of the card are several sunflowers, which again point to the solar nature of the allocation.
The Greek Deity Correspondence #1: Helios & Apollo
Helios was the personification of the Sun in Greek mythology. His name “Helios” ( Ancient Greek: Ἥλιος Hēlios0) and Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek, has been subsequently Latinized as Helius. Homer often calls him Titan or Hyperion, while Hesiod (Theogony 371) and the Homeric Hymn separate him as a son of the Titans Hyperion and Theia (Hesiod) or Euryphaessa (Homeric Hymn) and brother of the goddesses Selene, the moon, and Eos, the dawn. Ovid also calls him Titan.
The Greek ἥλιος is the inherited word for the Sun, from Proto-Indo-European *sóh₂wl̥, cognate with Latin sol, Sanskrit surya, Old English swegl, Norse sól, Welsh haul, etc. The female offspring of Helios were called Heliades. The Greek sun god had various bynames or epithets, which over time in some cases came to be considered separate deities associated with the Sun. Most notably, Helios is closely associated with, and sometimes consciously identified with, Apollo.
Among these is Hyperion (=superus “high up”), Elektor (of uncertain derivation, often translated as “beaming” or “radiant”; esp. in the combination elektor Hyperion), Phaëton “the radiant”, Hekatos (of Apollo, also Hekatebolos “far-shooter”, i.e. the sun’s rays considered as arrows).
Helios was described as a foolish and evil god crowned with the shining aureole of the Sun, who drove the chariot of the sun across the sky each day to earth-circling Oceanus and through the world-ocean returned to the East at night. In the Homeric hymn to Helios, Helios is said to drive a golden chariot drawn by steeds (HH 31.14-15); and Pindar speaks of Helios’s “fire-darting steeds” (Olympian Ode 7.71). Still later, the horses were given fiery names: Pyrois, Aeos, Aethon, and Phlegon.
As time passed, Helios was increasingly identified with the god of light, Apollo. However, in spite of their syncretism, they were also often viewed as two distinct gods (Helios was a Titan, whereas Apollo was an Olympian). The equivalent of Helios in Roman mythology was Sol, specifically Sol Invictus.
The best known story involving Helios is that of his son Phaëton, who attempted to drive his father’s chariot but lost control and set the earth on fire.
Helios was sometimes characterized with the epithet Helios Panoptes (“the all-seeing”). In the story told in the hall of Alcinous in the Odyssey (viii.300ff), Aphrodite, the consort of Hephaestus, secretly beds Ares, but all-seeing Helios spies on them and tells Hephaestus, who ensnares the two lovers in nets invisibly fine, to punish them.
You will now come to the Thrinacian island, and here you will see many herds of cattle and flocks of sheep belonging to the sun-god. There will be seven herds of cattle and seven flocks of sheep, with fifty heads in each flock. They do not breed, nor do they become fewer in number, and they are tended by the goddesses Phaethusa and Lampetia, who are children of the sun-god Hyperion by Neaera. Their mother when she had borne them and had done suckling them sent them to the Thrinacian island, which was a long way off, to live there and look after their father’s flocks and herds.
Though Odysseus warns his men, when supplies run short they impiously kill and eat some of the cattle of the Sun. The guardians of the island, Helios’ daughters, tell their father about this. Helios appeals to Zeus telling them to dispose of Odysseus’ men or he will take the Sun and shine it in the Underworld. Zeus destroys the ship with his lightning bolt, killing all the men except for Odysseus.
In one Greek vase painting, Helios appears riding across the sea in the cup of the Delphic tripod which appears to be a solar reference. Athenaeus in Deipnosophistae relates that, at the hour of sunset, Helios climbed into a great golden cup in which he passes from the Hesperides in the farthest west to the land of the Ethiops, with whom he passes the dark hours. While Heracles traveled to Erytheia to retrieve the cattle of Geryon, he crossed the Libyan desert and was so frustrated at the heat that he shot an arrow at Helios, the Sun. Almost immediately, Heracles realized his mistake and apologized profusely, in turn and equally courteous, Helios granted Heracles the golden cup which he used to sail across the sea every night, from the west to the east because he found Heracles’ actions immensely bold. Heracles used this golden cup to reach Erytheia.
L.R. Farnell assumed “that sun-worship had once been prevalent and powerful among the people of the pre-Hellenic culture, but that very few of the communities of the later historic period retained it as a potent factor of the state religion.” Our largely Attic literary sources tend to give us an unavoidable Athenian bias when we look at ancient Greek religion, and “no Athenian could be expected to worship Helios or Selene,” J. Burnet observes, “but he might think them to be gods, since Helios was the great god of Rhodes and Selene was worshiped at Elis and elsewhere.” James A. Notopoulos considers Burnet’s an artificial distinction: “To believe in the existence of the gods involves acknowledgment through worship, as Laws 87 D, E shows” (note, p. 264). Aristophanes‘ Peace (406-13) contrasts the worship of Helios and Selene with that of the more essentially Greek Twelve Olympians, as the representative gods of the Achaemenid Persians; all the evidence shows that Helios and Selene were minor gods to the Greeks.
“The island of Rhodes is almost the only place where Helios enjoys an important cult“, Burkert asserts (p 174), instancing a spectacular rite in which a quadriga, a chariot drawn by four horses, is driven over a precipice into the sea, with its overtones of the plight of Phaethon noted. There annual gymnastic tournaments were held in his honor. The Colossus of Rhodes was dedicated to him. Helios also had a significant cult on the acropolis of Corinth on the Greek mainland.
The tension between the mainstream traditional religious veneration of Helios, which had become enriched with ethical values and poetical symbolism in Pindar, Aeschylus and Sophocles, and the Ionian proto-scientific examination of Helios the Sun, a phenomenon of the study Greeks termed meteora, clashed in the trial of Anaxagoras ca 450 BC, a forerunner of the culturally traumatic trial of Socrates for irreligion, in 399.
The Etruscan god of the Sun, equivalent to Helios, was Usil. His name appears on the bronze liver of Piacenza, next to Tiur, the moon. He appears, rising out of the sea, with a fireball in either outstretched hand, on an engraved Etruscan bronze mirror in late Archaic style, formerly on the Roman antiquities market. On Etruscan mirrors in Classical style, he appears with a halo.
In Late Antiquity a cult of Helios Megistos (“Great Helios”) (Sol Invictus) drew to the image of Helios a number of syncretic elements, which have been analysed in detail by Wilhelm Fauth by means of a series of late Greek texts, namely: an Orphic Hymn to Helios; the so-called Mithras Liturgy, where Helios rules the elements; spells and incantations invoking Helios among the Greek Magical Papyri; a Hymn to Helios by Proclus; Julian‘s Oration to Helios, the last stand of official paganism; and an episode in Nonnus‘ Dionysiaca.
The Greek Deity Correspondence #2: Apollo as Solar God
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (GEN Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Latin: Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun, truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry, and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu. As the patron of Delphi (Pythian Apollo), Apollo was an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. In Hellenistic times, especially during the 3rd century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios, Titan god of the sun, and his sister Artemis similarly equated with Selene, Titan goddess of the moon. In Latin texts, on the other hand, Joseph Fontenrose declared himself unable to find any conflation of Apollo with Sol among the Augustan poets of the 1st century, not even in the conjurations of Aeneas and Latinus in Aeneid XII (161–215). Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 3rd century CE.
Helios is sometimes identified with Apollo: “Different names may refer to the same being,” Walter Burkert observes, “or else they may be consciously equated, as in the case of Apollo and Helios.”
The earliest certain reference to Apollo identified with Helios appears in the surviving fragments of Euripides‘ play Phaethon in a speech near the end (fr 781 N²), Clymene, Phaethon’s mother, laments that Helios has destroyed her child, that Helios whom men rightly call Apollo (the name Apollo is here understood to mean Apollon “Destroyer”).
The identification became a commonplace in philosophic texts and appears in the writing of Parmenides, Empedocles, Plutarch and Crates of Thebes among others, as well as appearing in some Orphic texts. Pseudo-Eratosthenes writes about Orpheus in Catasterismi, section 24:
- “But having gone down into Hades because of his wife and seeing what sort of things were there, he did not continue to worship Dionysus, because of whom he was famous, but he thought Helios to be the greatest of the gods, Helios whom he also addressed as Apollo. Rousing himself each night toward dawn and climbing the mountain called Pangaion, he would await the sun’s rising, so that he might see it first. Therefore Dionysus, being angry with him, sent the Bassarides, as Aeschylus the tragedian says; they tore him apart and scattered the limbs.”
Classical Latin poets also used Phoebus as a byname for the sun-god, whence come common references in later European poetry to Phoebus and his car (“chariot”) as a metaphor for the sun. But in particular instances in myth, Apollo and Helios are distinct. The sun-god, the son of Hyperion, with his sun chariot, though often called Phoebus (“shining”) is not called Apollo except in purposeful non-traditional identifications.
Despite these identifications, Apollo was never actually described by the Greek poets driving the chariot of the sun, although it was common practice among Latin poets.. Therefore, Helios is still known as the ‘sun god’ – the one who drives the sun chariot across the sky each day.
The Hindu Deity Correspondence: Surya
Surya (Devanagari: सूर्यSūrya, “the Supreme Light,” Kannada: ಸೂರ್ಯ, Malay: Suria; Tamil: சூரியன்; Telugu: సూర్యుడు; Thai: พระอาทิตย์) Suraya or Phra Athit is the chief solar deity in Hinduism, one of the Adityas, son of Kasyapa and one of his wives, Aditi of Indra; or of Dyaus Pitar (depending by the version). The term Surya also refers to the Sun, in general. Surya has hair and arms of gold. He is said to drive through the heaven in his triumphal chariot harnessed by seven horses or one horse with seven heads, which represent the seven colours of the rainbow or the seven chakras. He presides over Sunday. Sometimes, Surya is depicted with two hands holding a lotus in both; sometimes he has four hands holding a lotus, chakra, a conch, and a mace. Surya is worshiped in various forms throughout India. One of the most important epithet (form) of ‘Surya’ is ‘Arka’. The “Arka” form is worshiped mostly in North India and Eastern parts of India. The temples dedicated to ‘Arka’ form of Surya are Konarka Temple in Orissa, Uttararka and Lolarka in Uttar Pradesh, Balarka in Rajasthan. There was an old sun-temple in (Bahraich, Uttar Pradesh) named Balarka Surya Mandir, built by King Tilokchand Arkawanshi in early 10th Century AD. The temple was destroyed in the 14th Century AD during Turkish invasions. ‘Surya’ is also known as ‘Mitra’ (meaning friend) for his life nourishing properties. Mitra form of ‘Surya’ had been worshiped mostly in Gujarat, where a clan of Suryawanshi kings was known as Mitrawanshi kshatriyas, also known by its distorted name Maitrakas (मैत्रक). A well-known Hindu mode of worship of the devotional movements of Surya is done at the rising of the Sun, known as Sūrya namaskāra (sun salutation). Ten yogic postures are assumed in successive flowing movements to complete one namaskar. Twelve sacred Hindu mantras uttered and for each mantra one complete namaskar is done. Ancient practice is to do 108 namaskaras a day. It is considered most auspicious by Hindus to do this. Vivasvat (Surya) had three queens; Saranyu (also called Saraniya, Saranya, Sanjna, or Sangya), Ragyi, and Prabha. Saranyu was the mother of Vaivasvata Manu or Sraddhadeva Manu (the seventh, i.e. present Manu) and the twins Yama (the Lord of Death) and his sister Yami. She also bore him the twins known as the Ashvins, divine horsemen and physicians to the Devas. Saranyu, being unable to bear the extreme radiance of Surya, created a superficial entity from her shadow called Chhaya and instructed her to act as Surya’s wife in her absence. Chhaya mothered two sons – Savarni Manu (the eighth, i.e. next Manu) and Shani (the planet Saturn), and two daughters – Tapti and Vishti. He also has a son, Revanta, or Raivata, by Ragyi. Interestingly, Surya’s two sons Shani and Yama are responsible for the judgment of human life. Shani gives us the results of one’s deeds through one’s life through appropriate punishments and rewards while Yama grants the results of one’s deeds after death. In Ramayana, Surya is described as father of the King Sugriva, who helped Rama and Lakshmana in defeating the demon king Ravana. He also trains Hanuman as his guru. The Suryavanshi / Suryavansha dynasty of kings, Rama being one of them, also claims descent from Surya. In the Mahabharata, Princess Kunti receives instruction for a mantra from the sage Durvasa; by reciting which, she would be able to summon any god and bear a child by him. Incredulous of the power of this mantra, Kunti unwittingly tests it on Surya, but when Surya appears, she gets scared and requests him to go back. However, Surya has an obligation to fulfil the mantra before returning. Surya miraculously causes Kunti to bear the child immediately whilst retaining her virginity so that she, as an unmarried princess, need not face any embarrassment or be subjected to questions from society. Kunti feels compelled to abandon the child, Karna, who grows up to become one of the central characters in the great battle of Kurukshetra. In the Vedas, Surya is frequently referred to as “the eye of Mitra, Varuna, and Agni.” This bears striking similarities to Zoroastrian scriptures, where the Sun is described as “the eye of Ahura Mazda”. In Vedic astrology Surya is considered a mild malefic on account of his hot, dry nature. Surya represents soul, will-power, fame, the eyes, general vitality, courage, kingship, father, highly placed persons and authority. He is exalted in the sign Mesha (Aries) and is in decline in the sign Tula (Libra). The strongest placement for Surya is directly overhead in the 10th house, and on the angles (the 1st, 5th and 9th houses). Surya is lord of three nakshatras or lunar mansions: Krittika, Uttara Phalguni and Uttara Ashadha. Surya has the following associations: the colors – copper or red, the metals – gold or brass, the gemstone – ruby, the direction – east and the season of summer. The food grain associated with him (one of Nava Dhanyas) is wheat.
 Wilhelm, Ernst. Graha Sutras, Kala Occult Publishers, p.49.
 Jansen, Eva Rudy. The Book of Hindu Imagery: Gods, Manifestations and Their Meaning, p. 65.
 RV 1.115.1, RV 6.51.1, RV 7.63.1, WYV 4.35, WYV 7.42, WYV 13.46, AV 13.2.35.
The Color Correspondence: GoldYellow
The first recorded use of golden as a color name in English was in 1300 to refer to the element gold and in 1423 to refer to blond hair. The word for ‘gold’ in Latin is aurum, which means yellow. In ancient Greece, the gods were depicted with yellow hair, and men commonly bleached their hair or spent hours in the sun to turn it yellow. However, in medieval Europe and later, the word yellow often had negative connotations; so yellow hair was more poetically called ‘blond,’ ‘light’, ‘fair,’ or especially ‘golden.’
Metallic gold, such as in paint, is often called goldtone or gold-tone. In heraldry, the French word or is used. In model building, the color gold is different from brass. A shiny or metallic silvertone object can be painted with transparent yellow to obtain goldtone, something often done with Christmas decorations.
For the precious metal, yellow gold refers of course to pure gold which is yellow in color. Pure 100% gold is 24 karat by definition, so all colored golds are less than this, with the common being 18K (75%), 14K (58%), and 9K (38%). The first recorded use of golden yellow as a color name in English was in the year 1597. This implies of course that ther is also colored gold in various other colors can be produced. Colored golds can be classified to three groups:
- Alloys with silver and copper in various proportions, producing white, yellow, green and red golds; typically malleable alloys
- Intermetallic compounds, producing blue and purple golds, as well as other colors. These are typically brittle but can be used as gems and inlays
- Surface treatments such as oxide layers
The Perfume Correspondence: Cinnamon & Olibanum
cinnamon and olibanum are its perfumes – obviously solar ;
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savoury foods. While Cinnamomum verum is sometimes considered to be “true cinnamon“, most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from related species, which are also referred to as “cassia” to distinguish them from “true cinnamon”. The name “cinnamon” comes through the Greek kinnámōmon, possibly from Phoenician. In Hindi it is called dal chini. In Urdu it is called dar chini. In Sri Lanka, in Sinhala, cinnamon is known as kurundu (කුරුඳු), and was recorded in English in the 17th century as “korunda”. It is called karuva in Malayalam, and Tamil. Another Tamil variant is பட்டை Pattai. In Indonesia, where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra, it is called kayu manis (“sweet wood”). In several European languages, the word for cinnamon comes from the Latin word cannella, a diminutive of canna, “tube”, from the way it curls up as it dries. Cinnamon is the name for perhaps a dozen species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. Only a few of them are grown commercially for spice.
In classical times, four types of cinnamon were distinguished (and often confused):
- Cassia (Hebrew קציעה qəṣi`â), the bark of Cinnamomum iners from Arabia and Ethiopia, literally ‘the peel of the plant’ which is scraped off the tree.
- True cinnamon (Hebrew קִנָּמוֹן qinnamon), the bark of C. verum (also called C. zeylanicum) from Sri Lanka
- Malabathrum or malobathrum (from Sanskrit तमालपत्रम्, tamālapattram, literally “dark-tree leaves”), several species including C. tamala from the north of India
- Serichatum, C. cassia from Seres, that is, China.
The flavour of cinnamon is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.5% to 1% of its composition. This essential oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark, macerating it in sea water, and then quickly distilling the whole. It is of a golden-yellow colour, with the characteristic odour of cinnamon and a very hot aromatic taste. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 90% of the essential oil from the bark) and, by reaction with oxygen as it ages, it darkens in colour and forms resinous compounds. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate, eugenol (found mostly in the leaves), beta-caryophyllene, linalool, and methyl chavicol.
Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavouring material. It is used in the preparation of chocolate, especially in Mexico, which is the main importer of cinnamon. It is also used in many dessert recipes, such as apple pie, doughnuts, and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies, coffee, tea, hot cocoa, and liqueurs. True cinnamon, rather than cassia, is more suitable for use in sweet dishes.
In the Middle East, cinnamon is often used in savoury dishes of chicken and lamb. In the United States, cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavour cereals, bread-based dishes, such as toast, and fruits, especially apples; a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. It is also used in Turkish cuisine for both sweet and savoury dishes.
The Hebrew Bible makes specific mention of the spice many times: first when Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew: קִנָּמוֹן, qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil; in Proverbs where the lover’s bed is perfumed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon; and in Song of Solomon, a song describing the beauty of his beloved, cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon. Cassia was also part of the ketoret, the consecrated incense described in the Hebrew Bible and Talmud. It is also referred to as the HaKetoret (the incense). It was offered on the specialized incense altar in the time when the Tabernacle was located in the First and Second Jerusalem Temples. The ketoret was an important component of the Temple service in Jerusalem. Psalm 45:8 mentions the garments of the king (or of Torah scholars) that smell of myrrh, aloes and cassia.
It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade, to protect their monopoly as suppliers, cinnamon is native to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, the Malabar Coast of India and Burma.
The first Greek reference to kasia is found in a poem by Sappho in the seventh century BC. According to Herodotus, both cinnamon and cassia grew in Arabia, together with incense, myrrh, and ladanum, and are guarded by winged serpents. The phoenix was reputed to build its nest from cinnamon and cassia. But Herodotus mentions other writers who see the home of Dionysos, somewhere east or south of Greece, as the source of cassia. While Theophrastus gives a rather good account of the plants, a curious method for harvesting (worms eat away the wood and leave the bark behind) was described. The Greeks used kásia or malabathron to flavour wine, together with absinth wormwood (Artemisia absinthium). Egyptian recipes for kyphi, an aromatic used for burning, included cinnamon and cassia from Hellenistic times onwards. The gifts of Hellenistic rulers to temples sometimes included cassia and cinnamon, as well as incense, myrrh, and Indian incense (kostos), so one can conclude that the Greeks used it in this way too.
Pliny gives a fascinating account of the early spice trade across the Red Sea that cost Rome 100 million sesterces each year. The cinnamon was brought around the Arabian peninsula on “rafts without rudders or sails or oars”, taking advantage of the winter trade winds. Pliny also mentions cassia as a flavouring agent for wine.
According to Pliny, a pound (the Roman pound, 327 grams (11.5 oz)) of cassia, cinnamon, or serichatum cost up to 300 denarii, the wage of ten months’ labour. Diocletian‘s Edict on Maximum Prices from 301 AD gives a price of 125 denarii for a pound of cassia, while an agricultural labourer earned 25 denarii per day. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome, but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year’s worth of the city’s supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in AD 65. Malabathrum leaves (folia) were used in cooking and for distilling an oil used in a caraway-sauce for oysters by the Roman gourmet Gaius Gavius Apicius. Malabathrum is among the spices that, according to Apicius, any good kitchen should contain. The famous Commagenum, an unguent produced in Commagene in present-day eastern Turkey, was made from goose-fat and aromatised with cinnamon oil and spikenard. Malobathrum from Egypt (Dioscorides I, 63) was based on cattle-fat and contained cinnamon as well; one pound cost 300 denarii. The Roman poet Martial (VI, 55) made fun of Romans who drip unguents, smell of cassia and cinnamon taken from a bird’s nest, and look down on him who does not smell at all.
Before the foundation of Cairo, Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt, but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. When the Sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on crusade in 1248, he reported what he had been told—and believed—that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. Through the Middle Ages, the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score. In Herodotus and other authors, Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew and used them to construct their nests; the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium, although in the first century, Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini’s Athar al-bilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad (“Monument of Places and History of God’s Bondsmen”) in about 1270. This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino, in a letter of about 1292.
Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis– literally “sweet wood”) on a “cinnamon route” directly from the Moluccas to East Africa, where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market. See also Rhapta.
Arab traders brought the spice by overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt, where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers, such as the Mamluk sultans and the Ottoman Empire, was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia.
Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the 16th century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese, who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years.
Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. They established a trading post in 1638, took control of the factories by 1640, and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. “The shores of the island are full of it”, a Dutch captain reported, “and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island, one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea.” (Braudel 1984, p. 215)
The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild and eventually began to cultivate its own trees.
In 1767, Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala, and this estate became Asia’s largest cinnamon estate.
The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. However, the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining, as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas, the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers, and coffee, tea, sugar, and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices.
Cinnamon, as a warm and dry substance, was believed by doctors in ancient times to cure snakebites, freckles, the common cold, and kidney troubles, among other ailments. However, newer studies showed that some substances in cinnamon, particularly coumarin, may cause liver damage in some sensitive people.
Cinnamon along with garlic is used as a fish and meat preservative and in the future might be used in an inner layer of plastic as it has antimicrobial properties up to 120 degree Celsius; they can also be used to preserve fried and deep fried foods.
The Animal Correspondence: The Lion & the Sparrowhawk
the lion and the sparrowhawk are its animals.
The animal correspondence for the 20th path of the qabalistic Tree of Life is, of course, the lion. This sacred animal attribution obviously follows the zodiacal attribution of Leo as well as the feline character depicted on the Tarot Trump IX- Strenght which is also attributed to this path. The attribution of the serpent comes from the association of the serpent with the Teth, the Hebrew letter attributed to this path. Israel Regardie makes the remark that concerning the “serpent” and “lion” correspondences, some authorities assume a phallic connotation for Teth. The serpent and the lion are of particular importance in the study of alchemical literature. In alchemy, the lion represents the Sun, heat and sulphurus actions. A green lion symbolizes raw, untamed, or unpurified energy. A red lion is the same energy tamed and controlled through will and intellect. The serpent or dragon represents death and decay – in other words, transformation. In modern psychoanalytic theory, the serpent is lucidly recognized as a symbol both of the phallus and the abstract concept of wisdom. In the realm of the wild, the lion (Panthera leo) is one of the four big cats in the genus Panthera, and a member of the family Felidae. With some males exceeding 250 kg (550 lb) in weight, it is the second-largest living cat after the tiger. Wild lions currently exist in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Asia with an endangered remnant population in Gir Forest National Park in India, having disappeared from North Africa and Southwest Asia in historic times. Until the late Pleistocene, about 10,000 years ago, the lion was the most widespread large land mammal after humans. They were found in most of Africa, across Eurasia from Western Europe to India, and in the Americas from the Yukon to Peru.The lion’s name, similar in many Romance languages, is derived from the Latin leo; and the Ancient Greek λέων (leon). The Hebrew word לָבִיא (lavi) may also be related. It was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus, who gave it the name Felis leo, in his eighteenth century work, Systema Naturae.In Africa, lions can be found in savanna grasslands with scattered Acacia trees which serve as shade; their habitat in India is a mixture of dry savanna forest and very dry deciduous scrub forest. The natural habitat of lions originally spanned the southern parts of Eurasia, ranging from Greece to India, and most of Africa except the central rainforest-zone and the Sahara desert. Herodotus reported that lions had been common in Greece around 480 BC; they attacked the baggage camels of the Persian king Xerxes on his march through the country. Aristotle considered them rare by 300 BC. By 100 AD they were extirpated. A population of Asiatic lions survived until the tenth century in the Caucasus, their last European outpost.The species was eradicated from Palestine by the Middle Ages and from most of the rest of Asia after the arrival of readily available firearms in the eighteenth century. Between the late nineteenth and early twentieth century they became extinct in North Africa and Southwest Asia. By the late nineteenth century the lion had disappeared from Turkey and most of northern India.Lions are powerful animals that usually hunt in coordinated groups and stalk their chosen prey. However, they are not particularly known for their stamina—for instance, a lioness’ heart makes up only 0.57 percent of her body weight (a male’s is about 0.45 percent of his body weight), whereas a hyena’s heart is close to 1 percent of its body weight. Thus, they only run fast in short bursts, and need to be close to their prey before starting the attack. They take advantage of factors that reduce visibility; many kills take place near some form of cover or at night. They sneak up to the victim until they reach a distance of around 30 metres (98 ft) or less. The lioness is the one who does the hunting for the pride, since the lioness is more aggressive by nature. Males attached to prides do not usually participate in hunting, except in the case of larger quarry such as giraffe and buffalo. The male lion usually stays and watches it’s young while waiting for the lionesses to return from the hunt. Typically, several lionesses work together and encircle the herd from different points. Once they have closed with a herd, they usually target the closest prey. The attack is short and powerful; they attempt to catch the victim with a fast rush and final leap. The prey usually is killed by strangulation, which can cause cerebral ischemia or asphyxia (which results in hypoxemic, or “general”, hypoxia). The prey also may be killed by the lion enclosing the animal’s mouth and nostrils in its jaws (which would also result in asphyxia). Smaller prey, though, may simply be killed by a swipe of a lion’s paw.The prey consists mainly of large mammals, with a preference for wildebeest, impalas, zebras, buffalo, and warthogs in Africa and nilgai, wild boar, and several deer species in India. Lions hunting in groups are capable of taking down most animals, even healthy adults, but in most parts of their range they rarely attack very large prey such as fully grown male giraffes due to the danger of injury. Because lionesses hunt in open spaces where they are easily seen by their prey, cooperative hunting increases the likelihood of a successful hunt; this is especially true with larger species. Teamwork also enables them to defend their kills more easily against other large predators such as hyenas, which may be attracted by vultures from kilometres away in open savannas. In typical hunts, each lioness has a favored position in the group, either stalking prey on the “wing” then attacking, or moving a smaller distance in the centre of the group and capturing prey in flight from other lionesses. Young lions first display stalking behaviour around three months of age, although they do not participate in hunting until they are almost a year old. They begin to hunt effectively when nearing the age of two.Lions and spotted hyenas occupy the same ecological niche (and hence compete) where they coexist. Usually lions typically ignore spotted hyenas, unless they are on a kill or are being harassed by them, while the latter tend to visibly react to the presence of lions, whether there is food or not. Lions seize the kills of spotted hyenas: in the Ngorongoro crater, it is common for lions to subsist largely on kills stolen from hyenas, causing the hyenas to increase their kill rate. Similarly, lions dominate African wild dogs, not only taking their kills but also preying on young and (rarely) adult dogs. Population densities of wild dogs are low in areas where lions are more abundant.Lions tend to dominate smaller felines such as cheetahs and leopards where they co-occur, stealing their kills and killing their cubs and even adults when given the chance.The Nile crocodile is the only sympatric predator (besides humans) that can singly threaten the lion. Depending on the size of the crocodile and the lion, either can lose kills or carrion to the other. Lions have been known to kill crocodiles venturing onto land, while the reverse is true for lions entering waterways, as evidenced by the occasional lion claws found in crocodile stomachs.Most lionesses will have reproduced by the time they are four years of age. Lions do not mate at any specific time of year, and the females are polyestrous. A lioness may mate with more than one male when she is in heat; during a mating bout, which could last several days, the couple copulates twenty to forty times a day and is likely to forgo eating. Lions often inflict serious injuries on each other, either members of different prides encountering each other in territorial disputes, or members of the same pride fighting at a kill. Crippled lions and lion cubs may fall victim to hyenas, leopards, or be trampled by buffalo or elephants, and careless lions may be maimed when hunting prey.When resting, lion socialization occurs through a number of behaviours, and the animal’s expressive movements are highly developed. The most common peaceful tactile gestures are head rubbing and social licking, which have been compared with grooming in primates. Head rubbing—nuzzling one’s forehead, face and neck against another lion—appears to be a form of greeting, as it is seen often after an animal has been apart from others, or after a fight or confrontation. Social licking often occurs in tandem with head rubbing.Lions have an array of facial expressions and body postures that serve as visual gestures. Lions tend to roar in a very characteristic manner, starting with a few deep, long roars that trail off into a series of shorter ones. Lions have the loudest roar of any big cat. The lion has been an icon for humanity for thouzands of years and have been represented figuratively since the Stone Age, appearing in cultures across Europe, Asia, and Africa. Representations of lions date back 32,000 years; the lion-headed ivory carving from Vogelherd cave in the Swabian Alb in southwestern Germany has been determined to be about 32,000 years old from the Aurignacian culture. Two lions were depicted mating in the Chamber of Felines in 15,000-year-old Paleolithic cave paintings in the Lascaux caves. Cave lions are also depicted in the Chauvet Cave, discovered in 1994; this has been dated at 32,000 years of age, though it may be of similar or younger age to Lascaux.Despite repeated incidents of attacks on humans, lions have enjoyed a positive depiction in culture as strong but noble. A common depiction is their representation as “king of the jungle” or “king of beasts”; hence, the lion has been a popular symbol of royalty and stateliness, as well as a symbol of bravery. In antiquity, lions were common along the southern coast of the Mediterranean, as well as in Greece and the Middle East. In Greek mythology a lion appears in a variety of functions. The Lion Gate of Mycenae features two rampant lionesses who flank a central column representing the major deity of this early Greek culture that dates to the second millennium BC. In later classical Greek mythology, the Nemean Lion was portrayed as a people-eating beast; killing it was one of the twelve tasks assigned to Heracles. In the story of Androcles, one of Aesop’s fables, the hero, a runaway slave, pulls a thorn from a lion’s paw; when he is later thrown to the lions as punishment for escaping, the lion recognizes him once again and refuses to kill the man.According to the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible, the Israelite Tribe of Judah had the Lion of Judah as its symbol. The characteristic of the lion as the “king of the jungle” goes back to the influence of a manuscript untitled The Bern Physiologus. Many other illuminated manuscript copies similar as this one survived and have transmitted its influence over ideas of the “meaning” of animals in Europe for over a thousand years. It was a predecessor of reference books called bestiaries (books of beasts). Ancient Egypt venerated the lioness (the fierce hunter) as their war deities. Among those, who were venerated as such, we have the following figures: Bast, Mafdet, Menhit, Pakhet, Sekhmet, Tefnut, and the Sphinx. The Nemean lion was symbolic in Ancient Greece and Rome, represented as the constellation and zodiac sign Leo, and described in mythology, where its skin was borne by the hero Heracles. The lion was a prominent symbol in ancient Mesopotamia (from Sumer up to Assyrian and Babylonian times), where it was strongly associated with kingship. The Classic Babylonian lion motif, found as a statue, carved or painted on walls, is often referred to as the striding lion of Babylon. It is in Babylon that the biblical Daniel is said to have been delivered from the lion’s den.In the Puranic texts of Hinduism, Narasimha (“man-lion”) a half-lion, half-man incarnation or (avatar) of Vishnu, is worshipped by his devotees and saved the child devotee Prahlada from his father, the evil demon king Hiranyakashipu; Vishnu takes the form of half-man/half-lion, in Narasimha, having a human torso and lower body, but with a lion-like face and claws. Singh is an ancient Indian Vedic name meaning “lion” (Asiatic lion), dating back over 2000 years to ancient India. Found famously on numerous flags and coats of arms all across Asia and Europe, the Asiatic lions also stand firm on the National Emblem of India. Further south on the Indian subcontinent, the Asiatic lion is symbolic for the Sinhalese, Sri Lanka’s ethnic majority; the term derived from the IndoAryan Sinhala, meaning the “lion people” or “people with lion blood”, while a sword wielding lion is the central figure on the national flag of Sri Lanka.The Asiatic lion is a common motif in Chinese art. They were first used in art during the late Spring and Autumn Period (fifth or sixth century BC), and became much more popular during the Han Dynasty (206 BC – AD 220), when imperial guardian lions started to be placed in front of imperial palaces for protection. The island nation of Singapore derives its name from the Malay words singa (lion) and pora (city/fortress), which in turn is from the Tamil-Sanskrit சிங்க singa सिंहsiṃha and पुरபுரpura, which is cognate to the Greek πόλις, pólis. “Lion” was also the nickname of several medieval warrior rulers with a reputation for bravery, such as the English King Richard the Lionheart, Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe), Duke of Saxony and Robert III of Flanders nicknamed “The Lion of Flanders”—a major Flemish national icon up to the present. The royal symbolism of the lion was taken up repeatedly in later history, in order to claim power, for example by Henry the Lion. This association with the Lions among warriors to symbolize strenght in combat is amusing because even if they are powerful animals, the lions are not particularly known for their stamina. The ongoing fascination is apparent today by the diversity of coats of arms on which lions are shown in various colours and forms. Many images from ancient times depict lionesses as the fierce warrior protecting their culture. Since in certain views lionesses seem to have a ruff, often the only clue to this difference between the genders is the lack of a massive mane. When no mane is apparent, the image often is described as a panther or leopard among cultures without familiarity with the nature of lion social organization and hunting strategies for prides.Lions are frequently depicted on coats of arms, either as a device on shields themselves, or as supporters. (The lioness is much more infrequent.) The formal language of heraldry, called blazon, employs French terms to describe the images precisely. Such descriptions specified whether lions or other creatures were “rampant” or “passant”, that is whether they were rearing or crouching. The lion is a common charge in heraldry. It traditionally symbolises bravery, valour, strength, and royalty, since traditionally, it is regarded as the king of beasts. As many attitudes (positions) now exist in heraldry as the heraldist’s imagination can conjure, as a result of the ever-increasing need for differentiation, but very few of these were apparently known to medieval heralds. One distinction commonly made (especially among French heralds), although it may be of limited importance, is the distinction of lions in the walking positions as leopards. The principal attitudes of heraldic lions: are: Rampant, Passant, Statant, Salient, Segeant, Segeant Erect, Couchant, or Dormant. Other terms are used to describe the lion’s position in further detail. The lion’s head is normally seen in agreement with the overall position, facing dexter (left) unless otherwise stated. If a lion’s whole body is turned to face right, he is too sinister or contourné. If his whole body faces the viewer, he is affronté. If his head only faces the viewer he is guardant or gardant, and if he looks back over his shoulder he is regardant. These adjectives follow any other adjectives of position. A lion (or other beast) coward carries the tail between its hind legs. The tail also may be knotted (nowed), forked (queue fourchée) or doubled (double-queued); as in the arms of the kingdom of Bohemia. The lions in the coat of arms of Wales, England, and Estonia are passant gardant. In French blazon this charge is called a léopard; a lion rampant gardant is a léopard lionné; and a lion passant with his head in profile is a lion léopardé. The position of the head, in this case, determines the species. Lions continue to feature in modern literature, from the messianic Aslan in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and following books from The Chronicles of Narnia series written by C. S. Lewis, to the comedic Cowardly Lion in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.
Sparrowhawk (sometimes Sparrow Hawk) may refer to several species of small hawk in the genus Accipiter. The American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), a North American falcon species, is also commonly referred to as a Sparrowhawk. The American kestrel (Falco sparverius), sometimes colloquially known as the sparrow hawk, is a small falcon, and the only kestrel found in the Americas. It is the most common falcon in North America, and is found in a wide variety of habitats. At 19–21 cm (7–8 in) long, it is also the smallest falcon in North America. It exhibits sexual dimorphism in size and plumage, although both sexes have a rufous back with noticeable barring. Juveniles are similar in plumage to adults. The American Kestrel hunts by hovering in the air with rapid wing beats or perching and scanning the ground for prey. Its diet typically consists of grasshoppers, lizards, mice, and small birds. It nests in cavities in trees, cliffs, buildings, and other structures. The female lays three to seven eggs, which both sexes help to incubate. he American Kestrel is the smallest falcon in North America and, under traditional classification, is the smallest raptor in America. The American Kestrel is sexually dimorphic, although there is some overlap in plumage coloration between the sexes.
 Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 77.
 In Qabalah, the paths on the Tree of Life are connected by the Serpent of Wisdom.
Nowak, Ronald M. (1999). Walker‘s Mammals of the World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Harington, C. R. (Dick) (1969). “Pleistocene remains of the lion-like cat (Panthera atrox) from the Yukon Territory and northern Alaska”. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 6 (5): 1277–88.
Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell’s Latin Dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell Ltd.. p. 342.
Liddell, Henry George Scott, Robert (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. p. 411
Simpson, John; Weiner, Edmund, ed (1989). “Lion”. Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Linnaeus, Carolus (1758), Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 1 (10th ed.). Holmiae (Laurentii Salvii). p.41.
Rudnai, Judith A. (1973). The Social Life of the Lion. Wallingford: s.n.
Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.p. 5.
 See Grisham, Jack (2001). “Lion”. In Catherine E. Bell. Encyclopedia of the World’s Zoos. 2: G–P. Chofago: Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 733–39.
Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.p. 248.
Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 247–48
Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press p. 237.
Nowak, Ronald M. (1999). Walker‘s Mammals of the World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Many other species are hunted, based on availability. Mainly this will include ungulates weighing between 50 and 300 kg (110–660 lb) such as kudu, hartebeest, gemsbok, and eland. Occasionally, they take relatively small species such as Thomson’s gazelle or springbok.
Stander, P. E. (1992). “Cooperative hunting in lions: the role of the individual”. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 29 (6): 445–54.
Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.p.153.
Woodroffe, Rosie; Ginsberg, Joshua R. (1999). “Conserving the African wild dog Lycaon pictus. I. Diagnosing and treating causes of decline”. Oryx 33 (2): 132–42.
It seems that the cheetah has a 50% chance of losing its kill to lions or other predators. See O’Brien, Stephen J.; Wildt, David E.; Bush, Mitchell (1986). “The Cheetah in Genetic Peril”.Scientific American (254): 68–76.
Guggisberg, Charles Albert Walter (1972). Crocodiles: Their Natural History, Folklore, and Conservation. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. p. 195.
Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., p. 29.
Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 174. It is interesting to know that as with other cats, the male lion’s penis has spines which point backwards. Upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female’s vagina, which may cause ovulation. On this subject see See Asdell, Sydney A. (1993) . Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 142.
Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. pp. 188–89.
Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. pp. 189–90.
Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. p. 85.
Sparks, J (1967). “Allogrooming in primates: a review”. In Desmond Morris. Primate Ethology. Chicago: Aldine.
 This is an intra-gender activity, males tend to rub other males, while cubs and females rub females. See Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti Lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations Chicago: University of Chicago Press., pp. 85–88.
It is generally mutual and the recipient appears to express pleasure.
Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti Lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.pp. 92–102.
They most often roar at night; the sound, which can be heard from a distance of 8 kilometres (5.0 mi), is used to advertise the animal’s presence.
Their repertoire of vocalizations is also large; variations in intensity and pitch, rather than discrete signals, appear central to communication. Lion sounds include snarling, purring, hissing, coughing, miaowing, woofing and roaring.
Burger, Joachim et al. (March 2004). (fulltext) “Molecular phylogeny of the extinct cave lion Panthera leo spelaea“. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30 (3): 841–49.
Packer, Craig; Jean Clottes (2000). “When Lions Ruled France”. Natural History: Nov.pp. 52–57.
Garai, Jana (1973). The Book of Symbols. New York: Simon & Schuster.
 See Aesop; Gibbs L (2002). Aesop’s Fables. Oxford World’s Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The Physiologus is an early Christian book about animal symbolism which spread into many cultures and generally had great influence in Western culture. First written in Greek in the second century AD, the book was translated into Latin in about 400 AD, next into Ethiopic and Syriac, then into many European and Middle-Eastern languages.
Medieval poetical literature is full of allusions that can be traced to the Physiologus tradition; the text also exerted great influence on the symbolism of medieval ecclesiastical art.
Garai, Jana (1973). The Book of Symbols. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Graves, R (1955). “The First Labour: The Nemean Lion”. Greek Myths. London: Penguin. pp. 465–69.
Cassin, Elena (1981). “Le Roi et le Lion”. Revue de l’Histoire des Religions 298 (198–4): 355–401.
 The Bible, Daniel 6
Bhag-P 1.3.18 “In the fourteenth incarnation, the Lord appeared as Nrisimha and bifurcated the strong body of the atheist Hiranyakasipu with His nails, just as a carpenter pierces cane.”
. It was originally only used by Rajputs a Hindu Kshatriya or military caste in India. After the birth of the Khalsa brotherhood in 1699, the Sikhs also adopted the name “Singh” due to the wishes of Guru Gobind Singh. See Dr. McCleod, Head of Sikh Studies, Department of South Asian Studies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. See also Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Volume I.
Because lions have never been native to China, early depictions were somewhat unrealistic; after the introduction of Buddhist art to China in the Tang Dynasty (after the sixth century AD), lions were usually depicted without wings, their bodies became thicker and shorter, and their manes became curly.
According to the Malay Annals, this name was given by a fourteenth century Sumatran Malay prince named Sang Nila Utama, who, on alighting the island after a thunderstorm, spotted an auspicious beast on shore which appeared to be a lion.
This is corroborated by the fact that a lioness’ heart makes up only 0.57 percent of her body weight (a male’s is about 0.45 percent of his body weight), whereas a hyena’s heart is close to 1 percent of its body weight. See Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti Lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations Chicago: University of Chicago Press., pp. 37.
In literary and historical references, note of a figure or an image as depicting a lion may relate to either gender without being specific, and be easily misunderstood, thereby then being drawn with a mane since it is so distinctive.
Fox-Davies, A.C. (1909). A Complete Guide to Heraldry. New York: Dodge Pub. Co.p. 172.
A “lion rampant” is depicted in profile standing erect with forepaws raised. The position of the hind legs varies according to local custom: the lion may stand on both hind legs, braced wide apart, or on only one, with the other also raised to strike.
 A “lion passant” is walking, with the right fore paw raised and all others on the ground.
 A “lion statant” is standing, all four feet on the ground, usually with the forepaws together..
 A “lion salient” is leaping, with both hind legs together on the ground and both forelegs together in the air. This is a very rare position for a lion, but is also used of other heraldic beasts.
 A “lion sejant” is sitting on his haunches, with both forepaws on the ground.
 A “lion sejant erect” is seated on its haunches, but with its body erect and both forepaws raised in the “rampant” position (this is sometimes termed “sejant-rampant”).
 A “lion couchant” is lying down, but with the head raised.
 A “lion dormant” is lying down with its eyes closed and head lowered, resting upon the forepaws, as if asleep.
It should be noted that each coat of arms has a right and left (i.e. dexter and sinister) side – with respect to the person carrying the shield – so the left side of the shield as drawn on the page (thus the right side to the shield bearer) is called the dexter side.
Fox-Davies, A.C. (1909). A Complete Guide to Heraldry. New York: Dodge Pub. Co. p. 180.
This practice leads some people to insist bitterly that the beasts in the royal arms of England and Estonia are leopards, not lions. The correct answer to this question is unknown; nevertheless, they are depicted with a mane.
Lewis, Clive Staples (1950). The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. HarperCollins.
Baum, L. Frank ; Hearn, Michael Patrick (1973). The Annotated Wizard of Oz. New York, NY: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc. p. 148
The Metal Correspondence: Gold
“Gold” is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic *gulþą from Proto-Indo-European *gʰel- (“yellow/green”). The symbol Au is from the Latin: aurum, the Latin word for “gold”. The Proto-Indo-European root was *h2é-h2us-o-, meaning “glow”, also the ancestor of the Latin word Aurora, “dawn”. This etymological relationship is presumably behind the frequent claim in scientific publications that aurum meant “shining dawn”.
Gold is a dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal with a bright yellow color and luster, the properties of which remain without tarnishing when exposed to air or water. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements, and is solid under standard conditions. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins and in alluvial deposits. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, such as with tellurium as calaverite, sylvanite, or krennerite.
As the metallic native element mineral, gold structurally belongs to the isometric copper group. It also forms a solid solution series with the native element silver (Ag) to which it is often naturally alloyed (electrum). Other common natural gold alloys are with copper and palladium (Pd).
Gold resists attacks by individual acids, but it can be dissolved by aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid), so named because it dissolves gold. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which have been used in mining. It dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys; it is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items, giving rise to the term acid test.
This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage, jewelry, and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. In the past, the Gold standard has been implemented as a monetary policy, but it was widely supplanted by fiat currency starting in the 1930s.
Whereas most other pure metals are gray or silvery white, gold is yellow. This color is determined by the density of loosely bound (valence) electrons; those electrons oscillate as a collective “plasma” medium described in terms of a quasiparticle called plasmon. The frequency of these oscillations lies in the ultraviolet range for most metals, but it falls into the visible range for gold due to subtle relativistic effects that affect the orbitals around gold atoms. Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic caesium.
Common colored gold alloys such as rose gold can be created by the addition of various amounts of copper and silver, as indicated in the triangular diagram to the left. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are also important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys. Less commonly, addition of manganese, aluminium, iron, indium and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications.
Because of the softness of pure (24k) gold, it is usually alloyed with base metals for use in jewelry, altering its hardness and ductility, melting point, color and other properties. Alloys with lower carat rating, typically 22k, 18k, 14k or 10k, contain higher percentages of copper or other base metals or silver or palladium in the alloy. Copper is the most commonly used base metal, yielding a redder color.
Eighteen-carat gold containing 25% copper is found in antique and Russian jewelry and has a distinct, though not dominant, copper cast, creating rose gold. Fourteen-carat gold-copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, and both may be used to produce police and other badges. Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron and purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium, although rarely done except in specialized jewelry. Blue gold is more brittle and therefore more difficult to work with when making jewelry.
Fourteen- and eighteen-carat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. White gold alloys can be made with palladium or nickel. White 18-carat gold containing 17.3% nickel, 5.5% zinc and 2.2% copper is silvery in appearance. Nickel is toxic, however, and its release from nickel white gold is controlled by legislation in Europe.
Alternative white gold alloys are available based on palladium, silver and other white metals, but the palladium alloys are more expensive than those using nickel. High-carat white gold alloys are far more resistant to corrosion than are either pure silver or sterling silver. The Japanese craft of Mokume-gane exploits the color contrasts between laminated colored gold alloys to produce decorative wood-grain effects.
Gold is perhaps the most anciently administered medicine (apparently by shamanic practitioners) and known to Dioscorides, apparent paradoxes of the actual toxicology of the substance nevertheless suggests the possibility still of serious gaps in understanding of action on physiology.
In medieval times, gold was often seen as beneficial for the health, in the belief that something so rare and beautiful could not be anything but healthy. Even some modern esotericists and forms of alternative medicine assign metallic gold a healing power. Some gold salts do have anti-inflammatory properties and are used as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions. Gold based injections have been explored as a means to help to reduce the pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculosis. However, only salts and radioisotopes of gold are of pharmacological value, as elemental (metallic) gold is inert to all chemicals it encounters inside the body.
Gold alloys are used in restorative dentistry, especially in tooth restorations, such as crowns and permanent bridges. The gold alloys’ slight malleability facilitates the creation of a superior molar mating surface with other teeth and produces results that are generally more satisfactory than those produced by the creation of porcelain crowns. The use of gold crowns in more prominent teeth such as incisors is favored in some cultures and discouraged in others.
Colloidal gold preparations (suspensions of gold nanoparticles) in water are intensely red-colored, and can be made with tightly controlled particle sizes up to a few tens of nanometers across by reduction of gold chloride with citrate or ascorbate ions. Colloidal gold is used in research applications in medicine, biology and materials science. The technique of immunogold labeling exploits the ability of the gold particles to adsorb protein molecules onto their surfaces. Colloidal gold particles coated with specific antibodies can be used as probes for the presence and position of antigens on the surfaces of cells. In ultrathin sections of tissues viewed by electron microscopy, the immunogold labels appear as extremely dense round spots at the position of the antigen.
Gold, or alloys of gold and palladium, are applied as conductive coating to biological specimens and other non-conducting materials such as plastics and glass to be viewed in a scanning electron microscope. The coating, which is usually applied by sputtering with an argon plasma, has a triple role in this application. Gold’s very high electrical conductivity drains electrical charge to earth, and its very high density provides stopping power for electrons in the electron beam, helping to limit the depth to which the electron beam penetrates the specimen. This improves definition of the position and topography of the specimen surface and increases the spatial resolution of the image. Gold also produces a high output of secondary electrons when irradiated by an electron beam, and these low-energy electrons are the most commonly used signal source used in the scanning electron microscope.
Great human achievements are frequently rewarded with gold, in the form of gold medals, golden trophies and other decorations. Winners of athletic events and other graded competitions are usually awarded a gold medal. Many awards such as the Nobel Prize are made from gold as well. Other award statues and prizes are depicted in gold or are gold plated (such as the Academy Awards, the Golden Globe Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Palme d’Or, and the British Academy Film Awards).
Aristotle in his ethics used gold symbolism when referring to what is now commonly known as the golden mean. Similarly, gold is associated with perfect or divine principles, such as in the case of the golden ratio and the golden rule.
Gold is further associated with the wisdom of aging and fruition. The fiftieth wedding anniversary is golden. Our most valued or most successful latter years are sometimes considered “golden years”. The height of a civilization is referred to as a “golden age“.
In some forms of Christianity and Judaism, gold has been associated both with holiness and evil. In the Book of Exodus, the Golden Calf is a symbol of idolatry, while in the Book of Genesis, Abraham was said to be rich in gold and silver, and Moses was instructed to cover the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant with pure gold. In Byzantine iconography the halos of Christ, Mary and the Christian saints are often golden.
Medieval kings were inaugurated under the signs of sacred oil and a golden crown, the latter symbolizing the eternal shining light of heaven and thus a Christian king’s divinely inspired authority.
Wedding rings have long been made of gold. It is long lasting and unaffected by the passage of time and may aid in the ring symbolism of eternal vows before God and/or the sun and moon and the perfection the marriage signifies. In Orthodox Christian wedding ceremonies, the wedded couple is adorned with a golden crown (though some opt for wreaths, instead) during the ceremony, an amalgamation of symbolic rites.
In popular culture gold has many connotations but is most generally connected to terms such as good or great, such as in the phrases: “has a heart of gold”, “that’s golden!”, “golden moment”, “then you’re golden!” and “golden boy”. It remains a cultural symbol of wealth and through that, in many societies, success.
The Plant Correspondence: Heliotrope & Heliotropium
heliotrope, and laurel being its plants. the sunflower,
The sacred flower attribution for the 20th path of the qabalistic Tree of Life is, of course, the Sunflower. It is not by any means a coincidence nor a surprise to see that this attribution follows the zodiacal attribution of Leo, that is connecting itself on the sacred animal attribution of the lion who himself has strong connotation to the sun as well as the color and the gemstone attribution that all converges to the yellow. The Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head). The sunflower got its name from its huge, fiery blooms, whose shape and image is often used to depict the sun. The sunflower has a rough, hairy stem, broad, coarsely toothed, rough leaves and circular heads of flowers. The heads consist of 1,000-2,000 individual flowers joined together by a receptacle base. From the Americas, sunflower seeds were brought to Europe in the 16th century, where, along with sunflower oil, they became a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fibre which may be used in paper production. While their distinctive and brilliant appearance makes it easy to see why sunflowers have long held our fascination, when they were first grown in Central and South America, it was more for their usefulness (providing oil and food) than beauty. And perhaps this unique combination of striking beauty and utility is, in part, why sunflowers have appeared as such revered symbols throughout the ages.It’s said that the natives of the Inca Empire worshipped a giant sunflower, and that Incan priestesses wore large sunflower disks made of gold on their garments. Images of sunflowers were found in the temples of the Andes Mountains, and Native American Indians placed bowls of sunflower seeds on the graves of their dead. The Impressionist period of art is famous for its fascination with the sunflower, and this striking flower remains today a commonly photographed and painted icon of uncommon beauty. What is usually called the “flower” on a mature sunflower is actually a “flower head” (also known as a “composite flower”) of numerous florets, (small flowers) crowded together. The outer petal-bearing florets are the sterile ray florets and can be yellow, red, orange, or other colors. The florets inside the circular head are called disc florets, which mature into seeds. The flower petals within the sunflower’s cluster are usually in a spiral pattern. Generally, each floret is oriented toward the next by approximately the golden angle, 137.5°, producing a pattern of interconnecting spirals, where the number of left spirals and the number of right spirals are successive Fibonacci numbers. Typically, there are 34 spirals in one direction and 55 in the other; on a very large sunflower there could be 89 in one direction and 144 in the other. This pattern produces the most efficient packing of seeds within the flower head. Sunflowers most commonly grow to heights between 1.5 and 3.5 m (5–12 ft). Scientific literaturereports that a 12 m (40 ft), traditional, single-head, sunflower plant was grown in Padua in 1567. The same seed lot grew almost 8 m (26 ft) at other times and places, including Madrid. A common misconception is that sunflowers track the sun. In fact, mature flowerheads typically face east and do not move. The leaves and buds of young sunflowers do exhibit heliotropism (sun turning). Their orientation changes from east to west during the course of a day. The movements become a circadian response and when plants are rotated 180 degrees, the old response pattern is still followed for a few days, with leaf orientation changing from west to east instead. The leaf and flowerhead bud phototropism occurs while the leaf petioles and stems are still actively growing, but once mature, the movements stop. These movements involve the petioles bending or twisting during the day then unbending or untwisting at night. The common misconceptions according to which sunflowers blindly follow the sun made them a symbol of infatuation or foolish passion.They are also considered as a flower symbolic of spiritual attainment, flexibility, and opportunity. They are also symbolic of good luck, wealth and ambition. Give sunflowers away to someone who is working toward a goal and needs a big break in their lives. They are also an excellent housewarming gift as the receiver embraces new opportunities in the form of hearth and home.
 Door John A. Adam, Mathematics in nature: modeling patterns in the natural world, p. 217.
Shella, G.S.G.; Langa, A.R.G.; Salea, P.J.M. (1974). “Quantitative measures of leaf orientation and heliotropic response in sunflower, bean, pepper and cucumber”. Agricultural Meteorology 13 (1): 25–37.
Donat-Peter Häder; Michael Lebert (2001). Photomovement. Elsevier. pp. 673
Brian James Atwell; Paul E. Kriedemann; Colin G. N. Turnbull (August 1999). Plants in action: adaptation in nature, performance in cultivation. Palgrave Macmillan Australia. pp. 265.
Heliotropium // is a genus of flowering plants in the borage family, Boraginaceae. There are 250 to 300 species in this genus, which are commonly known as heliotropes (sg. /ˈhiːli.ətroʊp/). The name “heliotrope” derives from the old idea that the inflorescences of these plants turned their rows of flowers to the sun. Ἥλιος (helios) is Greek for “sun”, τροπεῖν (tropein) means “to turn”. The Middle English name “turnsole” has the same meaning. Several heliotropes are popular garden plants, most notably Garden Heliotrope (H. arborescens). Some species are weeds and many are hepatotoxic if eaten in large quantities due to abundant pyrrolizidine alkaloids. There have been cases of canine death due to over-ingestion of this toxic plant.
The Jewel Correspondence: Crysoleth
Crysoleth is its jewel, suggesting the golden color of the Sun.
The mineral olivine (when of gem quality, it is also called peridot and chrysolite) is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg+2, Fe+2)2SiO4. It is a common mineral in the Earth’s subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface.
The ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite (Mg-endmember: Mg2SiO4) and fayalite (Fe-endmember: Fe2SiO4). Compositions of olivine are commonly expressed as molar percentages of forsterite (Fo) and fayalite (Fa) (e.g., Fo70Fa30). Forsterite has an unusually high melting temperature at atmospheric pressure, almost 1900 °C, but the melting temperature of fayalite is much lower (about 1200 °C). The melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers, as do other properties. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen, silicon, magnesium and iron. Manganese and nickel commonly are the additional elements present in highest concentrations.
Olivine’s crystal structure incorporates aspects of the orthorhombic P Bravais lattice, which arise from each silica (SiO4) unit being joined by metal divalent cations with each oxygen in SiO4 bound to 3 metal ions. It has a spinel-like structure similar to magnetite but uses one quadravalent and two divalent cations M2+2 M+4O4 instead of two trivalent and one divalent cations.