April 15, 2021
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 The Mandala


John Dee’s Mandala on the Golden Medalion

The Great Table is a mandala, a mystical image composed of a circle and a square, or cross that symbolizes a non-physical place accessible through meditation and transcendent awareness. In The Theory and Practice of the Mandala, Giuseppe Tucci calls the mandala “A map of the cosmos.”[1] Mandalas are often circular, and usually symmetrical. They are intended to be a symbolic representation or magical reflection of a particular world or universe. Often, as in the case of the Black Elk,[2] one is first seen in a dream or a vision, and only later given a physical reality on paper or other medium (such as sand). Another way of viewing the mandala is given by the Argüelles: “A mandala sonsists of a series of concentric forms, suggestive of a passage between different dimensions. In its essence, it pertains not only to the earth but to the macrocosm and microcosm, the largest structural processes as well as the smallest. It is a the gatepost between the two.”[3] The center of a mandala represents the center, or height, of its corresponding realm. A mandala’s symmetry is representative of the polarity or duality found in our everyday human world. Thus North is opposed to South, East faces West, high opposes low, and so on. The circular movement suggested by the mandala expresses those forces that tend toward unification of these dualities. Mandalas have bee used by virtually every civilization throughout the history of humankind. For this reason, Carl Jung attributed their existence to the collective unconscious. He wrote: “For quite in accord with the Eastern conception, the mandala symbol is not only a mean of expression, but works an affect. It reacts upon its maker. Very ancient magical effects lie hidden in this symbol, for it derives originally from the ‘enclosing circle,’ the ‘charmed circle,’ the magic of which has been preserved in countless folk customs.”[4]

John_Dee's_golden_disc_British_MuseumIn Verena kast’s The Dynamics of Symbols: Fundamentals of Jungian Psychotherapy, she calls the mandala “one of the best-known symbols expressing the structural aspect of the self-archetype…” and writes : “The creation of such mandalas is a manifestation of psychic centering”[5] in dicating that in Jungian psychology, the mandala is seen to have a therapeutic effect non the integration of consciousness. Although John Dee had probably never heard the term mandala, we know he was nevertheless familiar with the concept, because he drew an Enochian Mandala in his diaries.[6] His mandala, a gold talisman, is a circular figure with four doors-each of which is one of the Four Watchtowers. Each Watchtower faces its associated direction in space, while the four spokes each contains on Trumpeter, three Ensigns Bearer, six Seniors, one King, five Princes, five Crosses, and sixteen Dispositors. The spoke-like aisles link the Watchtowers with the center-an inner hub where the twenty-four Seniors come together to consult with the magician adept enough to communicate with them. Therefore, Dee’s entire mandala is a graphic illustration of the Magical Universe of Enochian Magic.

Copy of ecodex_33The mandala appears most commonly in the West in the form of Hermetic or alchemical images. The accompanying mandala of Solomon’s Temple is particularly interesting, because it shows seven gates in each side, which are explicitly linked to the twenty-eight Mansion of the Moon, has three gates in each arm, and these are explicitly linked to the twelve months of the years. Notice that the central eye of God has seven points, which stand for the seven planets. Concerning Eastern mandalas, Carl Jung remarked: “The Eastern and more particularly the Lamaic mandala usually contains a square ground-plan of the stupa. We can see from the mandalas constructed in solid form that it is really the plan of a building. The square also conveys the idea of a house or temple, or of an inner walled-in space. According to the ritual, stupas must always be circumambulated to the right, because leftward movement is evil.”[7]


[1]Giuseppe Tucci, The Theory and Practice of the Mandala (York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser, 1961).
[2]The Oglala Sioux medicine man gave us perhaps the most famous Native American Mandala. See Black Elk Speaks, by John G. Neihardt (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, orig. 1932).
[3]Jos and Miriam Argüelles, Mandala (Boston MA: Shambhala Publications, Inc., 1995).
[4]Carl G. Jung’s Commentary to the Secret of the Golden Flower (trans. Richard Wilhelm, Orlando, FL; Hartcourt, Brace & World; orig. 1931, trans from the Gernam by Cary F. Baynes.
[5]Kast’s The Dynamics of Symbols: Fundamentals of Jungian Psychotherapy New York: Fromm International Publishing Corporation, 1992, 108-109.
[6]See Casaubon. Dee’s mandala is also shown on the page before the preface in The Enochian Magick of John Dee 9ed & trans by Geoffrey James, St Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1994.
[7]Jung, Psychology and Alchemy, p. 129.

The Three Levels of Angelic Hierarchy in the Great Table

HeavenssssssssssssssThe Great Table has three levels or hierarchies of angels that are reflected in its structure. The first level concerns the entire Table. When this is divised into four parts by the Great Black Cross, the second level of the four Watchtowers is indicated. Similarly, when each Watchtower is divided into four parts, the third level of the tower is divided into four parts, the third level of the sixteen lesser quarter appears. The angels tell Dee:” For every Table hath his key, every key openeth his gate, and every gate being opened, giveth knowledge of himself, of the entrance, and of the mysteries of those things whereof he is an enclosure. Within these Palaces you shall find things that are of power. For every Palace is above his City and every City above his entrance.”[8]

This description evokes the ground plan of a medieval city constructed upon a hill, a familiar sight in Dee’s time. The palace of the ruler occupied the crest. Surrounding it on the sloping sides of the hill huddled the house of the common folk. At s still tower level down the hill, a protective wall enclosed city. The wall contained a gate, or gates, to permit travel both into and out of the city


[8] James, The Enochian Evocation of John Dee, p. 11.

The Structure of an Enochian Mandala

fire-mandala-showing-deitieOther Enochian Scholars have elaborated extensively the idea of mandala in the Enochian framework. The following concepts are not parts of the original Enochian system as it was received by Dee and Kelley, but is an exterps from Gerald’s Shuller’s speculations as exposed in his book The Angels Message to Humanity. We expose it here as a point of interest althought it’s not mandatory for any Enochian magician to accept or follow those ideas.

As we know, a mandala is a symbolic representation of a sacred region or sacred concept. It is asually circular, but can also be square or rectangular. If used properly, a mandala acts as a map of the higher cosmic planes and forces. As we use the term here, it represents a world or a discrete portion of the magical universe. Because mandalas are maps, we can use them for pathworking the realms of Enochian Magic.

The firt four color plates show the four Watchtowers Mandalas that Enochian magicians uses. The earth Mandala is black, the Water Mandala is blue, the Air Mandala is yellow, and the Fire Mandala is red. Each of these color plates shows the location of regions within that mandala: the first or bottom level, called the Earth-Tiers, is to be visualized as black (although it is necessarily shown in the plates as white). The second level, called Water-Tiers, is shown as blue. The third level, alled Air-Tiers, is yellow, and the highest, or fourthg level, called the Fire-Tiers, is red. A comparaison of these regions, together with the other components of the four Wachtower Mandalas will illustrate how the Watchtower Mandalas are derived from the four Watchtower Tablet presented by Dee and Kelly.

Each path through a Watchtower Mandala begins at a gate. At the center of each side of the mandala is a large opening which contains two gates, one at each side of the opening, making eight gates in all. After entering a gate, you travel across the Earth-Tier (the Lesser Squares). The path splits, and you can go up one of two stairways to a blue Water-Tier (the Kerubic Squares). The two paths then merge as you go up a second stair way to the yellow Air-Tier (the Sephirothic Cross Squares). This leads up a third stairway to the cross-shaped Fire-Tiers (the Great Cross Squares). Each path ends at a white circle within a central hexagram in the center of the mandala. Each Enochian mamdala have basically the same structure, the differences lies in the colors, atmospheres and the deities.

The Colors: The walls and steps and black for earth, blue for Water, Yello for Air, and red for Fire.[9]

The Atmospheres: each Watchtower Mandala is as follows:

Earth – nourishment, sustenance, permanence

Water – creation, desire, renewal, manifestation

Air – Motion, intelligence, relationship

Fire – destruction, change, transformation

Deities: the deities are different in each mandala.[10]

The names of the deities who govern specific regions of each Watchtower are derived from the letters in the squares. The practicioner must be careful because different author and Enochian scholars use different spellings for the same deity. This is because some of the Watchtower squares contain multiple letters, owing to revisions made by Dee and Kelley, which allows for a choice of spellings.

Even if each watchtower has a host of deities, but you will only need to become familiar with twenty-two for the god-form of four deities: one for each level of the mandala. By practicing the pathworking exercices proposed by Schueller, the practicing Enochian magician will be an Angel, a Kerubic Angel, a Sephirothic Cross Angel, and a King or Goddess. The possible stations of each deity are show in the corresponding figure for each tower of the mandala. The positions 1-8 are Angel positions. The positions 9-16 are Kerubic Angel positions. The positions 17-20 are Sephirotic Cross Angel positions. And finally, the position number 21 is the position of the King (if you are male), or the Goddess if you are female.


[9]These are the standard Golden Dawn colors for the Watchtowers. For a full description of the Tablets and colors, as well as Golden Dawn weapons and entire Golden Dawn Temple, see The Secret Temple by Robert Wang (New York: Samuel Weiser, 1980).
[10] The names of the deities who govern specific regions of each Watchtower are derived from the letters in the squares. Observant students will probably notice that in some cases different a«uthors use different spellings for the same deity. This is because some of the Watchtower squares contain multiple letters, owing to revisions made by Dee and Kelley, which allows for a choice of spellings. See Schuller’s An Advanced Guide to Enochian Magick (Llewellyn), p. 46-47).

Schueller’s Mandala Pathworking

the-complete-directional-enFor the last twenty-four paths, using the tablet of Union Mandala, the practitioner will assume the god-form of three deities: an Angel, a Senior, and the God or Goddess of the Tablet of Union.

Let’s examine closely the first four color plates. Each watchtower Mandala is divided into four main parts or quadrants, with two entrances into each quadrant. To enter one of the four Watchtower mandalas, you assume the god-form of an Angel (a Ruling Angel) standing guard at one of the eight entrances. When you enter the mandala through one of the eight entrances, you will be on the first floor or earth-Tier. The Earth-Tier contains all the Lesser Squares of the Watchtower. The lesser square are co-called because they are the lowest regions, which is to say the closest within the Watchtower to the physical plane (represented by the Chaos Mandala is Schueler’s system)

In each quadrant is a yellow cross. Above the two arms of each cross are eight blue rectangular areas that can each be entered by climbing a flight of stairs. (9) These eight blue areas comprise the second floor or Water-Tier, and consist of the Kerubic Squares. To enter a Water-Tier, the practitionner assume the god-form of a Kerubic Angel.

In each of the eight divisions of the blue Water-Tier, a flight of stairs leads upward to the third floor, thee yellow Air-Tier. There are four Air-Tiers in each mandala representing Sephirotic Crosses. To enter these areas, the practitionner assume the god-form of a Sephirotic Cross Angel.

A strair way leads from each Sephirotic Cross upward to the fourt floor, the red Fire-Tier. The Fire-Tier represents the Great Cross that divides each Watchtower into four quadrants. There is one Fire-Tier in each mandala. To enter this cross-shaped area, you assume the god-form of the King or Goddess (if you are female) of the Watchtower.

Each Watchtower mandala allows for sixteen separate paths that you can take to reach the center of the Fire-Tier. The primary differences in which path the practitioner select are the god-forms that he assume along the way and the stairways and gates through which he must pass. In each Watchtower Mandala path the practitioner will assume the same King or Goddess form, but he will encounter differences in the other deities depending upon the path that he take. There are eight Angels, eight Kerubic Angels, and four Sephirothic Cross Angels. (Choices can be made in the lower tiers, but not in the Fire-Tier. The highest region of a Watchtower is the Great Cross, where all differences must come together in a synthesis of conscious energies. The fact that the lower forces of a Watchtower are assimilated into a oneness at the highest region resukts in using the symbol of a pyramid for each square-each square is represented by a truncated pyramid similar to the one used in the Tablet of Union Mandala)

Durint each of the twenty-four Tablet of Union Initiatory paths, the practitioner will assume three separate god-forms. First he assumes the god-form of an Angel to pass through a Watchtower: He will have a choice between twenty-four Angels, six per Watchtower (these are the same as given in the Watchtower paths). His choice of Watchtower to pass through will limit his choice of Senior to one of the six Seniors who govern that Watchtower. The he will rise up to the top of the mandala and assume the god-form of EHNB, the God of the Tablet of Union. The eighty-eight initiatory paths are arranged in order of difficulty, with the first being the easiest. (The name ENHB is found by using the first letter of the Enochian name for each of the four cosmic elements. It is the first file (or column) of the Tablet of Union. EHNB is sometimes considered to be the ENochian word for the fifth element, Spirit. Here, we use it as the name of the supreme God of the Enochian magical universe. According to Schueller, the supreme Goddess is BABALON (the names of the four Watchtower Godesses are anagrams of BABALON, and thus they are aspects of her).

Assuming God Form in Pathworking

assuming-god-formThis magical technique is required among other for those who practice Schueler’s Mandala pathworking. Assuming god-form is an operation that the magician must perform wearing his “Body of Light.” The Body of Light is plastic and can assume any form according to your will. This allows a magician or a yogi to assume the form of any god or goddess while traveling in the Magical Universe.

Only deities can enter the Enochian mandalas; therefore, the ability to assume the form of a god or goddess is critical to success in these pathworking initiations. In short, you must temporarily become a god or goddess. Obviously your physical body cannot enter a mandala. The Enochian mandalas that we are talking about are intended to serve as psychic images of the magical universe. You must entger them with your Body of Light, or aura. Because we are using an Enochian structure, the adept must assume the god-form of an Enochian deity, through the magical and psychological process of invocation. According to Skinner’s Techniques of High Magick, “Invocation is the process by which the trained magician “calls down” into himself a particular force from the cosmos personified by usage as a god.”[11] When you invoke an Enochian god or goddess during the five initiations, you will be temporarily filled and strengthened by a powerful force or emotion. Although questions about the nature of the deities’ existence always surface at some point, the rituals can only be conducted successfully if we first assume the deities are externally real rather than psychological projections.

Every living person has an aura (so called the Body of Light), a subtle energy field that surrounds and permeates the physical body.[12] The Body of Light is elastic; it usually take the physical body’s form, but you can consciously re-shape it to temporarily assume any form-which allows you to “become” a god while traveling in the magical universe.[13]

To prepare yourself for assumption of a god-form, begin by imagining an astral image of a chosen deity. Most Enochian deities remain obscure to the general public. Because of this, each initiation briefly lists key elements for the deities to be invoked. Detailed image of Enochian Kings and Seniors can be found in Schueler’s Enochian Tarot Deck. [14]For a guide ton the standard Hebrew and Egyptian god-forms, see The Book of Celestial Images by A.C. Highfiedl.[15] Budge’s The God of the Egyptians[16] has been use as the standard reference for Egyptian god-forms for many years.

The specific deity will be determined by the path you decide to take inside a mandala. As you move upward through the four levels of the Watchtowers Mandalas, for example, you will assume four god-forms one for each levels. Each Watchtower Mandala has sixteen possible paths. Although you need only to invoke four deities per initiation, you do have a choice in some of them.

To assume a god-form, begion by imagining your body to be completely empty, like a balloon. Visualize your outer skin as elastic or rubber that can easily be modeled. Then shape your Body of Light in the form of the deity you want to become. This technique is widely acknowledged in magic circles, having been taught and practiced by the Golden Dawn. It is also well known in the East (in Tibetan Buddhism it is known as deity yoga).[17]

See yourself as the deity. Assume his or her countenance and stature. An Angel once said to Dee, “Angels, I say, of themselves, neither are man nor woman; Therefore they do take forms not according to any proportion in imagination, but according to the discreet and applicable will both of him, and of the thing wherein they are Administrators.” (See Dee’s Liber Mysteriorum [& Sancti] parallelus Novalisque, as found on p. 13 of Casaubon) If the deity holds objects, then you should hold them too. If the deity is (or wears clothes of) a certain color, see yourself doing the same. If the deity has magical powers, then see yourself with those powers. To assume a god form properly, you must become (at least in your imagination) that deity. If done properly, you will not have to pretend that you are a deity-a deity will actually be invoked within you. The correct assumption of a god-form is an important magical and yogic technique. The more you know about the deity in question, the better. The method used in Mandala pathworking is to visualize your own body as if it were the deity’s while repeating the deity’s name slowly, like a mantra. This invokes the deity into your body. If you are successful, the deity will temporarily influence you by its presence.

Each initiatory path has its own series of deities, described in the instructions for the ritual. For example, each Watchtower Mandala contains sixteen paths, with eight Angels who stand guard at the entrance gates and eight Kerubic Angels standing guard at the stairways.

Read over each deity’s description before attempting to follow a path, in order to familiarize yourself with the deity. Some are masculine, some are feminine, and other almost androgynous. Each has color, and each holds an instrument with magical power. The characteristics of the deities given in Schueler’s pathworking exercises are not arbitrary. They have been derived from the deitie’s name, through a technique called gematria, which employs the numeric value associated with each letter of the Enochian alphabet. In gematria, by adding together the values of each letter in a wor of name, we arrive at a numeric (thus symbolic) value for that name. This process shows words, names and phrases with equal number values to have occult or hidden similarities, and allows us to reliably determine the qualities of the Enochian deities. The reference table shown by Schueler in his Book An Advanced Guide to Enochian Magick shows four different gematria schemes, he prefer to use the one given by Aleister Crowley in The Vision and the Voice also in Gems from the Equinox. His gematria scheme was used to derive a numerical value for each deity name in the Enochian Mandala. Then this number was reduced by a magical technique called theosophic reduction (or magical addition). The technique simply adds up the individual digits in a number to get a reduced value. For example, the number 237 reduces to 12, because 2=3=7=12. If we like, we can continue the reduction process until a number between 1 and 9 is obtained. In our example, we would obtain 3, because 12 reduces to 3 (1+2=3). After we determine the reduced numerical value for a deity’s name, we turned to Crowley’s Liber 777 and found a corresponding color (Column XL), plant (Column XXXIX), magical power (Column XLV), and so on. Schueler also used Scott Cunningham’s Encyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic and Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs to determine additional associations (mainly to avoid duplication while remaining magically correct). Other features include gender, fierceness, beauty, heaviness, and darkness. These correspondences, and the presence or absence of wings, are derived from the letters of the deity’s name, using the table of Enochian letter correspondences for telesmatic figures.[18]

On Saturday, April 21, 1584, the Angel GABRIEL delivered an interesting message concerning the use of numbers for Enochian letters to John Dee.[19] Part of that message was as follow: “Every letter signifies the number of the substance whereof it speaks. Every word signifies the quiddity of the substance. The letters are separated, and in confusion, and therefore, are by numbers gathered together; which also gathered signifies a number, for as every greater contains his letter, so re the secret aand unknown forms of things knit up in their parents, where being known in number, they are easily distinguished, so that herein we tech places to be numbered, letters to elected from the numbered, and proper words from the letters, signifying substantially the same thing that is spoken of in the center of his Creator, whereby even as the mind of man moves at an ordered speech, and is easily persuaded in things that are true, so are the creatujres of God stirred up in themselves, when they hear the words wherewith the were nursed and brought forth. For nothing moves that is not persuaded, neither can any thing be persuaded that is unknown.”[20]


[11]Skinner, Techniques of High Magick (New York: Destiny, 1876), p. 158)
[12]C.W. Leadbeater’s Man Visible and Invisible, a classic on the subtle bodies, is highly recommended (Quest Books, Wheaton, IL: Theosophical Publishing House, 1987)
[13]An excellent guide to magical projection of the subtle body can be found in Astral Projection, Magic and Alchemy (ed. Francis King, New York: Samuel Weiser, 1972). This book contains important Golden Dawn texts called “flying rolls.” We also recommend the (rather difficult) classic Liber O, by Aleister Crowley (in Magicak: Liber ABA, Book Four [New York Beach, ME: Samual Weiser, 1994]). Some easy techniques can also be found in The Llewellyn Guide to Astral Projection by Melita Denning and Osborne Phillips (St. Paul, MN, Llewellyn Publishing, 1995).
[14]St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publishing, 1989.
[15]A.C. Highfiedl, The Book of Celestial Images (Wedingborough, Great Britain: Aquarian Press, 1984).
[16]Budge, The God of the Egyptians (New York: Dover Publications, inc., 1969).
[17]For reference Schueler recommend Deity Yoga in Action and Performance Tantras, by H.H. the Dalai Lama, Tsong-ka-pa and Jeffrey Hopkins, New York: Snow Lion Publications, 1981.
[18]You can find these in table IX (p.293) of Schueler’s An Advanced Guide to Enochian Magick, or Table 11 (p.42) of Enochian Yoga.
[19]Casaubon, True and Faithful Relation, p. 92.


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