The 91 Princes of the Airs
The names of the ninety-one Princes, who are the tutelary daemons or genii of the regions of the world, were delivered to Dee through Kelley by the angels Gabriel and Nalvage on May 21 and 22, 1584, at Cracow. Gabriel presided over the process, and Nalvage did the actual work. It was a hierarchy of geographical spirits that held the greatest promise of practical utility for Dee, who hoped to use them to acieve political advantages for his sovereign, Elizabeth I. This desire was not to be realized, however, because Dee was never granted permission to invoke them. Although the names and sigils of these spirits are clearly set forth, along with the angels by which they are ruled and their esoteric associations, they constitute one of the most neglected aspects of Enochian magic. They were ignored by the Golden Dawn and by Aleister Crowley. This neglect continues through to the present day, perhaps because few Enochian magicians know what to do with them.
The Thirty Aethers
The thirty Aethers, or Airs, are described by the angels as concentric sphreres surrounding the Earth. Each is divided into three parts, except the area closest to the Earth, which is divided into four. These parts are inhabited by ninety-one spirits whom Nalvage refers to as “Princes and spiritual Governours.” These Princes are all spirits of elemental Air, but each rules a particular region on the surface of the Earth. Their habitations or Aethers lie between the surface of the Earth and the spiritual fires of the firmament. However, it is a trifle simplistic to conceive of them as occupying physical space. Dimensions or frequencies of vibration are more useful model for these Aethers. They lie migled, yet on above the other, just as the colors of the rainbow are all contained in normal sunlight but may be separated and distinguished by their particular wavelengths.
The Hierarchy of the Aethers
The Princes of the regions appear to be receptive rather than active. They are the spiritual identities that reside in, animate, and give particular qualities to their regions. They are ruled by the twelves angels of the twelve tribes of Israel, and by the numerous ministering spirits of those angels, who convey the specific intentions of the angels of the tribes to the regional Princes and cause those intentions to be realized.
The twelve angels of the tribes are, in their turn, ruled by the seven angels of light who stand before the throne of God. These angels are the lamps burning before the throne of God. These angels of light who stand before the throne of God. These angels are the lamps burning before the throne I Revelation 4:5, and also the seven stars in the right hand of heavenly Christ in Revelation 1:16. Their manifest expression is the seven traditional planets of astrology-the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn.
This information was set forth concisely bu very clearly by Nalvage just before he revealed the names of the ninety-one Princes and their ruling angels of the twelve tribes to Kelley: “There are 30 Calls yet to come. Those 30 Calls of Ninety-one Princes and spiritual Governours, unto whom the Earth is delivered as a portion. These bring in and again dispose the Kings and all the Governments upon the Earth, and vary the Natures of things with the variation of every moment; Unto whom, the providence of the eternal Judgement, is already opened. These are generally governed by the 7 which stand before the presence of God. Let him that can see look up: and let him that can here, attend; for this is wisdom. They are all spirits of the Air: not rejected, but dignified; and they dwell and have their habitation in the air diversly, and in sundry places: for their mansions are not alike, neither are their powers equal. Understand therefore, that from the fire to the earth, here are 30 places or abidings: one above and beneath another: wherein these aforesaid Creatures have their aboad, for a time. (1)
The number ninety-one seems oddly unbalanced, but it is based on the formula 7 x 12 + 7 = 91. Seven is the number of the heptarchical Kings and their Princes, while twelve is the number of the angels of the tribes of Israel. In astrology, seven is the number of the planets and twelve is the number of the sings and their houses. It is emphasized by Nalvage, who even goes so far as to make a pun at the end of his speech, that the angels of the Aethers act within the constraints of time. The Princes “vary the Natures of things with the variation of every moment.” It is these angels that are responsible for the ytransformation of the Earth from moment to moment, and for the constantly changing play of thoughts within the human mind.
Sigils of The Ninety-One Princes on the Orginal Table
The Use of the Aethers
The geographical genii of each Aether are to be invoked by the Call of the Thirty Aethers, with the name of their particular Aether inserted into the parentheses near the beginning of the Call. This was the practice followed by Aleister Crowley during his 1909 trek through Algeria (though Crowley merely invoked the Airs, not the Princes). First, however, it is probably necessary to perform a general ritual working that involves the vibration of the eighteen distinct Key on the first night, the Seventeenth Key on the Second, and so on.
As was pointed out previously, the Keys are associated with the directions of the Earth in four set of four, with each set working its way in one complete circle around the Earth. The Eightennnth Key should be vivrated to the north, the Seventheenth to the west, the Sixteenth to the South, the Fifteenth to the east, and so on. This pattern should continue to thee Second Key, which relates to the beam of the Black Cross on the Great Table of the Watchtowers (the notheast by southwest axis). And the First Key, which relates to the pillar of the Black Cross (the southeast by northwest axis). The unexpressed primordial key of the Holy Ghost or Great Mother, which is not an explicit part of the working relates to the intersection of the Black Cross, the fountain of Spirit beneath the throne of New Jerusalem.
After this initial working of the keys is successfully completed, the Aethers may be tuned in or “keyed” by vibrating the Call of the Thirty Aether. Then the angels of the tribes may be invoked and commanded by the names of God that lie on the beams of the Great Crosses of the Four Watchtowers. Each Angel is ruled by the name of God associated with its particular point of the compass.
For example, the second Prince of the third Air, ZOM, IS Virooli, the tutelary genius of Thracia (Thrace). He is ruled by the angel of a tribe to the genius of a region of the Earth is a kind of spiritual copulation that is perfoirmed to engender the desired purpose of the Enochian magician. The genius of the place, who is manifestly embodied by his sigil, acts as the receptive medium. The angel of the tribe, acting through his ministers, is the catalyst by which that medium is shaped and quickened.
It should be understood that the tutelary angel of a particular place represents not merely the psysical place itself, but also the living spirit of that place. Every region of the Earth has its own distinct character and its own unique power. Through this branch of Enochian magic the spiritual powers of the nations and regions can be harnesses and directed for ritual ends. For example, the spirit of England, symbolized by the goddess Britannia and the hero John Bull, is completely different in its virtues from the spirit of the United States symbolized by the goddess America and Uncle Sam.
Tyson go even as far as to speculate that it may be that the full Apocalypse working (if such a thing even exists) will be conducted in this way:
- Vibrating the nineteeth Key for each of the thirty Aethers on thirty successive nignts from the First Air to the Tirtieth Air,
- Vibrating each of the first eighteen Keys in reverse order, also on successive nights.
- Vibrating the primordial, unwritten Key that relates to the center of being.
- A final jubilee day of attainment.
- In this way the Apocalypse working would span fifty days, which is the same period of time the angels say that Enoch toiled. The movement would be from the outer reaches to the center of the Earth.
The Use of the Table of Sigils
The accompanying table shows the thirty Aethers, the ancient regions of the Earth they command, the princes or genii of those regions, the tribes of the Hebrew and the angels of the tribes who rule the genii, the number of good ministers under the angels of the tribes, the direction of the compass where each tribal angel resides, and the Enochian banner name of God associated with that direction. The numbers of the Princes my be used to locate their sigils on the grid of the Original Great Table into a sigil display on Tyson’S Restored Great Table, simply invert the quarters of the west and north (transpose the lower right with the lower left).
Bear in mind that there are minors variations in the lettering between the Original great Table and the Revised Great table of Raphael. Tyson’s Restored Great table uses the lettering of the Table of Raphael. The sigils of the Princes of the regions are the same shape on all three versions of the Great Table, but some of the names of the Princes are spelled with slight differences depending on whether the Original or the Revised (and Restored) are used.
To locate a particular sigil on the Original Great Table, take note of the number of the Prince, then find this number on the sigil display on the diagram. The sigil closest to the number is the sigil of the Prince. Compare the sigil display with the letterd version of the Original Great Table. You will be able to trace out the individual letters in the name on the Original Table by following the arrow of the sigil. Each Sigil begins with a cross and ends with an arrowhead.
If you wish to locate the name of a Prince on Tyson’s Restored Great Table, first determine which Watchtower the sigil occupies by comparing the quarters of Tyson’s restored table with the quarter of the Original Great Table. Position that sigil on the Restored table, and trace out the arrow of its name as before. You will see that some manes have slight variations in spelling.
It is evident that the names of the angels of the twelve tribes of Israel are each intended to contain seven letters. However, in Dee’s manuscript Lavavoth (the angel of the tribe of Gad) is written with eight letters. This occurs because the final letter in the name is the Hebrew letter Tau, which is written in English Th. Tau is on occasion alternatively transliterated by T, so Tyson have used T to stand for his Hebrew letter in order to give the name of the angel seven letters. The name should be pronounced “Lavacoth.”
The Mysterious Ninety-Second Sigil of the Great Table
There are ninety-one Princes of the regions of the Earth, but ninety-two sigils on the Great Table. One of the sigils is not names by the angels. It occurs at the bottom of the MPH, ARSL, GAIOL Watchtower of the West (lower right quarter). Lazdizi, the name of this extra spirit, can easily be extrated from its sigil.
A careful count of 22 names from each Tablet and three from the Balck Cross results in one missing name. An examination of the sigil diagram will show that eight squares are not used for the sigils. In these eight squares, Dee has written the Enochian letters backwards. Presumably this way owing to the danger of seeing, or pronouncing them even by accident. These letters are O and A from Air, L and (Y’L’N’H) from Water, A and (R,O) from Earth, and A and (O,P) from Fire: a total of thirteen letters and eight squares. Crowley gives the missing secret name as PARAOAN and relates it to the 22th Aethyr, LIN. The remaining backward letter is L and this is prefixed to one of the three names from the Black Cross thus forming the Name LEXARPH (all three of these names are attributed to the 10th Aethyr, ZAX). Two Aethyr are given four governors: the 30th, TEX and the 22nd, LIN. The remaining 28 Aethyr each have three. This supernummary sigil has caused some confusion. In the magical system of the Aurum Solis, a British occult society with a tradition similar to that of the Golden Dawn, this sigil is numbered 65. (2) But like we have seen, the sixty-fifth Prince is named Paaoan (Paoaoan on the Restored Table), and the letters of his name are not to be found in this sigil. This error appears to have arisen from a misunderstanding of the natrure of Paraoan’s sigil, which is not one unbroken line on the Great Table. If you examine the sigil grid of the Original Great Table, you will find these short segments and single cell marked with the number 65.
This sigil puzzled Dee, who inquired about it to Ave. “Dee: You bad me chuse out of the Tables the Characters of fewest Letters, and I found them to be OA RA JA and L, you said they are eight, you said there are eight in four: I know not what this meaneth. Ave: You must male up the name Paraoan. Dee: What shall become of the L aversed? Ave: It may be N or L. Dee: What must I now do with that name? Ave: In Exarph there wanteth an L which L is more force then the N and therefore it is set in the Tables. As far as that N stretcheth in the Character, so far shall that Contrey be consumed with fire, and swallowed in Hell, as Sodom was for wickednesse. Dee’s marginal note: So is the one letter superfluous, or wanting in the Tables.
Five days later, Dee again made inquiry concerning this curious name, but received little satisfaction: “Dee: I beseech you say somewhat of the N in Paraoan, of which you said, so far as that stretched, should sink to hell. Ave: Every letter in Papaoan, is a living fire: but all of one quality and of one Creation: but unto N is delivered a viol of Destruction, according to that part that he is of Paraoan the Governour. Dee: It may please you to name that Plane, City, or Country, under that N. Ave: Ask Nalvage, and he will tell you.”
Dee did not have the letters of what he calls the Characters of fewest Letters” correctly gathered, but seems to have understood the explanation of the angel. The three sigil segments of two letters make up the first six letters in the name Paraoan on the Original Table. Ave tells Dee that the final letter in the name may be either the single inverted N or the single inverted L on the Watchtower MPH, ARSL, GAIOL in the western quarter of the Original Great Table. However, the L has greater occult potency, and therefore should be attached at the front of the sigil of the twenty-eightth Prince, whose name is Lexarph. The final six letters of this sigil are to be found at the top of the pillar of the Black Cross (and also at the bottom, since the same letters are inverted there).
The Black Cross, as the name implies, was drawn with solid black ink by Dee in his diagram of the ninety-one sigils of the princes on the Great Table. Consequently, Dee could not illustrate the three sigils that are located upon the upper half of the pillar and the right side of the beam of the Black Cross. The sigil of the twenty-eight Prince, L;exarph, is located on the top of the pillar. The sigil of the twenty-ninth prince, Comananm wraps around the corner of thye southern quarter of the Table and passes through the center of the Black Cross. The sigil of the thirtieth Prince, tabitom, lies on the right arm of the beam of the Black Cross. Since the letters that make up the names also occur in reversed order on the lower half of the pilar and left arm of the bea, these names may be found wrapping around the northern quarter of the Table.
Because Dee did not represent these sigils on the Black Cross or number the sigils in his diagram, it was an easy matter to misunderstand the use of the three two-letter segments and two single letter cells that minor mistakes in form. Tyson have corrected these errors in the sigil display shown previously. Unfortunately we cannot find any insight into the use of the ninety-second sigil of the spirit whose name is laxdizi. Dee accurately drew the sigil of this spirit on his grid, but did not include its name in his list of Princes of the Aethers.
The Ninety-One Regions of the Earth
After conveying the names of the Princes of the Aethers, Nalvage indicated places on the surface of the Earth to which they correspond. He began by simply pointing to the region ruled by each spirit on a globe of the Earth in the depths of the showstone. Dee protested that this way was too confusing, so the angel adopted a different approach: “Kelley: There appeareth a great thing like a Globe, turning upon two axel-trees. Nalvage: Turn to the first Air. Dee: I have done. Nalvage: The Earth in the first ayre, is this. Kelley: Pointing on the Globe to it. Dee: We beseech you to bound or determine the Countries or Portions of the Earth, by their uttermost Longitudes and Latitudes, or by some other certain manner. Nalvage: Our manner is, not as it is worldlings: We dertermine not places after the forms of legs, or as leaves are: neither we can imagin any thing after the fashion of an horn: as those that are Cosmographers do. Notwithstanding the Angel of the Lord appeared unto Ptolomie, and opened unto him the parts of the Earths: but some he was commanded to secret: and those are Northward under your Pole. But unto you, the very true names of the World in her Creation are delivered.
Nalvage went on to name geographical name of the region under each of the Princes of the Aethers. Dee had considerable difficulty understanding the location of some of these places, but was occasionally assisted by Kelley’s vision of the places or their inhabitants. “Nalvage: The third [of the seventh Aether], Phalagon. Dee: I never heard of it. Kelley: It is toward the North, where the veines of Gold; and such people appear as before were noted. On this side them a great way appear men with swinish snouts, their visage is so strouted out; but to be perceived to be of humane visage. The women have about their privities very long hair down their knees. The men have things on their shoulders of beasts skins, so instead of a Jerkin or a Mandillion.”
In the course of naming the regions of the Earth, Nalvage also showed Kelley visions of Noah’s ark in Armenia and the Garden of Eden. Paradise is apparently overseen by the second Prince of the wighteenth Aether. “Nalvage: The second [of the eighteenth Air]: Kelley: Now appear many Crocodiles, long necked, scaled on the body, with long tailes. Nalvage: Coxlant. Kelley: A great place appeareth, covered about with fire. Many great serpents appeare of 200 foot. It appeareth very Eastward. No people appear here. There cometh from heaven like a Mist, and covereth a great place about 300 mile long, like a Park, enclosed eith fire. It is on a high ground. There come four Rivers out of South. The pales, or enclosure of it seem to be Arches, beset most richly with precious stones. In the ate of it stand three men like us, one is in a long Gown with many pleats, the other like in a Cassek. The third in the tough skin of a beast. In the name of jesus: Is this the Paradise that Adam was banished out of? Nalvage: The very same; from hence he was turned out into the earth. This is the true Vale of Josaphat. Dee: Will you give me leave? Nalvage: Say on. Dee: it should seem this must be on earth, not in the aire. Nalvage: It is upon the earth. Dee: You said that from hence he was turned out into the earth. Nalvage: The curse of God in Adam caused the earth, whereinto he was cast to be accursed. For, if Adam had after his fall tarried in paradise, his wickednesse would have altered the innocency of the place. Therefore is Paradise distinguished from the earth is defiled, and corrupted with man. The eath is said to be sinfull in respect of the sin of man. Dee: Till 45 degrees, both Northerly and Southerly, all is known in the most part of the world: But of any such place there is no knowledge nor likelihood by any History of these days, or of old time. Nalvage: Therefore thgis is cunning, and the wisdom of God. There dwelleth flesh in it that shall never die, which were taken up for a testimony of Truth.
Dee was not a man to be easily deceived concerning geography, since it was one of his primary subjects of study. While in England, he had frequently been consulted by the leading explorers and navigators of the day concerning the fabled Northwest and Northeast Passages as well as the geography of Asia and the New World. English mariners followed his charts when they went sailing into unknown waters. His skepticism concerning a physical Eden is obvious, but he did not argue the point further with Nalvage.
So, Nalvage teaches that the thirty Aethyrs are subdivided into ninety-one spiritual provinces set over geographical locations here on Earth. The names of these ninety-one “Parts of the Earth” are also the names of the Angelic Governors who rule the Parts.”52 This is also similar to Gnosticism, which described the Aeons simultaneously as transcendant Divine Realms, long expanses of time, and as super-celestial Archangels.53 In Gnostic cosmology, the Divine Aeon were mirrored in the created world by the archons (Rulers) Angels whose function was to direct and maintain both human and natural law. It would appear that the Archons are mirrored in Dee’s magical system by thye ninety-one governors. They direct and maintain the natural and human events that takes place upon present-day Earth (establishing and deposing governments, varying the “nature of things” with every moment, and so on). By opening the proper Aethyr, one can summon the Governor and his legion of servient Angels set over any nation in the world. (Dee’s hope was to learn the secrets of these nations, as well as influence them for the good of the English Empire.)
Ptolemy and Agrippa and the Regions of the Earth
Nalvage’s speech about the “30 Calls yet to come” have made clear that the thirty Aethyrs and their ninety-one Parts are astrological in nature. To begin with, the division of the world into spiritual provinces is describes in Agrippa’s First Book of Occult Philosophy, chapter 31, “How Provinces and Kingdoms are Distributed to Planets.” Therein, Agrippa states that every nation in the world come under the influence of a planet and zodiacal sign. He goes on to give example of nations influenced by all seven planets (and the signs they each rule), which he drew from the works of the ancient Greco-Roman cartographer Ptolemy. Nalvage, meanwhile, relates the same information in a different manner. He states that the ninety-one Parts/Gorvernors are collectively ruled by the Angels of the twelves Tribes of Israel.54 In Agrippa’s work, these are also the Angels of the twelve signs of the zodiac.55 The Nalvage states that these twelve Angels are governed directly by the seven Archangels who “stand before the presence of God.”56 These are the Angels of the Seven Days of Creation as wel as the seven ancient planets. The seven planetary Archangels govern the twelve zodiacal Archangels, just as the seven planets are given rulership over the twelve signs of astrology. Agrippa writes: “These have in this manner gathered from Ptolemy’s opinion, to which according to the writings of the other astrologers many more may be added. But he which knows how to compare these divisions of provinces according to the divisions of the stars, with the ministry of the ruling intelligences, and blessings of the tribes of Israel, the lots of the apostles, and typical seals of the sacred Scripture, shall be able to obtain great and prophetical oracles concerning every religion, of things to come.” The list of place given by Nalvage is more extensive that the list in Agriuppa and Ptolemy. It is difficult to determine which text served Nalvage as a source, if either. These names were common in ancient geographies.
Dee was perfectly aware that the names of the places of the Earth were those recorded in the Tatrabiblos of the Greek astronomer and astrologer Ptolemy. Nalvage himself had stated as much before beginning to name the places. According to Nalvage, the common names for the regions had been revealed to Ptolemy by the “Angel of the Lord,” but not the names of the places near the north pole. However, Nalvage promised to Dee and Kelley something greater, “the very true names of the World in her Creation.”
At first, it seems that Kelly did not understand Nalvage’s reference to Ptolemy, but he did vaguely recongnize the names. After the angel completed the list and allowed the men to rest overnight, Kelley followed his thread of memory and was able to look up the name in his private librairy of magical books. He was enraged by what he regarded as a rank of deception on the part of the angels, and at first refused to resume the scrying session. “Dee: After half an hour and lesse, he came speedily out of his Study, and brought in his hand one Volume of Cornelius Agrippa his works, and in one Chapter of that Book he read the names of Coutries and Provinces collected out of Ptolemeus (as the Author there noteth) Whereupon he inferred, that our principal Instructors were Coseners togive us a description of the World, taken out of other Books: and therefore he would have no more to do with them. I replied, and said, I am very glad that you have a Book of your own, wherein these Geographical name are expressed, such as (for the most part) our Instructors had delivered unto us; and that, according to the Tenor and form my request to him, so to have them expressed: for our most perfect information, so to have them expressed: for our most perfect information, by those names; to understand those 91 unknown and unheard of names, of seven letters every one: whereby they (our Instructors I mean) are very greatly to be thanked, and to be deemed (in all reasonable mens judgments) most friendly, and far from cozenage, or abusing us: And farther I said, that I had here brought the description (Gerardus [Mercator’s] Universal Chart of the World) Geographical of the whole earthly Globe: and also Pomponius Mela set forth in English with the Chartes thereunto belonging, fairly described by hand: To the intent that he might see the verity of their words yesterday delivered unto us: for the performace of my request made to them…”
The Relationship Betweens the Aethyr
The Relationship between the thirty Aethyr can best be seen through number. In addition gematria numbers, whole numbers from 1 to 8 can be found by adding up each gematria number. This methode of addition is called AIQ BKR or the Qabalah of Nine chamber. First, it can be seen from the illustration above that the Aethyrs can be broken up nicely into three groups; in the Astral, Mental and Spiritual. Each cosmic plane is separated by a Ring-Pass-Not or sphrerical barrier. The first is between NIA and TOR and this bars the intellect. The second is between IKH and ZAX (although it could as well be said to be ZAX itself) and this bars the human mind. The third is between LILI and the unspeakable realms of divinity that lie beyond the first Aethyr and this bars the human spirit. The Table shown above show the Aiq Bkr values for each Aethyr. It can be seen that the three Ring-Pass-Nots divide the thirthy Aethyrs into three group each whose total numerical value can be reduced to 7, the occult number for completeness. There is a hidden relationship between each Aethyr of corresponding numerical values. The student is left to determine these relationships for himself. As an aid, each number has an occult sifnificance as follows:
Unity, oneness, extension, spirit
Duality, divine, will
Matter, manifestation, intelligence, space
Solidity, firmness, time
Spirit and matter mixed, man
Animation, life, mind
Completeness, wholeness, satisfaction
It should be noted that the only Aethyr with a value of 2 is TAN, The Aethyr of the Great Balance. Also, no Aethyr has the numer 9. Finally, if all thirty Aethyrs are added together by Aiq Bkr, the total reduces to 3, the number for manifestation.
Visiting the Aethyr in Spirit Vision
Each of the Aethyr can be visited in the Spirit Vision although few magicians ever get past ZAX, the Abyss. The procedure used is identical for each Aethyr.
Step1. Begin by receiting the appropriate Call.
Step2 Invoke the support of the Governors. Trace their sigils in the air while vibrating their names.
Step3 Concentrate on the signposts of the Aethyr., Use imagination and the will to mentally leave the body and enter the Aethyr.
The student should be very careful to visit the Aethyr one at a time., in succession. Visit TEX first. Only after TEX has become familiar should one advance to RII. Become Familiar with RII before attempting BAG, and so on. Do not jump into one of the higher Aethyrs. Rising in the Aethyrs should be a gradual and orderly progression
Tyson, Enochian Magick for Beginners, p. 251.
 Casaubon, True and Faithful Relation, p. 183.
 Casaubon, True and Faithful Relation, p. 188.
 James, The Enochian Evocation of John Dee, p. 116.
 Casaubon, True and Faithful Relation, p. 153.
 Casaubon, True and Faithful Relation, p. 154.
 Casaubon, True and Faitful Relation, p. 156-157.
 Agrippa, Book of Occult Philosphy, p. 97
 Casaubon, True and Faithful Relation, p. 158-159.