December 13, 2019
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Jupiter’s Place in Roman Mythology

Polidoro-da-Caravaggio---JuJupiter (Latin: Iuppiter; genitive case: Iovis) or Jove is the king of the gods and the god of sky and thunder in ancient Roman religion and myth. Jupiter was the chief deity of Roman state religion throughout the Republican and Imperial eras, until Christianity became the dominant religion of the Empire. In Roman mythology, he negotiates with Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, to establish principles of Roman religion such as sacrifice. Ancient Roman scholars Marcus Terentius Varro and Verrius Flaccus [7] were the main sources on the theology of Jupiter and archaic Roman religion in general. Varro was acquainted with the libri pontificum (“books of the Pontiffs”) and their archaic classifications. [8] On these two sources depend other ancient authorities, such as Ovid, Servius, Aulus Gellius, Macrobius, patristic texts, Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Plutarch. One of the most important sources which preserve the theology of Jupiter and other Roman deities is The City of God against the Pagans by Augustine of Hippo. Augustine’s criticism of traditional Roman religion is based on Varro’s lost work, Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum. Although a work of Christian apologetics, The City of God provides glimpses into Varro’s theological system and authentic Roman theological lore in general. According to Augustine, [9]Varro drew on the pontiff Mucius Scaevola’s tripartite theology. [10]  The Romans regarded Jupiter as the equivalent of the Greek Zeus, and in Latin literature and Roman art, the myths and iconography of Zeus are adapted under the name Iuppiter. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Jupiter was the brother of Neptune and Pluto. Each presided over one of the three realms of the universe: sky, the waters, and the underworld. The Italic Diespiter was also a sky god who manifested himself in the daylight, usually but not always identified with Jupiter. [11]  Tinia is usually regarded as his Etruscan counterpart. [12]

Jupiter-German classical philologist Georg Wissowa stressed Jupiter’s uniqueness as the only case among Indo-European religions in which the original god preserved his name, his identity and his prerogatives. [13] In this view, Jupiter is the god of heaven and retains his identification with the sky among the Latin poets (his name is used as a synonym for “sky”.) In this respect, he differs from his Greek equivalent Zeus (who is considered a personal god, warden and dispenser of skylight). His name reflects this idea; it is a derivative of the Indo-European word for “bright, shining sky”. His residence is found atop the hills of Rome and of mountains in general; as a result, his cult is present in Rome and throughout Italy at upper elevations.  Jupiter assumed atmospheric qualities; he is the wielder of lightning and the master of weather. However, Wissowa acknowledges that Jupiter is not merely a naturalistic, heavenly, supreme deity; he is in continual communication with man by means of thunder, lightning and the flight of birds (his auspices). Through his vigilant watch he is also the guardian of public oaths and compacts and the guarantor of good faith in the State cult.  The Jovian cult was common to the Italic people under the names Iove, Diove (Latin) and Iuve, Diuve (Oscan, in Umbrian only Iuve, Iupater in the Iguvine Tables). In Georges Dumézil’s view, Jovian theology (and that of the equivalent gods in other Indo-European religions) is an evolution from a naturalistic, supreme, celestial god identified with heaven to a sovereign god, a wielder of lightning bolts, master and protector of the community (in other words, of a change from a naturalistic approach to the world of the divine to a socio-political approach). [14] Contrary to many scholars, Dumézil maintains that Jupiter is not himself a god of war and agriculture, although his actions and interest may sometime extend to these spheres of human endeavour. His view is based on the methodological assumption that the chief criterion for studying a god’s nature is not to consider his field of action, but the quality, method and features of his action. Consequently, the analysis of the type of action performed by Jupiter in the domains in which he operates indicates that Jupiter is a sovereign god who may act in the field of politics (as well as agriculture and war) in his capacity as such, i.e. in a way and with the features proper to a king. Sovereignty is expressed through the two aspects of absolute, magic power (epitomised and represented by the Vedic god Varuna) and lawful right (by the Vedic god Mitra). [15] However, sovereignty permits action in every field; otherwise, it would lose its essential quality. As a further proof, Dumézil cites the story of Tullus Hostilius (the most belligerent of the Roman kings), who was killed by Jupiter with a lightning bolt (indicating that he did not enjoy the god’s favour). Varro’s definition of Jupiter as the god who has under his jurisdiction the full expression of every being (penes Iovem sunt summa) reflects the sovereign nature of the god, as opposed to the jurisdiction of Janus (god of passages and change) on their beginning (penes Ianum sunt prima). [16]

Jupiter’s Attributes, Sacred Animal and Magical Tools

Jupiter is usually thought to have originated as a sky god. His identifying implement is the thunderbolt, and his primary sacred animal is the eagle, [16a] which held precedence over other birds in the taking of auspice [17] and became one of the most common symbols of the Roman army (called the Aquila). The two emblems were often combined to represent the god in the form of an eagle holding in its claws a thunderbolt, which is frequently seen on Greek and Roman coins. [18] Many of his functions were focused on the Capitoline (“Capitol Hill”), where the citadel was located. He was the chief deity of the early Capitoline Triad with Mars and Quirinus. [19] In the later Capitoline Triad, he was the central guardian of the state with Juno and Minerva. His sacred tree was the oak.

The Thunderbolt

4i9aX4e6TThunder is usually considered as the voice of the sky gods.   As such, Zeus is usually depicted as holding a thunderbolt in his hand. Virgil describes the Cyclops forging a thunderbolt for Jupiter from iron. [10a] Thunderbolts display the almighty power of the greatest of the gods. [10b]  From the remoted past thunderbolts are regarded as the implements and weapons of the sky gods in all  mythologies. Generally speaking they symbolizes the dual powers of creation and destruction possessed in Hinduism by Shiva and Vishnu and in the Vedic religion by Indra, in whom, like Zeus and Jupiter, both properties were united.  It is also said that any spot the sky gods has struck with lightning is consecrate. [10c]  The thunderbolt also symbolizes the sacred union of the fecunding sky god and the and the receptive earth; it is an attribute of all smith gods such as Hephaistos, Vulcan and Thor.  As a symbol the thunderbolt doubtlessly is of Mesopotamian origin. There are different forms, the first consisting of a bident with two undulated points. This form is of Babylonian origin and is the attribute of the war-god Adad. Derived from this form of thunderbolt is the Sword of Ali, also called the Sword of Islam or Dhu ‘l Fakr. The second form is a trident. This is probably of Hellenistic origin. In its most known form it is the attribute of the sea-god Poseidon / Neptune. This form has evoluated in Europe to the fleur de lys. Also derived from the trident is the trisula, (= three points) the trident of the hindu destroyer-god Shiva. The third form is a double trident. This form is of Assyrian origin. It is the prototype of the hellenistic thunderbolt in the west and the vajra or dorje in the east. The fourth form is the four-fold trident or Dorje Gyatum. This form is evoluated in Tibet from the double trident.  Furthermore, Neolithic “thunder-stones”, Parashu-Rama’s stones axe and Thor’s hammer are all symbols of the thunderbolt which strikes and cleaves the Earth.

Vajra: The thunderbolt, the favourite weapon of Indra.

Vajra: The thunderbolt, the favourite weapon of Indra.

jupiterthunderHowever, the axe or hammer of these gods does not only destroy, but also creates and fecundates Thunderbolts procreate and destroy at one and the same time; they are both life and death.  This is the significance of the two-bladed axe and the two tips of the Hindu thunderbolt, the vajra.  Generally speaking, thunderbolts are symbols of celestial activity and of the transforming influence of Heaven upon Earth. [10d]  They are, in addition, associated with rain, which stands for the beneficial aspect of this activity.  The I Ching associates thunder with fear and with the moderation and balance which it creates.  The thunderbolts was an attribute of the Vedic god Indra which was adopted by several Tibethan deities.  As the symbol of male principle and of the Method (in contrast with the bell), the thunderbolt is restricted to priests and magicians as a weapon against the demons amd vices. [10e] It was the symbol of the infinite, righteous and beneficient power of the godhead. Vajra (the Hindu thunderbolt) not onlt mean “thunderbolt” but also “diamond,” lightning often originating in legend from diamonds or, as in the case in Cambodia, a gem.  In heraldry the conventional representation of the thunderbolt, the attribute of Jupiter, is a sheaf of barbed lange and arrows, but it may sometimes be depicted as a dart, trident or similar implements. [10f]

The Hawk

hawk-symbolismAugury is the practice from ancient Roman religion of interpreting omens from the observed flight of birds. When the individual, known as the augur (priests of Jupiter), interpreted these signs, it is referred to as “taking the auspices”. ‘Augur’ and ‘auspices’ are from the Latin auspicium and auspex, literally “one who looks at birds.” Depending upon the birds, the auspices from the gods could be favorable or unfavorable (auspicious or inauspicious). Of course, it sometimes happened that bribed or politically motivated augures would fabricate unfavorable auspices in order to delay certain state functions, such as elections for example.  Pliny the Younger attributes the invention of auspicy to Tiresias the seer of Thebes, the generic model of a seer in the Greco-Roman literary culture.  As the sky-god, he was a divine witness to oaths, the sacred trust on which justice and good government depend.

The Role of Jupiter in Politics

The Romans believed that Jupiter granted them supremacy because they had honoured him more than any other people had. Jupiter was “the fount of the auspices upon which the relationship of the city with the gods rested.” [20]  He personified the divine authority of Rome’s highest offices, internal organization, and external relations. His image in the Republican and Imperial Capitol bore regalia associated with Rome’s ancient kings and the highest consular and Imperial honours. [21] The consuls swore their oath of office in Jupiter’s name, and honoured him on the annual feriae of the Capitol in September. To thank him for his help (and to secure his continued support), they offered him a white ox (bos mas) with gilded horns. [22] A similar offering was made by triumphal generals, who surrendered the tokens of their victory at the feet of Jupiter’s statue in the Capitol. Some scholars have viewed the triumphator as embodying (or impersonating) Jupiter in the triumphal procession. [23]  Jupiter’s association with kingship and sovereignty was reinterpreted as Rome’s form of government changed. Originally, Rome was ruled by kings; after the monarchy was abolished and the Republic established, religious prerogatives were transferred to the patres, the patrician ruling class. Nostalgia for the kingship (affectatio regni) was considered treasonous. Those suspected of harbouring monarchical ambitions were punished, regardless of their service to the state.

The Priesthoods of Jupiter

The Flamen and Flaminica Dialis

Flamen_dialisJupiter was served by the patrician Flamen Dialis, the highest-ranking member of the flamines, a college of fifteen priests in the official public cult of Rome, each of whom was devoted to a particular deity among the fifteen who had official cults during the Roman Republic.   His wife, the Flaminica Dialis, had her own duties, and presided over the sacrifice of a ram to Jupiter on each of the nundinae, the “market” days of a calendar cycle, comparable to a week. [24] The couple were required to marry by the exclusive patrician ritual confarreatio, which included a sacrifice of spelt bread to Jupiter Farreus (from far, “wheat, grain”). [25]  The most important three were the flamines maiores (or “major priests”), who served the three chief Roman gods of the Archaic Triad. The remaining twelve were the flamines minores (“lesser priests”). Two of the minores cultivated deities whose names are now unknown; among the others are deities about whom little is known other than the name. During the Imperial era, the cult of a deified emperor (divus) also had a flamen. The fifteen Republican flamens were part of the Pontifical College which administered state-sponsored religion. When the office of flamen was vacant, a pontifex could serve as a temporary replacement, although only the Pontifex Maximus is known to have substituted for the Flamen Dialis. The office of Flamen Dialis was circumscribed by several unique ritual prohibitions, some of which shed light on the sovereign nature of the god himself. [26] For instance, the flamen may remove his clothes or apex (his pointed hat) only when under a roof, in order to avoid showing himself naked to the sky—that is, “as if under the eyes of Jupiter” as god of the heavens. Every time the Flaminica saw a lightning bolt or heard a clap of thunder (Jupiter’s distinctive instrument), she was prohibited from carrying on with her normal routine until she placated the god. [27]

Flamen_LouvreThe Flamen Dialis enjoyed some honors something peculiar that reflect the regal nature of Jupiter. Being the only one of all the priests who wore the albogalerus (Apex), he was entitled to be escorted by a lictor, [29] using praetexta toga , he had the use of the curule chair (the chair of the state), [28] and sit in the Roman Senate under his office. [30] The toga pretext or praetexta, white with purple edge , was used by the Romans dress on special occasions. These garments are given the attribute that differentiated the Flamen of other priests: a miter crowned with an olive branch to him and a branch of pomegranate on a spiky hairstyle (tutulus) for his wife.  Other regulations concern his ritual purity and his separation from the military function; he was forbidden to ride a horse or see the army outside the sacred boundary of Rome (pomerium). Although he served the god who embodied the sanctity of the oath, it was not religiously permissible (fas) for the Dialis to swear an oath. [31] He could not have contacts with anything dead or connected with death: corpses, funerals, funeral fires, raw meat. This set of restrictions reflects the fulness of life and absolute freedom that are features of Jupiter. [32]

Festa of the "Vinalia Rustica" 2010, Barcelona. A Flamen Dialis

Festa of the “Vinalia Rustica” 2010, Barcelona. A Flamen Dialis

The Augurs

Etruscan Mural of Augurs

Etruscan Mural of Augurs

The augures publici, augurs were a college of sacerdotes who were in charge of all inaugurations and of the performing of ceremonies known as auguria. In the Regal period tradition holds that there were three augurs at a time; by the time of Sulla, [33]  they had reached fifteen in number. His main role was the practice of augury, interpreting the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups or alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as “taking the auspices.” The ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society—public or private—including matters of war, commerce, and religion.  The derivation of the word augur is uncertain; ancient authors believed that it contained the words avi and gero—Latin for “directing the birds”—but historical-linguistic evidence points instead to the root aug-, “to increase, to prosper.”

‘Come then,’ Tarquin said angrily, ‘Deduce when they make up in bed, if your augury can, whether what I have in my mind right now is possible.’ And when Navius, expert in augury that he was, immediately said that it would happen, Tarquin replied: ‘Well, I thought that you would cut a whetstone with a sharp knife. Here, take this and do what your birds have predicted would be possible.’ And Navius, hardly delaying at all, took the whetstone and cut it.

—Livy, 1.35.2

The story is illustrative of the role of the augur: he does not predict what course of action should be taken, but through his augury he finds signs on whether or not a course already decided upon meets with divine sanction and should proceed. The Roman historian Livy stresses the importance of the augurs: “Who does not know that this city was founded only after taking the auspices, that everything in war and in peace, at home and abroad, was done only after taking the auspices?” [34]  Their creation was traditionally ascribed to Romulus. They were considered the only official interprets of Jupiter’s will, thence they were essential to the very existence of the Roman State as Romans saw in Jupiter the only source of statal authority.

The Fetials


FORVM Roman Republic Ti Veturius 137 BC Silver Denarius Fetial Sacrifice.

The fetials were a college of 20 men devoted to the religious administration of international affairs of state. [35]  Their main task was to preserve and apply the fetial law (ius fetiale), which is a complex set of procedures aimed at ensuring the protection of the gods in Rome’s relations with foreign states. Iuppiter Lapis is the god under whose protection they act, and whom the chief fetial (pater patratus) invokes in the rite concluding a treaty. [36]  In the Roman tradition, oaths were sworn upon Iuppiter Lapis or the Jupiter Stone located in the Temple of Jupiter, Capitoline Hill. Iuppiter Lapis was held in the Roman Tradition to be an Oath Stone, an aspect of Jupiter is his role as divine law-maker responsible for order and used principally for the investiture of the oathtaking of office.  If a declaration of war ensues, the fetial calls upon Jupiter and Quirinus, the heavenly, earthly and chthonic gods as witnesses of any potential violation of the ius. He can then declare war within 33 days. [37] The action of the fetials falls under Jupiter’s jurisdiction as the divine defender of good faith. Several emblems of the fetial office pertain to Jupiter. The silex was the stone used for the fetial sacrifice, housed in the Temple of Iuppiter Feretrius, as was their sceptre. Sacred herbs (sagmina), sometimes identified as vervain, had to be taken from the nearby citadel (arx) for their ritual use.

The Cult of Jupiter


Sacrificial victims (hostiae) offered to Jupiter were the oxen (castrated bull), the lamb (on the Ides, the ovis idulis) and the wether (on the Ides of January). [38]  The animals were required to be white. The question of the lamb’s gender is unresolved; while a lamb is generally male, for the vintage-opening festival the flamen Dialis sacrificed a ewe (a sheep) . [39] This rule seems to have had many exceptions, as the sacrifice of a ram on the Nundinae by the flaminica Dialis demonstrates. During one of the crises of the Punic Wars, Jupiter was offered every animal born that year. [40]


The temple to Jupiter Optimus Maximus stood on the Capitoline Hill. [41] Jupiter was worshiped there as an individual deity, and with Juno and Minerva as part of the Capitoline Triad. The building was supposedly begun by king Tarquinius Priscus, completed by the last king (Tarquinius Superbus) and inaugurated in the early days of the Roman Republic (September 13, 509 BC). It was topped with the statues of four horses drawing a quadriga, with Jupiter as charioteer. A large statue of Jupiter stood within; on festival days, its face was painted red. [42]  In (or near) this temple was the Iuppiter Lapis: the Jupiter Stone, on which oaths could be sworn. Jupiter’s Capitoline Temple probably served as the architectural model for his provincial temples. When Hadrian built Aelia Capitolina on the site of Jerusalem, a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus was erected in the place of the destroyed Temple in Jerusalem. There were two temples in Rome dedicated to Iuppiter Stator; the first one was built and dedicated in 294 BC by Marcus Atilius Regulus after the third Samnite War. It was located on the Via Nova, below the Porta Mugonia, ancient entrance to the Palatine. [43]  Legend has attributed its founding to Romulus. [44] There may have been an earlier shrine (fanum), since the Jupiter’s cult is attested epigraphically.  Ovid places the temple’s dedication on June 27, but it is unclear whether this was the original date, or the rededication after the restoration by Augustus.

Tree of Life Attributions

jupiter--The Roman deity attribution for Kether is Jupiter according to Crowley’s classification. [1] The reason behind for this attribution, in the same spirit as it was for Zeus,  refers to the unifying and all englobing aspect of Jupiter.  The Jupiter Crowley refers to in his book 777 is “Jupiter as the Supreme Creator.” [2] Israel Regardie brings more meat around the bone in his book A Garden of Pomegrenates:

“We find attributed to the Crown, the fist digit, the attribution of the god-name of Aheieh, translated by “ I will be,” signifying definitely that the scheme of nature is not a static one nor a system of existence wherein the creative processes have long been consumated, but vibrant, progressive, and ever-becoming.” [3]

The Romans considered Jupiter as the Lord of Heaven, the highest and most powerful among the gods, and called him the Best and Most High. According to Prof. Flinders Petrie, was one of the abstract gods (as distinguished from human or cosmic gods) and the creator of the cosmic egg ; and Amon-Ra (with whom Osiris became identified) king of the gods and “lord of the thrones of the world.” Its Greek equivalent is Zeus – identified in the Roman theogony as Jupiter – the greatest of the Olympian Gods and men. The Romans considered Jupiter as the Lord of Heaven, the highest and most powerful among the gods, and called him the Best and Most High. In the Indian systems, he is Brahma [4] the creator, from whom sprang the seven Prajapati [5] – our seven lowest Sephiroth – who, at his behest, completed the creation of the world. [6]

The Roman Deity correspondence for Chesed is Jupiter, (Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 11).  Of course Jupiter is not a perfect match in terms of correspondence for this Sephira and this is why Israel Regardie tells his readers that by talking of Jupiter we should refer here specifically to that aspect of him which was originally, in earliest Rome, “an elemental or tutelary divinity worshipped as the god of rain, storms, and thunder.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 47)  Jupiter, then, we find is the planet governing that operation of practical magick called the Formula of Tetragrammaton. Its angels are said to be the “Brillant Ones,”47 and its archangel is Tsadkiel, meaning the “Righteousness of God. ” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 47)


[1] Aleister Crowley, 777 and Other Qabalistic Writtings of Aleister Crowley, p. 11.
[2] Aleister Crowley, 777 and Other Qabalistic Writtings of Aleister Crowley, p. 86.
[3]  Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 39.
[4] Regardie insist that his reader pay attention to this subtility of the hindu pantheon according to which “Brahma is a masculine force, not to be confused with Brahman, the supreme force of the universe which is gender neutral.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 59)
[5] Prajapati is Sanscrit for “Lords of Creatures,” one of the creator deities of ancient India during the Vedic period.  Altogether, the Prajapati are the “mind born” children of Brahma who are related to the seven great rsis or “ancient sages.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 59)
[6] Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 40.
[7] The work of Verrius Flaccus is preserved through the summary of Sextus Pompeius Festus and his epitomist Paul the Deacon.
[8] Georges Dumézil La religion romaine archaïque Payot Paris 1974 2nd “Remarques preliminaires” X; It. tr. Milan 1977 p. 59ff.; citing Lucien Gerschel “Varron logicien” in Latomus 17 1958 pp. 65–72.
[9] Augustine De Civitate Dei IV 27; VI 5.
[10] J. Pépin “La théologie tripartite de Varron” Revue des études augustiniennes 2 1956 pp. 265294. Dumézil has pointed out that even though Augustine may be correct in pointing out cases in which Varro presented under the civil theology category contents that may look to belong to mythic theology, nevertheless he preserved under this heading the lore and legends ancient Romans considered their own.
[10a] Virgil, Aeneid 8:424-32.
[10b] Jean Chevalier & Alain Gheerbrant, The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols, p. 1003.
[10c] Mircea Eliade, Patterns in Comparative Religions, translated by Rosemary Sheed, London and New York 1958, p. 53-54.
[10d] Jean Chevalier & Alain Gheerbrant, The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols, p. 1004.
[10e] Tondriau, Julien, Objets Tibétains de Culte et de Magie, Brussels, 1964, p. 2.
[10f] Jean Chevalier & Alain Gheerbrant, The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols, p. 1003.
[11] Diespiter should not be confused with Dis pater, but the two names do cause confusion even in some passages of ancient literature; P.T. Eden, commentary on the Apocolocyntosis (Cambridge University Press, 1984, 2002), pp. 111–112.
[12] Massimo Pallottino, “Etruscan Daemonology,” p. 41, and Robert Schilling, “Rome,” pp. 44 and 63, both in Roman and European Mythologies (University of Chicago Press, 1992, from the French edition of 1981); Giuliano Bonfante and Larissa Bonfante The Etruscan Language: An Introduction (Manchester University Press, 1983 rev. ed. 2003), pp. 24, 84, 85, 219, 225; Nancy Thomson de Grummond, Etruscan Myth, Sacred History, and Legend (University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 2006), pp. 19, 53–58 et passim; Jean MacIntosh Turfa, Divining the Etruscan World: The Brontoscopic Calendar and Religious Practice (Cambridge University Press, 2012), p. 62.
[13] Georg Wissowa Religion und Kultus der Römer Munich, 1912, p. 100.
[14] Georges Dumézil, La religion romaine archaïque Payot Paris 1974, tr. pp. 167–168.
[15] Dumézil above p. 239; It. Tr. p. 171.
[16] Varro apud Augustine De Civitate Dei VII 9.
[16a] Pliny Naturalis Historia X 16. A. Alföldi Zu den römischen Reiterscheiben in Germania 30 1952 p. 188 and n. 11 as cited by G. Dumézil La religion reomaine archaïque Paris 1974 2nd ed., It. tr. Milan 1977 (hereafter cited as ARR) p. 215 n. 58.
[17] Servius Ad Aeneidem II 374.
[18] Dictionary of Roman Coins, see e.g. reverse of “Consecratio” coin of Emperor Commodus & coin of Ptolemy V Epiphanes minted c. 204–180 BC.
[19] Mars was a deity concerned with war and the defense of agriculture; Cato the Elder, On Agriculture, 141; alm, in Rüpke (ed), 239. The Colline deity Quirinus may have been equivalent in some way to both Mars and Jupiter: “Quirinus, perhaps the war god of the Quirinal settlement or the god who presided over the assembled citizens.” Howard Hayes Scullard, (2003), A History of the Roman World, 753 to 146 BC, page 393. Routledge.
[20] Mary Beard, J.A. North, and S.R.F. Price, Religions of Rome: A History (Cambridge University Press, 1998), vol. 1, p. 59.
[21] Orlin in Rüpke, Jörg (Editor), A Companion to Roman Religion, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, p. 58.
[22] Scheid, in Rüpke (ed), 263–271; G. Dumézil ARR It. tr. p. 181 citing Jean Bayet Les annales de Tite Live édition G. Budé vol. III 1942 Appendix V p. 153 and n. 3.
[23] Dumézil 1977 p. 259 note 4. On the interpretation of the triumphal dress and of the triumph, Larissa Bonfante has offered an interpretation based on Etruscan documents in her article : “Roman Triumphs and Etruscan Kings: the Changing Face of the Triumph” in Journal of Roman Studies 60 1970 pp. 49–66 and tables I–VIII. Mary Beard rehearses various views of the triumphator as god or king in The Roman Triumph (Harvard University Press, 2007), pp. 226–232, and expresses skepticism.
[24] Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.16.
[25] Matthew Dillon and Lynda Garland, “Religion in the Roman Republic,” in Ancient Rome: From the Early Republic to the Assassination of Julius Caesar (Routledge, 2005), pp. 127, 345.
[26] Most of the information about the Flamen Dialis is preserved by Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights X 15.
[27] Macrobius Saturnalia I 16, 8: flaminica quotiens tonitrua audisset feriata erat, donec placasset deos. The adjective feriatus, related to feriae, “holy days,” pertains to keeping a holiday, and hence means “idle, unemployed,” not performing one’s usual tasks.
[28] Livy I 20, 1–2.
[29] Plutarch Quaestiones Romanae 113.
[30] Livy XXVII 8, 8.
[31] Francis X. Ryan, Rank and Participation in the Republican Senate (Franz Steiner, 1998), p. 165. The Vestals and the Flamen Dialis were the only Roman citizens who could not be compelled to swear an oath (Aulus Gellius 10.15.31); Robin Lorsch Wildfang, Rome’s Vestal Virgin: A Study of Rome’s Vestal Priestesses in the Late Republic and Early Empire (Routledge, 2006), p. 69.
[32] <Dumézil 1977 p. 147.
[33] Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was awarded a grass crown, the most prestigious and rarest Roman military honor, during the Social War.
[34] Livy, VI.41: auspiciis hanc urbem conditam esse, auspiciis bello ac pace domi militiaeque omnia geri, quis est qui ignoret?
[35] G. Dumézil ARR above pp. 94–96, 169, 192, 502–504.
[36] Livy I 24, 8.
[37] [38] Ovid Fasti I 587–588.
[39] Varro LL VI 16. Sacrifices to Jupiter are also broached in Macrobius Saturnalia III 10. The issue of the sacrificial victims proper to a god is one of the most vexed topics of Roman religion: cf. Gérard Capdeville “Substitution de victimes dans les sacrifices d’animaux à Rome” in MEFRA 83 2 1971 pp. 283–323. Also G. Dumézil “Quaestiunculae indo-italicae: 11. Iovi tauro verre ariete immolari non licet” in Revue d’études latins 39 1961 pp. 242–257.
[40] Beard et al, Vol 1, 32–36: the consecration made this a “Sacred Spring” (ver sacrum). The “contract” with Jupiter is exceptionally detailed. All due care would be taken of the animals, but any that died or were stolen before the scheduled sacrifice would count as if already sacrificed. Sacred animals were already assigned to the gods, who ought to protect their own property.
[41] G. Dumézil ARR above pp. 258–261.
[42] Ovid, Fasti, 1.201f.
[43] Livy X 36, 1 and 37, 15 f.
[44] Livy I 12; Dionysius of Halicarnassus II 59; Ovid Fasti VI 793; Cicero Catilinaria I 33.


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