July 17, 2019
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The Description of the Path

ssssssssssssssssssssshinThis is twenty-first letter of alphabet. This is spath No. Thirty-one, joining Hod to Malkuth. Its numerical value is 300. Shin means a “tooth,” probably with reference to a three-pronged molar. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 87) The implication of this path is that of the Holy Spirit descending in tongues of fire – reminding one of the Apostles of Christ at Pentecost – and all its attributions are fiery.  (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 88) 

The normal perception of the world is of discrete things embedded in space and time.  Language reinforces this perception because we have names for most things, and we can say how they are embedded – for example, “the cat is on the mat.”  This is a synthetic perception; it is constructed by our senses, and by cognitive processing in the brain.  Experimental physics, looking closer, does not see a cat on a mat.  Experiments reveal little but empty space filled with a continuum of electromagnetic fields.  The ‘things’ we experience are given the shape by our nervous systems and by culture.  The initiation of this path is the conscious awareness of what Korzybski called “awareness of abstraction.”  This is a complex cognitive process that turns the emptyness of Malkhut into something the individual human consciousness finds tractable. (Collin A. Low, The Hermetic Kabbalah, p. 325)

 

shhiinn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 The Hebrew Letter Correspondence: Shin

Moshik-Hebrew-Typeface-shinShin’ Yetziratic element is FIRE (in Hebrew TT Esh is fire, the “sh” being most proeminent in pronunciation), an dis symbolized by this sibilant letter TT, because one characteristic of fire is its hissing sound ; and the equivalent in Hebrew for “sibilant” is a word which also means “hissing.”  This letter takes a dôgesh, and when the latter is on the left side, viz., (Sin), it is pronounced as an“S.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 87)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Yetziratic Element Correspondence: Fire

Alchemy_fire_symbolFire TT is its Yetziratic element (in Hebrew TT Esh is fire, the “sh” being most proeminent in pronunciation), an dis symbolized by this sibilant letter TT, because one characteristic of fire is its hissing sound ; and the equivalent in Hebrew for “sibilant” is a word which also means “hissing.”  (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 87)

 

 

 

 The Tarot Trump Correspondence: The Last Judgment

judgment--The tarot correspondence is XX – The Last Judgment, showing the angel Gabriel blowing a trumpet, bearing a banner on which is a red cross. The dead break open their tombs, and stand erect, looking upwards, directing their arms in prayer to the angel.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Hindu God Correspondence: Agni is the Hindu god of Tejas

AGNI---Agni is the Hindu god of Tejas, the tattva or element of fire. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 88)

Agni (Sanskrit: अग्नि) is a Hindu deity, one of the most important of the Vedic gods. He is the god of fire[1] and the acceptor of sacrifices. The sacrifices made to Agni go to the deities because Agni is a messenger[2] from and to the other gods. He is ever-young, because the fire is re-lit every day, and also immortal.

The word agni is Sanskrit for “fire” (noun), cognate with Latin ignis (the root of English ignite), Russian огонь (ogon), Polish “ogień”, Slovenian “ogenj”, Serbo-Croatian oganj, and Lithuanian ugnis—all with the meaning “fire”, with the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European root being h₁égni-. Agni has three forms: fire, lightning and the Sun.[4]

In Hindu scriptures, Agni is the God of Fire, and is present in many phases of life such as honouring of a birth (diva lamp), birthdays (birthday candles on a cake), prayers (diva lamp), weddings (Yagna where the bride and groom circle 7 times) and death (cremation).

Agni is the first word of the first hymn of the Rigveda.  Agni, the Vedic god of fire, has two heads, one marks immortality and the other marks an unknown symbol of life. Agni has made the transition into the Hindu pantheon of gods, without losing his importance. With Varuna and Indra he is one of the supreme gods in the Rigveda. The link between heaven and earth, the deities and the humans, he is associated with Vedic sacrifice, taking offerings to the other world in his fire. In Hinduism, his vehicle is the ram.[3]

He is the supreme director of religious ceremonies and duties, and figures as messenger between mortals and gods. Vedic rituals all involve Agni, for example the elaborate Agnicayana, that is, the piling of the fire altar, the Agnihotra, viz., offering to Agni.

The Rigveda often says that Agni arises from water or dwells in the waters. He may have originally been the same as Apam Napat, who is also sometimes described as fire arising from water, which in a natural explanation may have referred to flames from natural gas or oil seepages surfacing through water, or as the seven rays or bands of light of a rainbow. Other Rigvedic names, epithets or aspects of Agni include Matarishvan, Jatavedas, or Bharata.

Agni is a deva, second only to Indra in the power and importance attributed to him in Vedic mythology, with 218 out of 1,028 hymns of the Rigveda dedicated to him. He is Indra‘s twin, and therefore a son of Dyaus Pita and Prthivi. However, he is also said to have two mothers[5] (the two parts of the firedrill used to start the fire), and ten servant maids (the fingers of the man who is lighting the fire) or as the twice-born.[6] He is one of the Guardians of the directions, representing the southeast.

Agni has two forms: Jaataveda and Kravyada. Jaataveda is invoked to burn and carry the offerings (except flesh) to the respective Gods. Kravyada is invoked to burn the flesh (corpses and animal parts).

In the Jaataveda form Agni, god of fire acts as the divine model for the sacrificial priest. He is the messenger who carries the oblation from humans to the gods, bringing the Gods to sacrifice, and interceding between gods and humans (RgV.1.26.3). When Agni is pleased, the gods are generous. Agni represents the cultivated, cooked and cultured aspects of Vedic ritual. Together with Soma, Agni is invoked in the Rig Veda more than any other gods.[7]

In Hindu scriptures, Agni is depicted with two or seven hands, two heads and three legs. He has seven fiery tongues with which he licks sacrificial butter. He rides a ram or in a chariot harnessed by fiery horses. Agni is represented as red and two-faced, suggesting both his destructive and beneficent qualities, and with black eyes and hair, three legs and seven arms. He rides a ram, or a chariot pulled by goats or, more rarely, parrots. Seven rays of light emanate from his body. One of his names is Saptajihva, “having seven tongues”.[8] Another one of his epithets is Abhimani (from Sanskrit: abhi towards + the verbal root man to think, reflect upon) meaning dignified, proud; longing for, thinking.

Agni is the eldest son of Brahma. In Visnu Purana, Agni (Abhimani) the fire god is said to have sprung from the mouth of the Virat purusha, the Cosmic Man. His wife is Svaha. Abhimani had three sons of surpassing brilliancy: Pavaka, Pavamana, and Suchi, the personifications of the three fires that produced our earth and humanity (VP 1:10).[9] All these three names indicate purity. Abhimanin, his three sons, and their 45 sons constitute the 49 mystic fires of the Puranas and theosophy. (cf Agni Purana.) Agneya or Aagneya is the Hindu Goddess of Fire and the daughter of Agni.

His three sons, according to the Vayu Purana, stand for three different aspects of Agni (fire): Pavaka is the electric fire, Pavamana the fire produced by friction, and Suchi the solar fire. Interpreted on the cosmic and human planes, these three fires are “Spirit, Soul, and Body, the three great Root groups, with their four additional divisions” (SD 2:247). They are said to have been cursed by the sage Vasishtha to be born again and again (cf BP 4:24,4; SD 2:247–8). “Every fire has a distinct function and meaning in the worlds of the physical and the spiritual. He has, moreover, in its essential nature a corresponding relation to one of the human psychic faculties, besides its well determined chemical and physical potencies when coming in contact with the terrestrially differentiated matter” (SD 1:521).

Agni is also an important entity in Ayurveda. It is considered to be the one which is responsible for the sustenance of life. Agni helps in the various physiological functions of the body.[citation needed]

In some Hindu symbolism, Agni’s parents are said to be the two components of the firedrill used to start the fire, and when young he was said to be cared for by ten servants, which represent the fingers of the man who is starting the fire.

Agni is the name of India’s first long-range strategic missile capable of nuclear weapons delivery, becoming only the fourth country to have this combined technology (after the United States of America, the Soviet Union/Russia, and China). The Agni-V was successfully test launched on April 19, 2012.

The Greek God Correspondence: Harès

aresQQHades is the Greek god of the fiery nether regions.(Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 88)   Ares and Mars of the Greeks and Romans, “and all other warrior gods are the deity attributions.”[53] Ares (Ancient Greek: Ἄρης, Μodern Greek: Άρης) is the Greek god of war. He is one of the Twelve Olympians, and the son of Zeus and Hera.[54] In Greek literature, he often represents the physical or violent aspect of war, in contrast to the armored Athena, whose functions as a goddess of intelligence include military strategy and generalship.[55] The Greeks were ambivalent toward Ares: although he embodied the physical valor necessary for success in war, he was a dangerous force, “overwhelming, insatiable in battle, destructive, and man-slaughtering.”[56] In the Iliad his father Zeus tells him that he is the god most hateful to him.[57] An association with Ares endows places and objects with a savage, dangerous, or militarized quality.[58] His value as a war god is even placed in doubt: during the Trojan War, Ares was on the losing side, while Athena, often depicted in Greek art as holding Nike (Victory) in her hand, favored the triumphant Greeks.[59]Ares plays a relatively limited role in Greek mythology as represented in literary narratives, though his numerous love affairs and abundant offspring are often alluded to.[60] When Ares does appear in myths, he typically faces humiliation.[61] He is well known as the lover of Aphrodite, the goddess of love who was married to Hephaestus, god of craftsmanship,[62] but the most famous story involving the couple shows them exposed to ridicule through the wronged husband’s clever device.[63]The counterpart of Ares among the Roman gods is Mars, who as a father of the Roman people held a more important and dignified place in ancient Roman religion for his agricultural and tutelary functions. During the Hellenization of Latin literature, the myths of Ares were reinterpreted by Roman writers under the name of Mars. Greek writers under Roman rule also recorded cult practices and beliefs pertaining to Mars under the name of Ares. Thus in the classical tradition of later Western art and literature, the mythology of the two figures becomes virtually indistinguishable. The etymology of the name Ares is traditionally connected with the Greek word ἀρή (arē), the Ionic form of the Doric ἀρά (ara), “bane, ruin, curse, imprecation.” There may also be a connection with the Roman god of war Mars, via hypothetical Proto-Indo-European *M̥rēs; compare Ancient Greek μάρναμαι (marnamai), “to fight, to battle”, or Punjabi maarna (to kill, to hit). The earliest attested form of the name is the Mycenaean Greek a-re, written in Linear B syllabic script. Walter Burkert notes that “Ares is apparently an ancient abstract noun meaning throng of battle, war.”[64]The adjectival epithet Areios was frequently appended to the names of other gods when they take on a warrior aspect or become involved in warfare: Zeus Areios, Athena Areia, even Aphrodite Areia. In the Iliad, the word ares is used as a common noun synonymous with “battle.”[65]Inscriptions as early as Mycenaean times, and continuing into the Classical period, attest to Enyalios, another name for the god of war.Ares was one of the Twelve Olympians in the archaictradition represented by the Iliad and Odyssey, but Zeus expresses a recurring Greek revulsion toward the god when Ares returns wounded and complaining from the battlefield at Troy. Then looking at him darkly Zeus who gathers the clouds spoke to him:

‘Do not sit beside me and whine, you double-faced liar.

To me you are the most hateful of all gods who hold Olympos.

Forever quarrelling is dear to your heart, wars and battles. […]

And yet I will not long endure to see you in pain, since

you are my child, and it was to me that your mother bore you.

But were you born of some other god and proved so ruinous

long since you would have been dropped beneath the gods of the bright sky.” [66]

This ambivalence is expressed also in the god’s association with the Thracians, who were regarded by the Greeks as a barbarous and warlike people.[67] Thrace was Ares’ birthplace, true home, and refuge after the affair with Aphrodite was exposed to the general mockery of the other gods.[68] A late 6th-century BC funerary inscription from Attica emphasizes the consequences of coming under Ares’ sway:

Stay and mourn at the tomb of dead Kroisos

Whom raging Ares destroyed one day, fighting in the foremost ranks.[69]

In Macedonia, however, he was viewed as a bearded war veteran with superb military skills and physical strength. The ancient Macedonians looked up to Ares as a divine leader as well as a god. In Sparta Ares was viewed as a masculine soldier in which his resilience, physical strength and military intelligence was unrivaled. The birds of Ares (Ornithes Areioi) were a flock of feather-dart-dropping birds that guarded the Amazons’ shrine of the god on a coastal island in the Black Sea.[70] Vultures and dogs, both of which prey upon carrion in the battlefield, were sacred to him. In Renaissance and Neoclassical works of art, Ares’ symbols are a spear and helmet, his animal is a dog, and his bird is the vulture. In literary works of these eras, Ares is replaced by the Roman Mars, a romantic emblem of manly valor rather than the cruel and blood-thirsty god of Greek mythology. Deimos, “Terror” or “Dread”, and Phobos, “Fear”, are his companions in war[71] and also his children, borne by Aphrodite, according to Hesiod.[72] They are sometimes depicted as been were yoked to his battle chariot.[73] The sisterand companion of the violent Ares is Eris, the goddess of discord, or Enyo, the goddess of war, bloodshed, and violence. Enyalius, rather than another name for Ares, in at least one tradition was his son by Enyo.[74] Ares may also be accompanied by Kydoimos, the demon of the din of battle; the Makhai (“Battles”); thev “Hysminai” (“Acts of manslaughter”); Polemos, a minor spirit of war, or only an epithet of Ares, since it has no specific dominion; and Polemos’s daughter, Alala, the goddess or personification of the Greek war-cry, whose name Ares uses as his own war-cry. Ares’s sister Hebe, “Youth,” also draws baths for him. According to Pausanias, local inhabitants of Therapne, Sparta, recognized Thero “feral, savage” as a nurse of Ares.[75] The union of Ares and Aphrodite created the gods Eros, Anteros, Phobos, Deimos, Harmonia, and Adrestia. While Eros and Anteros’ godly stations favored their mother, Adrestia by far preferred to emulate her father, often accompanying him to war. Ares, upon one occasion, incurred the anger of Poseidon by slaying his son Halirrhothius, who had raped Alcippe, another daughter of the war-god. For this deed, Poseidon summoned Ares to appear before the tribunal of the Olympic gods, which was held upon a hill in Athens. Ares was acquitted, and this event is supposed to have given rise to the name Areopagus (or Hill of Ares), which afterward became famous as a court of justice.[76] There are accounts of a son of Ares, Cycnus (Κύκνος) of Macedonia, who was so murderous that he tried to build a temple with the skulls and the bones of travellers. Heracles slaughtered this abominable monstrosity, engendering the wrath of Ares, whom the hero wounded.[77] One of the roles of Ares that was sited in mainland Greece itself was in the founding myth of Thebes: Ares was the progenitor of the water-dragon slain by Cadmus, for the dragon’s teeth were sown into the ground as if a crop and sprung up as the fully armored autochthonic Spartoi. To propitiate Ares, Cadmus took as a bride Harmonia, daughter of Ares’ union with Aphrodite, thus harmonizing all strife and founding the city of Thebes.[78] In the tale sung by the bard in the hall of Alcinous,[79] the Sun-god Helios once spied Ares and Aphrodite enjoying each other secretly in the hall of Hephaestus, and he promptly reported the incident to Aphrodite’s Olympian consort. Hephaestus contrived to catch the couple in the act, and so he fashioned a finely-knitted and nearly invisible net with which to snare the illicit lovers. At the appropriate time, this net was sprung, and trapped Ares and Aphrodite locked in very private embrace. But Hephaestus was not yet satisfied with his revenge — he invited the Olympian gods and goddesses to view the unfortunate pair. For the sake of modesty, the goddesses demurred, but the male gods went to witness the sight. Some commented on the beauty of Aphrodite, others remarked that they would eagerly trade places with Ares, but all who were present mocked the two. Once the couple were loosed, Ares, embarrassed, returned to his homeland, Thrace.[80] In a much later interpolated detail, Ares put the youth Alectryon by his door to warn them of Helios’ arrival, as Helios would tell Hephaestus of Aphrodite’s infidelity if the two were discovered, but Alectryon fell asleep. Helios discovered the two and alerted Hephaestus. Ares was furious and turned Alectryon into a rooster, which now never forgets to announce the arrival of the sun in the morning. In one archaic myth related only in the Iliad by the goddess Dione to her daughter Aphrodite, two chthonic giants, the Aloadae, named Otus and Ephialtes, threw Ares into chains and put him in a bronze urn, where he remained for thirteen months, a lunar year. “And that would have been the end of Ares and his appetite for war, if the beautiful Eriboea, the young giants’ stepmother, had not told Hermes what they had done,” she related.[81] “In this one suspects a festival of licence which is unleashed in the thirteenth month.[82] Ares remained screaming and howling in the urn until Hermes rescued him and Artemis tricked the Aloadae into slaying each other. In Nonnus’ Dionysiaca[83] Ares also killed Ekhidnades, the giant son of Echidna and a great enemy of the gods; it is not clear whether the nameless Ekhidnades (“of Echidna’s lineage”) was entirely Nonnus’ invention or not. In the Iliad,[48] Homer represented Ares as having no fixed allegiances, rewarding courage on both sides: he promised Athena and Hera that he would fight on the side of the Achaeans,[84] but Aphrodite was able to persuade Ares to side with the Trojans. During the war, Diomedes fought with Hector and saw Ares fighting on the Trojans’ side. Diomedes called for his soldiers to fall back slowly.[85] Hera, Ares’s mother, saw his interference and asked Zeus, his father, for permission to drive Ares away from the battlefield, which Zeus granted.[86] Hera and Athena encouraged Diomedes to attack Ares.[87] Diomedes thrust with his spear at Ares, with Athena driving it home, and Ares’ cries made Achaeans and Trojans alike tremble.[88] Ares fled to Mt. Olympus, forcing the Trojans to fall back. When Hera during a conversation with Zeus mentioned that Ares’ son Ascalaphus was killed, Ares wanted to again join the fight on the side of the Achaeans disregarding Zeus’ order that no Olympic god should enter the battle, but Athena stopped him.[89] Later, when Zeus allowed the gods to fight in the war again,[90] Ares was the first to act, attacking Athena to avenge himself for his previous injury, but Athena managed to overpower him by striking Ares with a boulder.[91] Although Ares received occasional sacrifice from armies going to war, the god had a formal temple and cult at only a few sites.[92] At Sparta, however, youths each sacrificed a puppy to Enyalios before engaging in ritual fighting at the Phoebaeum.[93] The chthonic night-time sacrifice of a dog to Enyalios became assimilated to the cult of Ares. Just east of Sparta stood an archaic statue of the god in chains, to show that the spirit of war and victory was never to leave the city.[94]The temple to Ares in the agora of Athens that Pausanias saw in the second century AD had only been moved and rededicated there during the time of Augustus; in essence it was a Roman temple to the Augustan Mars Ultor.[95] The Areopagus, the “mount of Ares” where Paul of Tarsus preached, is sited at some distance from the Acropolis; from archaic times it was a site of trials. Its connection with Ares, perhaps based on a false etymology, is purely etiological myth. A second temple has also been located at the archaeological site of Metropolis in what is now Western Turkey.

ares-peinture-1

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[53] Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 84.
[54]Hesiod, Theogony 921; Iliad, 5.890–896. By contrast, Ares’ Roman counterpart Mars was born from Juno alone, according to Ovid (Fasti 5.229–260).
[55]Walter Burkert, Greek Religion (Blackwell, 1985, 2004 reprint, originally published 1977 in German), pp. 141; William Hansen, Classical Mythology: A Guide to the Mythical World of the Greeks and Romans (Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 113.
[56]Burkert, Greek Religion, p.169.
[57] Homer, Iliad 5.890–891.
[58]Hansen, Classical Mythology, pp. 114–115.
[59]Burkert, Greek Religion,p. 169.
[60]Hansen, Classical Mythology, pp. 113–114; Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 169.
[61]Hansen, Classical Mythology, pp. 113–114. See for instance Ares and the giants.
[62]In the Iliad, however, the wife of Hephaestus is Charis, “Grace,” as noted by Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 168.
[63] Homer, Odyssey 8.266–366; Hansen, Classical Mythology, pp. 113–114.
[64]Walter Burkert, Greek Religion (Harvard) 1985: pt III.2.12 p 169.
[65]Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 169.
[66] Homer, Iliad, Book 5, lines 798–891, 895–898 in the translation of Richmond Lattimore.
[67] Homer, Iliad 13.301; Ovid, Ars Amatoria, II.10.
[68]Homer Odyssey viii. 361; for Ares/Mars and Thrace, see Ovid, Ars Amatoria, book ii.part xi.585, which tells the same tale: “Their captive bodies are, with difficulty, freed, at your plea, Neptune: Venus runs to Paphos: Mars heads for Thrace.”; for Ares/Mars and Thrace, see also Statius, Thebaid vii. 42; Herodotus, iv. 59, 62.
[69]Athens, NM 3851 quoted in Andrew Stewart, One Hundred Greek Sculptors: Their Careers and Extant Works, Introduction: I. “The Sources”
[70]Argonautica (ii.382ff and 1031ff; Hyginus, Fabulae 30.
[71]Iliad 4.436f, and 13.299f’ Hesiodic Shield of Heracles 191, 460; Quintus Smyrnaeus, 10.51, etc.
[72]Hesiod, Theogony 934f.
[73]Burkert, Greek Religion, p.169.
[74]Eustathius on Homer 944
[75]Pausanias, Description of Greece, 3. 19. 7 – 8
[76]Berens, E.M.: Myths and Legends of Ancient Greece and Rome, page 113. Project Gutenberg, 2007.
[77]Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 2. 5. 11 & 2. 7. 7
[78]Burkert, Greek Religion, p.169.
[79] Homer, Odyssey 8.300.
[80]”Odyssey, 8.295.””In Robert Fagles’ translation “”…and the two lovers, free of the bonds that overwhelmed them so, sprang up and away at once, and the Wargod sped Thrace, while Love with her telltale laughter sped to Paphos…”.”
[81] Homer, Iliad 5.385–391.
[82]Burkert (1985). Greek Religion. pp. 169.
[83]Nonnus, Dionysiaca 18. 274 ff.
[84]Homer, Iliad V.830–834, XXI.410–414.
[85]Homer, Illiad, V.590–605.
[86]Homer, Illiad, V.711–769.
[87] Homer, Illiad, V.780–834.
[88]Homer, Illiad, V.855–864.
[89]Homer, Illiad, XV.110–128.
[90]Homer, Illiad, XX.20–29.
[91] Homer, Illiad, XXI.391–408.
[92]Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 170.
[93]”Here each company of youths sacrifices a puppy to Enyalius, holding that the most valiant of tame animals is an acceptable victim to the most valiant of the gods. I know of no other Greeks who are accustomed to sacrifice puppies except the people of Colophon; these too sacrifice a puppy, a black bitch, to the Wayside Goddess.” Pausanias, 3.14.9.
[94]”Opposite this temple [the temple of Hipposthenes] is an old image of Enyalius in fetters. The idea the Lacedaemonians express by this image is the same as the Athenians express by their Wingless Victory; the former think that Enyalius will never run away from them, being bound in the fetters, while the Athenians think that Victory, having no wings, will always remain where she is.” Pausanias, 3.15.7.
[95]Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 170.

The Roman God Correspondence#1 : Pluto

4220-140The Roman God Pluto is also considered as an attribution here (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 88)Surprisingly enough, he was also an attribution for the 11st path of the qabalistic Tree of Life, Caph.  Obviously it’s not the aspects of Pluto that are related his rulership of the underworld that interests us in this association. Israel Regardie tells us that this correspondence is nevertheless appropriate regarding one of his primary aspects “since he is the blind giver of wealth, symbolical of the infinite and abundant prodigality of nature.”[42] In ancient Greek religion and myth, Pluto (Πλούτων, Ploutōn) was a name for the ruler of the underworld; the god was also known as Hades, a name for the underworld itself. This deity has two major myths: in Greek cosmogony, he received the rule of the underworld in a three-way division of sovereignty over the world, with his brothers Zeus ruling Heaven and Poseidon the Sea; and he abducts Persephone to be his wife and the queen of his realm. In other myths, he plays a secondary role, mostly as the possessor of a quest-object.[43] The name Ploutōn was frequently conflated with that of Plutus (Πλοῦτος, Ploutos), a god of wealth, because mineral wealth was found underground, and because as a chthonic god Pluto ruled the deep earth that contained the seeds necessary for a bountiful harvest. Ploutōn became a more positive way to talk about the ruler of the underworld, and the name was popularized through the mystery religions and philosophical systems influenced by Plato, the major Greek source on its meaning.[44] Pluto (genitive Plutonis) is the Latinized form of the Greek Ploutōn. Pluto’s Roman equivalent is Dis Pater, whose name is most often taken to mean “Rich Father.” Pluto was also identified with the obscure Roman Orcus, like Hades the name of both a god of the underworld and the underworld as a place. The name Pluto is sometimes used for the ruler of the dead in Latin literature, leading some mythology handbooks to assert misleadingly that Pluto was the Roman counterpart of Hades, rather than an adopted Greek name identified with Dis Pater or Orcus.[45] Pluto (French Pluton and Italian Plutone) is commonly used as the name of the classical ruler of the underworld in subsequent Western literature and other art forms. Ploutos, “Wealth,” appears in the Theogony as the child of Demeter and Iasion: “fine Plutus, who goes upon the whole earth and the broad back of the sea, and whoever meets him and comes into his hands, that man he makes rich, and he bestows much wealth upon him.” This union, also described in the Odyssey,[46] took place in a fallow field that had been ploughed three times, in what seems to be a reference to a ritual copulation or sympathetic magic to ensure the earth’s fertility.[47] “The resemblance of the name Ploutos to Plouton …,” it has been noted, “cannot be accidental. Plouton is lord of the dead, but as Persephone’s husband he has serious claims to the powers of fertility.”[48] Demeter’s son merges with her son-in-law, redefining the implacable chariot-driver Hades whose horses trample the flowering earth.[49]One thing that may have contributed to feed the confusion evoking Pluto as a correspondence for the Greek God Hades is the fact that the namePlouton was one of several euphemistic names for Hades in the Iliad when Homer described him as the god who is most hateful to mortals.[50] To Plato, the god of the underworld was “an agent in th[e] beneficent cycle of death and rebirth” meriting worship under the name of Plouton, a giver of spiritual wealth.[51] In the dialogue Cratylus, Plato has Socrates explain the etymology of Plouton, saying that Pluto gives wealth (ploutos), and his name means “giver of wealth, which comes out of the earth beneath.” People prefers to call him this way because the name Hades is taken to mean “the invisible,” people fear what they cannot see; [52] although they are in error about the nature of this deity’s power, Socrates says, but “the office and name of the God really correspond.” Having in itself nothing to do with any kind of hell, the name was in fact to be understood as referring to “the boundless riches of the earth, both the crops on its surface — he was originally a god of the land — and the mines hidden within it.”[53] What is sometimes taken as “confusion” of the two gods Plouton and Ploutos (“Wealth”) held or acquired a theological significance in antiquity; as a lord of abundance or riches, Pluto expresses the positive aspect of the god, symbolized in art by the “horn of plenty” (cornucopia),[54] by means of which Plouton is distinguished from the gloomier Hades.[55]Some scholars think that rituals and beliefs pertaining to Pluto entered Roman culture with the establishment of the Saecular Games in 249 BC, and that Dis pater was only a translation of Plouton.[56] Cicero identifies Pluto with Dis, explaining that “The earth in all its power and plenty is sacred to Father Dis, a name which is the same as Dives, ‘The Wealthy One,’ as is the Greek Plouton. This is because everything is born of the earth and returns to it again.”[57]The geographer Strabo (1st century) makes a clear distinction between Pluto and Hades. In writing of the mineral wealth of ancient Iberia (Roman Spain), he says that among the Turdetani, it is “Pluto, and not Hades, who inhabits the region down below.”[58] In Lucian’s discourse On Mourning (2nd century), Pluto’s “wealth” refers in fact to all the dead souls he rules over in the abyss (chasma); in this context, the name Hades itself is not associated to him directly but is rather reserved to refer to the underworld itself.[59]Another detail that seems to reinforce the link established between Zeus and Pluto by this qabalistic correspondence is the fact that, in Greek religious practice, Pluto is sometimes seen as the “chthonic Zeus” (Zeus Chthonios[60] or Zeus Catachthonios[61]), or at least as having functions or significance equivalent to those of Zeus but pertaining to the earth or underworld.[62] In ancient Roman and Hellenistic religion, Pluto was identified with a large number of other deities, including namely Summanus, the god of nocturnal thunder,[63] Februus, the god from whose purification rites the month of February takes its name,[64] the syncretic god Serapis, who is often regarded as Pluto’s Egyptian equivalent.[65] And there is also the Semitic god Muth (Μούθ). Muth was described by Philo of Byblos as the equivalent of both Thanatos (Death personified) and Pluto.[66] In addition to asserting that Muth was equivalent to both Thanatos (Death personified) and Pluto, Philo also said he was the son of Kronos and Rhea. These references illustrates in a convincing manner that, despite the popular belief, the ancient Greeks did not regard Pluto as “death” per se.[67]The Orphic Hymn to Pluto addresses the god as “strong-spirited” and the “All-Receiver” who commands death and is the master of mortals. His titles are given as Zeus Chthonios and Euboulos means “Good Counsel,” which would be unusual for a warden of hell. In the hymn’s topography, Pluto’s dwelling is in Tartarus, simultaneously a “meadow” and “thick-shaded and dark,” where the Acheron encircles “the roots of the earth.” Hades is again the name of the place, here described as “windless,” and its gates, through which Pluto carried “pure Demeter’s daughter” as his bride, are located in an Attic cave within the district of Eleusis. The names of both Hades and Pluto appear also in the Greek Magical Papyri and curse tablets, with Hades usually referring to the underworld as a “place,” and where Pluto is regularly invoked as the partner of Persephone.[68] Five Latin curse tablets from Rome, dating to the mid-1st century BC, promise Persephone and Pluto an offering of “dates, figs, and a black pig” if the curse is fulfilled by the desired deadline. The pig was a characteristic animal sacrifice to chthonic deities, whose victims were typically black or dark in color.[69] A set of curse tablets written in Doric Greek and found in a tomb addresses a Pasianax, “Lord to All,” [70] sometimes taken as a title of Pluto,[71] but more recently thought to be a magical name for the corpse.[72] Pasianax is found elsewhere as an epithet of Zeus, or in the tablets may invoke a daimon like Abrasax.[73]A sanctuary dedicated to Pluto was called a ploutonion (Latin plutonium). The complex at Eleusis for the mysteries had a ploutonion regarded as the birthplace of the divine child Ploutos, in another instance of conflation or close association of the two gods.[74]Attributes of Pluto mentioned in the Orphic Hymn to Pluto are his scepter, keys, throne, and horses. In the hymn, the keys are connected to his capacity for giving wealth to humanity, specifically the agricultural wealth of “the year’s fruits.” Ambiguity of color is characteristic of Pluto. Although both he and his realm are regularly described as dark, black, or gloomy, the god himself is sometimes seen as pale or having a pallor. Martianus Capella (5th century) describes him as both “growing pale in shadow, a fugitive from light” and actively “shedding darkness in the gloom of Tartarean night,” crowned with a wreath made of ebony as suitable for the kingdom he governs.[75] The horses of Pluto are usually black, but Ovid describes them as “sky-colored” (caeruleus, from caelum, “sky”), which might be blue, greenish-blue, or dark blue.[76]The mythographical Library traditionally attributed to Apollodorus (2nd century BC)[77] uses the name Plouton instead of Hades in relating the tripartite division of sovereignty, the abduction of Persephone, and the visit of Orpheus to the underworld. This version of the theogony for the most part follows Hesiod (see above), but adds that the three brothers were each given a gift by the Cyclopes to use in their battle against the Titans: Zeus thunder and lightning; Poseidon a trident; and Pluto a helmet (kyneê).[78]The helmet Pluto receives is presumably the magical Cap of Invisibility (aidos kyneê), but Apollodorus is the only ancient author who explicitly says it belonged to Pluto.[79] In ordering his ideal city, Plato proposed a calendar in which Pluto was honored as a benefactor in the twelfth month, implicitly ranking him as one of the twelve principal deities.[80] In the Attic calendar, the twelfth month, more or less equivalent to June, was Skirophorion; the name may be connected to the rape of Persephone.[81]

————————————–

[53] Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 84.
[54]Hesiod, Theogony 921; Iliad, 5.890–896. By contrast, Ares’ Roman counterpart Mars was born from Juno alone, according to Ovid (Fasti 5.229–260).
[55]Walter Burkert, Greek Religion (Blackwell, 1985, 2004 reprint, originally published 1977 in German), pp. 141; William Hansen, Classical Mythology: A Guide to the Mythical World of the Greeks and Romans (Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 113.
[56]Burkert, Greek Religion, p.169.
[57] Homer, Iliad 5.890–891.
[58]Hansen, Classical Mythology, pp. 114–115.
[59]Burkert, Greek Religion,p. 169.
[60]Hansen, Classical Mythology, pp. 113–114; Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 169.
[61]Hansen, Classical Mythology, pp. 113–114. See for instance Ares and the giants.
[62]In the Iliad, however, the wife of Hephaestus is Charis, “Grace,” as noted by Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 168.
[63] Homer, Odyssey 8.266–366; Hansen, Classical Mythology, pp. 113–114.
[64]Walter Burkert, Greek Religion (Harvard) 1985: pt III.2.12 p 169.
[65]Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 169.
[66] Homer, Iliad, Book 5, lines 798–891, 895–898 in the translation of Richmond Lattimore.
[67] Homer, Iliad 13.301; Ovid, Ars Amatoria, II.10.
[68]Homer Odyssey viii. 361; for Ares/Mars and Thrace, see Ovid, Ars Amatoria, book ii.part xi.585, which tells the same tale: “Their captive bodies are, with difficulty, freed, at your plea, Neptune: Venus runs to Paphos: Mars heads for Thrace.”; for Ares/Mars and Thrace, see also Statius, Thebaid vii. 42; Herodotus, iv. 59, 62.
[69]Athens, NM 3851 quoted in Andrew Stewart, One Hundred Greek Sculptors: Their Careers and Extant Works, Introduction: I. “The Sources”
[70]Argonautica (ii.382ff and 1031ff; Hyginus, Fabulae 30.
[71]Iliad 4.436f, and 13.299f’ Hesiodic Shield of Heracles 191, 460; Quintus Smyrnaeus, 10.51, etc.
[72]Hesiod, Theogony 934f.
[73]Burkert, Greek Religion, p.169.
[74]Eustathius on Homer 944
[75]Pausanias, Description of Greece, 3. 19. 7 – 8
[76]Berens, E.M.: Myths and Legends of Ancient Greece and Rome, page 113. Project Gutenberg, 2007.
[77]Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 2. 5. 11 & 2. 7. 7
[78]Burkert, Greek Religion, p.169.
[79] Homer, Odyssey 8.300.
[80]”Odyssey, 8.295.””In Robert Fagles’ translation “”…and the two lovers, free of the bonds that overwhelmed them so, sprang up and away at once, and the Wargod sped Thrace, while Love with her telltale laughter sped to Paphos…”.”
[81] Homer, Iliad 5.385–391.
[82]Burkert (1985). Greek Religion. pp. 169.
[83]Nonnus, Dionysiaca 18. 274 ff.
[84]Homer, Iliad V.830–834, XXI.410–414.
[85]Homer, Illiad, V.590–605.
[86]Homer, Illiad, V.711–769.
[87] Homer, Illiad, V.780–834.
[88]Homer, Illiad, V.855–864.
[89]Homer, Illiad, XV.110–128.
[90]Homer, Illiad, XX.20–29.
[91] Homer, Illiad, XXI.391–408.
[92]Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 170.
[93]”Here each company of youths sacrifices a puppy to Enyalius, holding that the most valiant of tame animals is an acceptable victim to the most valiant of the gods. I know of no other Greeks who are accustomed to sacrifice puppies except the people of Colophon; these too sacrifice a puppy, a black bitch, to the Wayside Goddess.” Pausanias, 3.14.9.
[94]”Opposite this temple [the temple of Hipposthenes] is an old image of Enyalius in fetters. The idea the Lacedaemonians express by this image is the same as the Athenians express by their Wingless Victory; the former think that Enyalius will never run away from them, being bound in the fetters, while the Athenians think that Victory, having no wings, will always remain where she is.” Pausanias, 3.15.7.
[95]Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 170.

The Roman God Correspondence#2 : Vulcan

mini-DSCF60931-e1352146667525The Roman  Deity attribution for the path of Shin is Vulcan. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 88)  In ancient Roman religion and myth, Vulcan (Latin: Volcānus or Vulcānus) is the god of fire[1] including the fire of volcanoes. Vulcan is often depicted with a blacksmith’s hammer.[2] The Vulcanalia was the annual festival held August 23 in his honor. His Greek counterpart is Hephaestus, the god of fire and smithery. In Etruscan religion, he is identified with Sethlans.  The origin of the name is unclear and debated. Roman tradition maintained that it was related to Latin words connected to lightning (fulgur, fulgere, fulmen), which in turn was thought of as related to flames.[4] This interpretation is supported by Walter William Skeat in his etymological dictionary as meaning lustre.[5] It has been supposed that his name was not Latin but related to that of the Cretan god Velchanos, a god of nature and the nether world.[6] Wolfgang Meid has refused this identification as phantastic.[7] More recently this etymology has been taken up by Gérard Capdeville who finds a continuity between Cretan Minoan god Velchanos and Etruscan Velchans. The Minoan god’s identity would be that of a young deity, master of fire and companion of the Great Goddess.[8]  Christian Guyonvarc’h has proposed the identification with the Irish name Olcan (Ogamic Ulccagni, in the genitive). Vasily Abaev compares it with the Ossetic Wærgon, a variant of the name of Kurdalægon, the smith of the Nart saga. Since the name in its normal form Kurdalægon is stable and has a clear meaning (kurd smith+ on of the family+ Alaeg name of one of the Nartic families), this hypothesis has been considered unacceptable by Dumezil.[9]  Vulcan belongs to the most ancient stage of Roman religion: Varro, the ancient Roman scholar and writer, citing the Annales Maximi, recalls that king Titus Tatius dedicated altars to a series of deities among which Vulcan is mentioned.[3]

As the son of Jupiter, the king of the gods, and Juno, the queen of the gods, Vulcan should have been quite handsome, but baby Vulcan was small and ugly with a red, bawling face. Juno was so horrified that she hurled the tiny baby off the top of Mount Olympus.

Vulcan fell down for a day and a night, landing in the sea. Unfortunately, one of his legs broke as he hit the water, and never developed properly. Vulcan sank like a pebble to the cool blue depths where the sea-nymph, Thetis, found him and took him to her underwater grotto, and raised him as her own son.

According to Hyginus‘ Fabulae, the sons of Vulcan are Philammon, Cecrops, Erichthonius, Corynetes, Cercyon, Philottus and Spinther.[50] The nature of the god is connected with religious ideas concerning fire. The Roman concept of the god seems to associate him to both the destructive and the fertilizing powers of fire.

The origin of the Roman god of fire Vulcan has been traced back to the Cretan god Velchanos by Gérard Capdeville, primarily under the suggestion of the close similarity of their names.[51] Cretan Velchanos is a young god of Mediterrenean or Near Eastern origin who has mastership of fire and is the companion of the Great Goddess[disambiguation needed]. These traits are preserved in Latium only in his sons Cacus, Caeculus, Romulus and Servius Tullius. At Praeneste the uncles of Caeculus are known as Digiti,[52] noun that connects them to the Cretan Dactyli.

His theology would be reflected in the Greek myths of Theseus and the Minotaur and in those concerning the childhood of Zeus on Mount Ida.

Through his identification with the Hephaestus of Greek mythology, Vulcan came to be considered as the manufacturer of art, arms, iron, jewelry, and armor for various gods and heroes, including the thunderbolts of Jupiter. He was the son of Jupiter and Juno, and the husband of Maia and Venus. His smithy was believed to be situated underneath Mount Etna in Sicily.

In the first aspect he is worshipped in the Volcanalia to avert its potential danger to harvested wheat. His cult is located outside the boundaries of the original city to avoid the risk of fires caused by the god in the city itself.[26] This power is, however, considered useful if directed against enemies and such a choice for the location of the god’s cult could be interpreted in this way too. The same idea underlies the dedication of the arms of the defeated enemies,[27] as well as those of the surviving general in a devotion ritual to the god.[28] Through comparative interpretation this aspect has been connected by Dumézil to the third or defensive fire in the theory of the three Vedic sacrificial fires.[29]In such theory three fires are necessary to the discharge of a religious ceremony: the hearth of the landlord, which has the function of establishing a referential on Earth in that precise location connecting it with Heaven; the sacrificial fire, which conveys the offer to Heaven; and the defensive fire, which is usually located on the southern boundary of the sacred space and has a protective function against evil influences. Since the territory of the city of Rome was seen as a magnified temple in itself, the three fires should be identified as the hearth of the landlord in the temple of Vesta (aedes Vestae); the sacrificial fires of each temple, shrine or altar; and the defensive fire in the temple of Vulcan.

Another meaning of Vulcan is related to male fertilizing power. In various Latin and Roman legends he is the father of famous characters, such as the founder of Praeneste Caeculus,[30] Cacus,[31] a primordial being or king, later transformed into a monster that inhabited the site of the Aventine in Rome, and Roman king Servius Tullius. In a variant of the story of the birth of Romulus the details are identical even though Vulcan is not explicitly mentioned.[32]

Some scholars think that he might be the unknown god who impregnated goddesses Fortuna Primigenia at Praeneste and Feronia at Anxur. In this case he would be the father of Jupiter.[33] This view is though in conflict with that which links the goddess to Jupiter, as his daughter (puer Jovis) and his mother too, as primigenia, meaning “primordial”.

In all of the above-mentioned stories the god’s fertilizing power is related to that of the fire of the house hearth.

In the case of Caeculus, his mother was impregnated by a spark that dropped on her womb from the hearth while she was sitting nearby.[34] Servius Tullius‘s mother Ocresia was impregnated by a male sex organ that miraculously appeared in the ashes of the sacrificial ara, at the order of Tanaquil, Tarquinius Priscus‘s wife.[35] Pliny the Elder tells the same story, but states that the father was the Lar familiaris.[36] The divinity of the child was recognized when his head was surrounded by flames and he remained unharmed.[37]

Through the comparative analysis of these myths archaeologist Andrea Carandini opines that Cacus and Caca were the sons of Vulcan and of a local divine being or a virgin as in the case of Caeculus. Cacus and Caca would represent the metallurgic and the domestic fire, projections of Vulcan and of Vesta.

These legends date back to the time of preurban Latium. Their meaning is quite clear: at the divine level Vulcan impregnates a virgin goddess and generates Jupiter, the king of the gods; at the human level he impregnates a local virgin (perhaps of royal descent) and generates a king.[38]

The first mention of a ritual connection between Vulcan and Vesta is the lectisternium of 217 BC. Other facts that seem to hint at this connection are the relative proximity of the two sanctuaries and Dionysius of Halicarnassus‘s testimony that both cults had been introduced to Rome by Titus Tatius to comply with a vow he had made in battle.[39] Varro confirms the fact.[40]

Vulcan is related to two equally ancient female goddesses Stata Mater,[41] perhaps the goddess who stops fires and Maia.[42]

Herbert Jennings Rose interprets Maia as a goddess related to growth by connecting her name with IE root *MAG.[43] Macrobius relates Cincius’s opinion that Vulcan’s female companion is Maia. Cincius justifies his view on the grounds that the flamen Volcanalis sacrificed to her at the Kalendae of May. In Piso’s view the companion of the god is Maiestas.[44]

According to Gellius as well, Maia was associated with Vulcan; and he backs up his view by quoting the ritual prayers in use by Roman priests.[45]

[46]

The god is the patron of trades related to ovens (cooks, bakers, confectioners) as attested in the works of Plautus,[47] Apuleius (the god is the cook at the wedding of Amor and Psyche)[48] and in Vespa‘s short poem in the Anthologia Latina about the litigation between a cook and a baker.[49]

Worship

Vulcan’s oldest shrine in Rome, called the Vulcanal, was situated at the foot of the Capitoline in the Forum Romanum, and was reputed to date to the archaic period of the kings of Rome,[10][11] and to have been established on the site by Titus Tatius,[12] the Sabine co-king, with a traditional date in the 8th century BC. It was the view of the Etruscan haruspices that a temple of Vulcan should be located outside the city,[13] and the Vulcanal may originally have been on or outside the city limits before they expanded to include the Capitoline Hill.[1] The Volcanalia sacrifice was offered here to Vulcan, on August 23.[10] Vulcan also had a temple on the Campus Martius, which was in existence by 214 BC.[1][14] The Romans identified Vulcan with the Greek smith-god Hephaestus,[15] and he became associated like his Greek counterpart with the constructive use of fire in metalworking. A fragment of a Greek pot showing Hephaestus found at the Volcanal has been dated to the 6th century BC, suggesting that the two gods were already associated at this date.[11] However, Vulcan had a stronger association than Hephaestus with fire’s destructive capacity, and a major concern of his worshippers was to encourage the god to avert harmful fires.

Vulcania

The festival of Vulcan, the Vulcanalia, was celebrated on August 23rd each year, when the summer heat placed crops and granaries most at risk of burning.[1][16] During the festival bonfires were created in honour of the god, into which live fish or small animals were thrown as a sacrifice, to be consumed in the place of humans.[17]

The Volcanalia were part of the cycle of the four festivities of the second half of August (Consualia on August 21, Volcanalia on 23, Opiconsivia on 25 and Volturnalia on 27) related to the agrarian activities of that month and in symmetric correlation with those of the second half of July (Lucaria on July 19 and 21, Neptunalia on 23 and Furrinalia on 25). While the festivals of July dealt with untamed nature (woods) and waters (superficial waters the Neptunalia and underground waters the Furrinalia) at a time of danger caused by their relative deficiency, those of August were devoted to the results of human endeavour on nature with the storing of harvested grain (Consualia) and their relationship to human society and regality (Opiconsivia) which at that time were at risk and required protection from the dangers of the excessive strength of the two elements of fire (Volcanalia) and wind (Volturnalia) reinforced by dryness.[18]

It is recorded that during the Vulcanalia people used to hang their cloths and fabrics under the sun.[19] This habit might reflect a theological connection between Vulcan and the divinized Sun.[20]

Another custom observed on this day required that one should start working by the light of a candle, probably to propitiate a beneficial use of fire by the god.[21] In addition to the Volcanalia of August 23rd, the date of May 23, which was the second of the two annual Tubilustria or ceremonies for the purification of trumpets, was sacred to Vulcan.[16][22]

The Ludi Volcanalici, was held just once on August 23, 20 BC, within the temple precinct of Vulcan, and used by Augustus to mark the treaty with Parthia and the return of the legionary standards that had been lost at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC.

A flamen, one of the flamines minores, named flamen Volcanalis was in charge of the cult of the god. The flamen Volcanalis officiated at a sacrifice to the goddess Maia, held every year at the Kalendae of May.[23]

Vulcan was among the gods placated after the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64.[24] In response to the same fire, Domitian (emperor 81–96) established a new altar to Vulcan on the Quirinal Hill. At the same time a red bull-calf and red boar were added to the sacrifices made on the Vulcanalia, at least in that region of the city.[25]

The Egyptian Deity Correspondence: Thoum-Aesh-Neith

neitttIts Egyptian gods denote fiery elemental divinities, Thoum-aesh-neith,52 Kabeshunt,53 and Tarpeshet.54  (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 88)

Neith (/nθ/ or /nθ/; also spelled Nit, Net, or Neit) was an early goddess in the Egyptian pantheon. She was the patron deity of Sais, where her cult was centered in the Western Nile Delta of Egypt and attested as early as the First Dynasty.[1] The Ancient Egyptian name of this city was Zau.

Neith also was one of the three tutelary deities of the ancient Egyptian southern city of Ta-senet or Iunyt now known as Esna (Arabic: إسنا), Greek: Λατόπολις (Latopolis), or πόλις Λάτων (Polis Laton), or Λάττων (Laton); Latin: Lato), which is located on the west bank of the River Nile, some 55 km south of Luxor, in the modern Qena Governorate.

Neith was a goddess of war and of hunting and had as her symbol, two arrows crossed over a shield. Her symbol also identified the city of Sais.[2] This symbol was displayed on top of her head in Egyptian art. In her form as a goddess of war, she was said to make the weapons of warriors and to guard their bodies when they died.

Her name also may be interpreted as meaning water. In time, this led to her being considered as the personification of the primordial waters of creation. She is identified as a great mother goddess in this role as a creator.

Neith’s symbol and part of her hieroglyph also bore a resemblance to a loom, and so later in the history of Egyptian myths, she also became goddess of weaving, and gained this version of her name, Neith, which means weaver. At this time her role as a creator changed from being water-based to that of the deity who wove all of the world and existence into being on her loom.

In art, Neith sometimes appears as a woman with a weavers’ shuttle atop her head, holding a bow and arrows in her hands. At other times she is depicted as a woman with the head of a lioness, as a snake, or as a cow.

Sometimes Neith was pictured as a woman nursing a baby crocodile, and she was titled “Nurse of Crocodiles”. As mother of Ra, she was sometimes described as the “Great Cow who gave birth to Ra”.

Neith was considered to be a goddess of wisdom and was appealed to as an arbiter in the dispute between Horus and Seth.

As a goddess of weaving and the domestic arts she was a protector of women and a guardian of marriage, so royal women often named themselves after Neith, in her honor. Since she also was goddess of war, and thus had an additional association with death, it was said that she wove the bandages and shrouds worn by the mummified dead as a gift to them, and thus she began to be viewed as a protector of one of the Four sons of Horus, specifically, of Duamutef, the deification of the canopic jar storing the stomach, since the abdomen (often mistakenly associated as the stomach) was the most vulnerable portion of the body and a prime target during battle. It was said that she shot arrows at any evil spirits who attacked the canopic jar she protected.

In some creation myths, she was identified as the mother of Ra and Apep. When she was identified as a water goddess, she was also viewed as the mother of Sobek, the crocodile.[3] It was this association with water, i.e. the Nile, that led to her sometimes being considered the wife of Khnum, and associated with the source of the River Nile. She was associated with the Nile Perch as well as the goddess of the triad in that cult center.

As the goddess of creation and weaving, she was said to reweave the world on her loom daily. An interior wall of the temple at Esna records an account of creation in which Neith brings forth from the primeval waters of the Nun the first land ex nihilo. All that she conceived in her heart comes into being including the thirty gods. Having no known husband she has been described as “Virgin Mother Goddess”:

Unique Goddess, mysterious and great who came to be in the beginning and caused everything to come to be . . . the divine mother of Re, who shines on the horizon…[4]

Proclus (412–485 AD) wrote that the adyton of the temple of Neith in Sais (of which nothing now remains) carried the following inscription:

I am the things that are, that will be, and that have been. No one has ever laid open the garment by which I am concealed. The fruit which I brought forth was the sun.[5]

It was said that Neith interceded in the kingly war between Horus and Set, over the Egyptian throne, recommending that Horus rule.

A great festival, called the Feast of Lamps, was held annually in her honor and, according to Herodotus, her devotees burned a multitude of lights in the open air all night during the celebration.

The Greek historian Herodotus (c. 484–425 BC) noted that the Egyptian citizens of Sais in Egypt worshipped Neith and that they identified her with Athena. The Timaeus, a Socratic dialogue written by Plato, mirrors that identification with Athena, possibly as a result of the identification of both goddesses with war and weaving.[6]

E. A. Wallis Budge argued that the spread of Christianity in Egypt was influenced by the likeness of attributes between the Mother of Christ and goddesses such as Isis and Neith. Parthenogenesis was associated with Neith long before the birth of Christ and other properties belonging to her and Isis were transferred to the Mother of Christ by way of the apocryphal gospels as a mark of honour.[7]

The Animal Correspondence: The Lion

lion-sacred-animal-tipharethThe animal correspondence for the 21th path of the qabalistic Tree of Life is, once again, the lion accorsding to Crowley’s classification.  He specifye that this is the lion “as cherub of fire” that we are taling about here.  (Aleister Crowley, 777 and other Qabalistic Writtings of Aleister Crowley, p.  10). This sacred animal attribution obviously follows the zodiacal attribution of Leo as well as the feline character depicted on the Tarot Trump IX- Strenght which is also attributed to this path. The attribution of the serpent comes from the association of the serpent with the Teth, the Hebrew letter attributed to this path. Israel Regardie makes the remark that concerning the “serpent” and “lion” correspondences, some authorities assume a phallic connotation for Teth.[41] The serpent and the lion are of particular importance in the study of alchemical literature. In alchemy, the lion represents the Sun, heat and sulphurus actions. A green lion symbolizes raw, untamed, or unpurified energy. A red lion is the same energy tamed and controlled through will and intellect. The serpent or dragon represents death and decay – in other words, transformation. In modern psychoanalytic theory, the serpent is lucidly recognized as a symbol both of the phallus and the abstract concept of wisdom.[42] In the realm of the wild, the lion (Panthera leo) is one of the four big cats in the genus Panthera, and a member of the family Felidae. With some males exceeding 250 kg (550 lb) in weight,[43] it is the second-largest living cat after the tiger. Wild lions currently exist in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Asia with an endangered remnant population in Gir Forest National Park in India, having disappeared from North Africa and Southwest Asia in historic times. Until the late Pleistocene, about 10,000 years ago, the lion was the most widespread large land mammal after humans. They were found in most of Africa, across Eurasia from Western Europe to India, and in the Americas from the Yukon to Peru.[44]The lion’s name, similar in many Romance languages, is derived from the Latin leo;[45] and the Ancient Greek λέων (leon).[46] The Hebrew word לָבִיא (lavi) may also be related.[47] It was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus, who gave it the name Felis leo, in his eighteenth century work, Systema Naturae.[48]In Africa, lions can be found in savanna grasslands with scattered Acacia trees which serve as shade;[49] their habitat in India is a mixture of dry savanna forest and very dry deciduous scrub forest. The natural habitat of lions originally spanned the southern parts of Eurasia, ranging from Greece to India, and most of Africa except the central rainforest-zone and the Sahara desert. Herodotus reported that lions had been common in Greece around 480 BC; they attacked the baggage camels of the Persian king Xerxes on his march through the country. Aristotle considered them rare by 300 BC. By 100 AD they were extirpated.[50] A population of Asiatic lions survived until the tenth century in the Caucasus, their last European outpost.The species was eradicated from Palestine by the Middle Ages and from most of the rest of Asia after the arrival of readily available firearms in the eighteenth century. Between the late nineteenth and early twentieth century they became extinct in North Africa and Southwest Asia. By the late nineteenth century the lion had disappeared from Turkey and most of northern India.[51]Lions are powerful animals that usually hunt in coordinated groups and stalk their chosen prey. However, they are not particularly known for their stamina—for instance, a lioness’ heart makes up only 0.57 percent of her body weight (a male’s is about 0.45 percent of his body weight), whereas a hyena’s heart is close to 1 percent of its body weight.[52] Thus, they only run fast in short bursts,[53] and need to be close to their prey before starting the attack. They take advantage of factors that reduce visibility; many kills take place near some form of cover or at night.[54] They sneak up to the victim until they reach a distance of around 30 metres (98 ft) or less. The lioness is the one who does the hunting for the pride, since the lioness is more aggressive by nature. Males attached to prides do not usually participate in hunting, except in the case of larger quarry such as giraffe and buffalo. The male lion usually stays and watches it’s young while waiting for the lionesses to return from the hunt. Typically, several lionesses work together and encircle the herd from different points. Once they have closed with a herd, they usually target the closest prey. The attack is short and powerful; they attempt to catch the victim with a fast rush and final leap. The prey usually is killed by strangulation, which can cause cerebral ischemia or asphyxia (which results in hypoxemic, or “general”, hypoxia). The prey also may be killed by the lion enclosing the animal’s mouth and nostrils in its jaws[55] (which would also result in asphyxia). Smaller prey, though, may simply be killed by a swipe of a lion’s paw.The prey consists mainly of large mammals, with a preference for wildebeest, impalas, zebras, buffalo, and warthogs in Africa and nilgai, wild boar, and several deer species in India.[56] Lions hunting in groups are capable of taking down most animals, even healthy adults, but in most parts of their range they rarely attack very large prey such as fully grown male giraffes due to the danger of injury. Because lionesses hunt in open spaces where they are easily seen by their prey, cooperative hunting increases the likelihood of a successful hunt; this is especially true with larger species. Teamwork also enables them to defend their kills more easily against other large predators such as hyenas, which may be attracted by vultures from kilometres away in open savannas. In typical hunts, each lioness has a favored position in the group, either stalking prey on the “wing” then attacking, or moving a smaller distance in the centre of the group and capturing prey in flight from other lionesses.[57] Young lions first display stalking behaviour around three months of age, although they do not participate in hunting until they are almost a year old. They begin to hunt effectively when nearing the age of two.[58]Lions and spotted hyenas occupy the same ecological niche (and hence compete) where they coexist. Usually lions typically ignore spotted hyenas, unless they are on a kill or are being harassed by them, while the latter tend to visibly react to the presence of lions, whether there is food or not. Lions seize the kills of spotted hyenas: in the Ngorongoro crater, it is common for lions to subsist largely on kills stolen from hyenas, causing the hyenas to increase their kill rate. Similarly, lions dominate African wild dogs, not only taking their kills but also preying on young and (rarely) adult dogs. Population densities of wild dogs are low in areas where lions are more abundant.[59]Lions tend to dominate smaller felines such as cheetahs and leopards where they co-occur, stealing their kills and killing their cubs and even adults when given the chance.[60]The Nile crocodile is the only sympatric predator (besides humans) that can singly threaten the lion. Depending on the size of the crocodile and the lion, either can lose kills or carrion to the other. Lions have been known to kill crocodiles venturing onto land, while the reverse is true for lions entering waterways, as evidenced by the occasional lion claws found in crocodile stomachs.[61]Most lionesses will have reproduced by the time they are four years of age.[62] Lions do not mate at any specific time of year, and the females are polyestrous.[63] A lioness may mate with more than one male when she is in heat;[64] during a mating bout, which could last several days, the couple copulates twenty to forty times a day and is likely to forgo eating. Lions often inflict serious injuries on each other, either members of different prides encountering each other in territorial disputes, or members of the same pride fighting at a kill.[65] Crippled lions and lion cubs may fall victim to hyenas, leopards, or be trampled by buffalo or elephants, and careless lions may be maimed when hunting prey.[66]When resting, lion socialization occurs through a number of behaviours, and the animal’s expressive movements are highly developed. The most common peaceful tactile gestures are head rubbing and social licking,[67] which have been compared with grooming in primates.[68] Head rubbing—nuzzling one’s forehead, face and neck against another lion—appears to be a form of greeting, as it is seen often after an animal has been apart from others, or after a fight or confrontation.[69] Social licking often occurs in tandem with head rubbing.[70]Lions have an array of facial expressions and body postures that serve as visual gestures.[71] Lions tend to roar in a very characteristic manner, starting with a few deep, long roars that trail off into a series of shorter ones.[72] Lions have the loudest roar of any big cat.[73] The lion has been an icon for humanity for thouzands of years and have been represented figuratively since the Stone Age, appearing in cultures across Europe, Asia, and Africa. Representations of lions date back 32,000 years; the lion-headed ivory carving from Vogelherd cave in the Swabian Alb in southwestern Germany has been determined to be about 32,000 years old from the Aurignacian culture.[74] Two lions were depicted mating in the Chamber of Felines in 15,000-year-old Paleolithic cave paintings in the Lascaux caves. Cave lions are also depicted in the Chauvet Cave, discovered in 1994; this has been dated at 32,000 years of age,[75] though it may be of similar or younger age to Lascaux.Despite repeated incidents of attacks on humans, lions have enjoyed a positive depiction in culture as strong but noble. A common depiction is their representation as “king of the jungle” or “king of beasts”; hence, the lion has been a popular symbol of royalty and stateliness,[76] as well as a symbol of bravery. In antiquity, lions were common along the southern coast of the Mediterranean, as well as in Greece and the Middle East. In Greek mythology a lion appears in a variety of functions. The Lion Gate of Mycenae features two rampant lionesses who flank a central column representing the major deity of this early Greek culture that dates to the second millennium BC. In later classical Greek mythology, the Nemean Lion was portrayed as a people-eating beast; killing it was one of the twelve tasks assigned to Heracles. In the story of Androcles, one of Aesop’s fables, the hero, a runaway slave, pulls a thorn from a lion’s paw; when he is later thrown to the lions as punishment for escaping, the lion recognizes him once again and refuses to kill the man.[77]According to the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible, the Israelite Tribe of Judah had the Lion of Judah as its symbol. The characteristic of the lion as the “king of the jungle” goes back to the influence of a manuscript untitled The Bern Physiologus.[78] Many other illuminated manuscript copies similar as this one survived and have transmitted its influence over ideas of the “meaning” of animals in Europe for over a thousand years. It was a predecessor of reference books called bestiaries (books of beasts).[79] Ancient Egypt venerated the lioness (the fierce hunter) as their war deities. Among those, who were venerated as such, we have the following figures: Bast, Mafdet, Menhit, Pakhet, Sekhmet, Tefnut, and the Sphinx.[80] The Nemean lion was symbolic in Ancient Greece and Rome, represented as the constellation and zodiac sign Leo, and described in mythology, where its skin was borne by the hero Heracles.[81] The lion was a prominent symbol in ancient Mesopotamia (from Sumer up to Assyrian and Babylonian times), where it was strongly associated with kingship.[82] The Classic Babylonian lion motif, found as a statue, carved or painted on walls, is often referred to as the striding lion of Babylon. It is in Babylon that the biblical Daniel is said to have been delivered from the lion’s den.[83]In the Puranic texts of Hinduism, Narasimha (“man-lion”) a half-lion, half-man incarnation or (avatar) of Vishnu, is worshipped by his devotees and saved the child devotee Prahlada from his father, the evil demon king Hiranyakashipu;[84] Vishnu takes the form of half-man/half-lion, in Narasimha, having a human torso and lower body, but with a lion-like face and claws.[85] Singh is an ancient Indian Vedic name meaning “lion” (Asiatic lion), dating back over 2000 years to ancient India.[86] Found famously on numerous flags and coats of arms all across Asia and Europe, the Asiatic lions also stand firm on the National Emblem of India. Further south on the Indian subcontinent, the Asiatic lion is symbolic for the Sinhalese, Sri Lanka’s ethnic majority; the term derived from the IndoAryan Sinhala, meaning the “lion people” or “people with lion blood”, while a sword wielding lion is the central figure on the national flag of Sri Lanka.The Asiatic lion is a common motif in Chinese art. They were first used in art during the late Spring and Autumn Period (fifth or sixth century BC), and became much more popular during the Han Dynasty (206 BC – AD 220), when imperial guardian lions started to be placed in front of imperial palaces for protection.[87] The island nation of Singapore derives its name from the Malay words singa (lion) and pora (city/fortress), which in turn is from the Tamil-Sanskrit சிங்க singa सिंहsiṃha and पुरபுரpura,[88] which is cognate to the Greek πόλις, pólis. “Lion” was also the nickname of several medieval warrior rulers with a reputation for bravery, such as the English King Richard the Lionheart, Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe), Duke of Saxony and Robert III of Flanders nicknamed “The Lion of Flanders”—a major Flemish national icon up to the present. The royal symbolism of the lion was taken up repeatedly in later history, in order to claim power, for example by Henry the Lion. This association with the Lions among warriors to symbolize strenght in combat is amusing because even if they are powerful animals, the lions are not particularly known for their stamina.[89] The ongoing fascination is apparent today by the diversity of coats of arms on which lions are shown in various colours and forms. Many images from ancient times depict lionesses as the fierce warrior protecting their culture. Since in certain views lionesses seem to have a ruff, often the only clue to this difference between the genders is the lack of a massive mane. When no mane is apparent, the image often is described as a panther or leopard among cultures without familiarity with the nature of lion social organization and hunting strategies for prides.[90]Lions are frequently depicted on coats of arms, either as a device on shields themselves, or as supporters. (The lioness is much more infrequent.) The formal language of heraldry, called blazon, employs French terms to describe the images precisely. Such descriptions specified whether lions or other creatures were “rampant” or “passant”, that is whether they were rearing or crouching. The lion is a common charge in heraldry. It traditionally symbolises bravery, valour, strength, and royalty, since traditionally, it is regarded as the king of beasts. As many attitudes (positions) now exist in heraldry as the heraldist’s imagination can conjure, as a result of the ever-increasing need for differentiation, but very few of these were apparently known to medieval heralds.[91] One distinction commonly made (especially among French heralds), although it may be of limited importance, is the distinction of lions in the walking positions as leopards. The principal attitudes of heraldic lions: are: Rampant,[92] Passant,[93] Statant,[94] Salient,[95] Segeant,[96] Segeant Erect,[97] Couchant,[98] or Dormant.[99] Other terms are used to describe the lion’s position in further detail.[100] The lion’s head is normally seen in agreement with the overall position, facing dexter (left) unless otherwise stated. If a lion’s whole body is turned to face right, he is too sinister or contourné. If his whole body faces the viewer, he is affronté. If his head only faces the viewer he is guardant or gardant, and if he looks back over his shoulder he is regardant. These adjectives follow any other adjectives of position. A lion (or other beast) coward carries the tail between its hind legs.[101] The tail also may be knotted (nowed), forked (queue fourchée) or doubled (double-queued); as in the arms of the kingdom of Bohemia. The lions in the coat of arms of Wales, England, and Estonia are passant gardant. In French blazon this charge is called a léopard; a lion rampant gardant is a léopard lionné; and a lion passant with his head in profile is a lion léopardé. The position of the head, in this case, determines the species.[102] Lions continue to feature in modern literature, from the messianic Aslan in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and following books from The Chronicles of Narnia series written by C. S. Lewis,[103] to the comedic Cowardly Lion in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.[104]

Sparrowhawk (sometimes Sparrow Hawk) may refer to several species of small hawk in the genus Accipiter. The American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), a North American falcon species, is also commonly referred to as a Sparrowhawk.  The American kestrel (Falco sparverius), sometimes colloquially known as the sparrow hawk, is a small falcon, and the only kestrel found in the Americas. It is the most common falcon in North America, and is found in a wide variety of habitats. At 19–21 cm (7–8 in) long, it is also the smallest falcon in North America. It exhibits sexual dimorphism in size and plumage, although both sexes have a rufous back with noticeable barring. Juveniles are similar in plumage to adults.  The American Kestrel hunts by hovering in the air with rapid wing beats or perching and scanning the ground for prey. Its diet typically consists of grasshoppers, lizards, mice, and small birds. It nests in cavities in trees, cliffs, buildings, and other structures. The female lays three to seven eggs, which both sexes help to incubate.  he American Kestrel is the smallest falcon in North America and, under traditional classification, is the smallest raptor in America.[2] The American Kestrel is sexually dimorphic, although there is some overlap in plumage coloration between the sexes.

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[41] Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 77.
[42] In Qabalah, the paths on the Tree of Life are connected by the Serpent of Wisdom.
[43]Nowak, Ronald M. (1999). Walker‘s Mammals of the World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
[44]Harington, C. R. (Dick) (1969). “Pleistocene remains of the lion-like cat (Panthera atrox) from the Yukon Territory and northern Alaska”. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 6 (5): 1277–88.
[45]Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell’s Latin Dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell Ltd.. p. 342.
[46]Liddell, Henry George Scott, Robert (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. p. 411
[47]Simpson, John; Weiner, Edmund, ed (1989). “Lion”. Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
[48]Linnaeus, Carolus (1758), Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 1 (10th ed.). Holmiae (Laurentii Salvii). p.41.
[49]Rudnai, Judith A. (1973). The Social Life of the Lion. Wallingford: s.n.
[50]Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.p. 5.
[51] See Grisham, Jack (2001). “Lion”. In Catherine E. Bell. Encyclopedia of the World’s Zoos. 2: G–P. Chofago: Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 733–39.
[52]Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.p. 248.
[53]Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 247–48
[54]Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press p. 237.
[55]Nowak, Ronald M. (1999). Walker‘s Mammals of the World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
[56]Many other species are hunted, based on availability. Mainly this will include ungulates weighing between 50 and 300 kg (110–660 lb) such as kudu, hartebeest, gemsbok, and eland. Occasionally, they take relatively small species such as Thomson’s gazelle or springbok.
[57]Stander, P. E. (1992). “Cooperative hunting in lions: the role of the individual”. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 29 (6): 445–54.
[58]Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.p.153.
[59]Woodroffe, Rosie; Ginsberg, Joshua R. (1999). “Conserving the African wild dog Lycaon pictus. I. Diagnosing and treating causes of decline”. Oryx 33 (2): 132–42.
[60]It seems that the cheetah has a 50% chance of losing its kill to lions or other predators. See O’Brien, Stephen J.; Wildt, David E.; Bush, Mitchell (1986). “The Cheetah in Genetic Peril”.Scientific American (254): 68–76.
[61]Guggisberg, Charles Albert Walter (1972). Crocodiles: Their Natural History, Folklore, and Conservation. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. p. 195.
[62]Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., p. 29.
[63]Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 174. It is interesting to know that as with other cats, the male lion’s penis has spines which point backwards. Upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female’s vagina, which may cause ovulation. On this subject see See Asdell, Sydney A. (1993) [1964]. Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
[64]Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 142.
[65]Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. pp. 188–89.
[66]Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. pp. 189–90.
[67]Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. p. 85.
[68]Sparks, J (1967). “Allogrooming in primates: a review”. In Desmond Morris. Primate Ethology. Chicago: Aldine.
[69] This is an intra-gender activity, males tend to rub other males, while cubs and females rub females. See Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti Lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations Chicago: University of Chicago Press., pp. 85–88.
[70]It is generally mutual and the recipient appears to express pleasure.
[71]Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti Lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.pp. 92–102.
[72]They most often roar at night; the sound, which can be heard from a distance of 8 kilometres (5.0 mi), is used to advertise the animal’s presence.[125]
[73]Their repertoire of vocalizations is also large; variations in intensity and pitch, rather than discrete signals, appear central to communication. Lion sounds include snarling, purring, hissing, coughing, miaowing, woofing and roaring.
[74]Burger, Joachim et al. (March 2004). (fulltext) “Molecular phylogeny of the extinct cave lion Panthera leo spelaea“. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30 (3): 841–49.
[75]Packer, Craig; Jean Clottes (2000). “When Lions Ruled France”. Natural History: Nov.pp. 52–57.
[76]Garai, Jana (1973). The Book of Symbols. New York: Simon & Schuster.
[77] See Aesop; Gibbs L (2002). Aesop’s Fables. Oxford World’s Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[78]The Physiologus is an early Christian book about animal symbolism which spread into many cultures and generally had great influence in Western culture. First written in Greek in the second century AD, the book was translated into Latin in about 400 AD, next into Ethiopic and Syriac, then into many European and Middle-Eastern languages.
[79]Medieval poetical literature is full of allusions that can be traced to the Physiologus tradition; the text also exerted great influence on the symbolism of medieval ecclesiastical art.
[80]Garai, Jana (1973). The Book of Symbols. New York: Simon & Schuster.
[81]Graves, R (1955). “The First Labour: The Nemean Lion”. Greek Myths. London: Penguin. pp. 465–69.
[82]Cassin, Elena (1981). “Le Roi et le Lion”. Revue de l’Histoire des Religions 298 (198–4): 355–401.
[83] The Bible, Daniel 6
[84]Bhag-P 1.3.18 “In the fourteenth incarnation, the Lord appeared as Nrisimha and bifurcated the strong body of the atheist Hiranyakasipu with His nails, just as a carpenter pierces cane.”
[85]Bhag-P 7.8.19–22″.
[86]. It was originally only used by Rajputs a Hindu Kshatriya or military caste in India. After the birth of the Khalsa brotherhood in 1699, the Sikhs also adopted the name “Singh” due to the wishes of Guru Gobind Singh. See Dr. McCleod, Head of Sikh Studies, Department of South Asian Studies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. See also Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Volume I.
[87]Because lions have never been native to China, early depictions were somewhat unrealistic; after the introduction of Buddhist art to China in the Tang Dynasty (after the sixth century AD), lions were usually depicted without wings, their bodies became thicker and shorter, and their manes became curly.
[88]According to the Malay Annals, this name was given by a fourteenth century Sumatran Malay prince named Sang Nila Utama, who, on alighting the island after a thunderstorm, spotted an auspicious beast on shore which appeared to be a lion.
[89]This is corroborated by the fact that a lioness’ heart makes up only 0.57 percent of her body weight (a male’s is about 0.45 percent of his body weight), whereas a hyena’s heart is close to 1 percent of its body weight. See Schaller, George B. (1972). The Serengeti Lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations Chicago: University of Chicago Press., pp. 37.
[90]In literary and historical references, note of a figure or an image as depicting a lion may relate to either gender without being specific, and be easily misunderstood, thereby then being drawn with a mane since it is so distinctive.
[91]Fox-Davies, A.C. (1909). A Complete Guide to Heraldry. New York: Dodge Pub. Co.p. 172.
[92]A “lion rampant” is depicted in profile standing erect with forepaws raised. The position of the hind legs varies according to local custom: the lion may stand on both hind legs, braced wide apart, or on only one, with the other also raised to strike.
[93] A “lion passant” is walking, with the right fore paw raised and all others on the ground.
[94] A “lion statant” is standing, all four feet on the ground, usually with the forepaws together..
[95] A “lion salient” is leaping, with both hind legs together on the ground and both forelegs together in the air. This is a very rare position for a lion, but is also used of other heraldic beasts.
[96] A “lion sejant” is sitting on his haunches, with both forepaws on the ground.
[97] A “lion sejant erect” is seated on its haunches, but with its body erect and both forepaws raised in the “rampant” position (this is sometimes termed “sejant-rampant”).
[98] A “lion couchant” is lying down, but with the head raised.
[99] A “lion dormant” is lying down with its eyes closed and head lowered, resting upon the forepaws, as if asleep.
[100]It should be noted that each coat of arms has a right and left (i.e. dexter and sinister) side – with respect to the person carrying the shield – so the left side of the shield as drawn on the page (thus the right side to the shield bearer) is called the dexter side.
[101]Fox-Davies, A.C. (1909). A Complete Guide to Heraldry. New York: Dodge Pub. Co. p. 180.
[102]This practice leads some people to insist bitterly that the beasts in the royal arms of England and Estonia are leopards, not lions. The correct answer to this question is unknown; nevertheless, they are depicted with a mane.
[103]Lewis, Clive Staples (1950). The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. HarperCollins.
[104]Baum, L. Frank ; Hearn, Michael Patrick (1973). The Annotated Wizard of Oz. New York, NY: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc. p. 148

 The Sacred Plant Correspondence #1: Red Poppy

Its plants are the red poppy and hisbiscus. Knowing the above attributions one well understands and feels the plaintive cry of the poet : “Crown me with poppy and hibiscus.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 88)

Red-PoppyPapaver rhoeas (common names include corn poppy, corn rose, field poppy, Flanders poppy, red poppy, red weed, coquelicot, and, due to its odour, which is said to cause them, as headache and headwark) is a herbaceous species of flowering plant in the poppy family, Papaveraceae. This poppy, a native of Europe, is notable as an agricultural weed (hence the “corn” and “field”) and as a symbol of fallen soldiers.

P. rhoeas sometimes is so abundant in agricultural fields that it may be mistaken for a crop. The only species of Papaveraceae grown as a field crop on a large scale is Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy.

Papaver rhoeas is a variable, erect annual, forming a long-lived soil seed bank that can germinate when the soil is disturbed. In the northern hemisphere it generally flowers in late spring, but if the weather is warm enough other flowers frequently appear at the beginning of autumn. It grows up to about 70cm in height. The flowers are large and showy, 50 to 100mm across,[2] with four petals that are vivid red, most commonly with a black spot at their base. The flower stem is usually covered with coarse hairs that are held at right angles to the surface, helping to distinguish it from Papaver dubium in which the hairs are more usually appressed. The capsules are hairless, obovoid in shape, less than twice as tall as they are wide, with a stigma at least as wide as the capsule. Like many other species of Papaver, the plant exudes white to yellowish latex when the tissues are broken.[3]

Its origin is not known for certain. As with many such plants, the area of origin is often ascribed by Americans to Europe, and by northern Europeans to southern Europe. The European Garden Flora[citation needed] suggests that its origin is Eurasia and North Africa; in other words, the lands where agriculture has been practiced since the earliest times. It is known to have been associated with agriculture in the Old World since early times and has had an old symbolism and association with agricultural fertility. It has most of the characteristics of a successful weed of agriculture. These include an annual lifecycle that fits into that of most cereals, a tolerance of simple weed control methods, the ability to flower and seed itself before the crop is harvested, and the ability to form a long-lived seed bank. The leaves and latex have an acrid taste and are mildly poisonous to grazing animals.

A sterile hybrid with Papaver dubium is known, P. x hungaricum, that is intermediate in all characters with P. rhoeas.[3]

Due to the extent of ground disturbance in warfare during World War I, corn poppies bloomed in between the trench lines and no man’s lands on the Western front. Poppies are a prominent feature of “In Flanders Fields” by Canadian Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae, one of the most frequently quoted English-language poems composed during the First World War. During the 20th century, the wearing of a poppy at and before Remembrance Day each year became an established custom in most western countries. It is also used at some other dates in some countries, such as at appeals for Anzac Day in Australia and New Zealand.

This poppy appears on a number of postage stamps, coins, banknotes, and national flags, including:

The common or corn poppy was voted the county flower of Essex and Norfolk in 2002 following a poll by the wild plant conservation charity Plantlife.[4]

Persian literature

In Persian literature, red poppies, especially red corn poppy flowers, are considered the flower of love. They are often called the eternal lover flower. In classic and modern Persian poems, the poppy is a symbol of people who died for love (Persian: راه عشق).

Many poems interchange ‘poppy’ and ‘tulip’ (Persian: لاله).

[I] was asking the wind in the field of tulips during the sunrise: whose martyrs are these bloody shrouded?
[The wind] replied: Hafez, you and I are not capable of this secret, sing about red wine and sweet lips.

Urdu literature

In Urdu literature, red poppies, or “Gul-e-Lalah”, are often a symbol of martyrdom, and sometimes of love.

 The Sacred Plant Correspondence #2: Hisbiscus

4155786_origHibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is quite large, containing several hundred species that are native to warm-temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. Member species are often noted for their showy flowers and are commonly known simply as hibiscus, or less widely known as rose mallow. The genus includes both annual and perennial herbaceous plants, as well as woody shrubs and small trees. The generic name is derived from the Greek word ἱβίσκος (hibískos), which was the name Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40–90) gave to Althaea officinalis.[4]

The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, often with a toothed or lobed margin. The flowers are large, conspicuous, trumpet-shaped, with five or more petals, color from white to pink, red, orange, purple or yellow, and from 4–18 cm broad. Flower color in certain species, such as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, changes with age.[5] The fruit is a dry five-lobed capsule, containing several seeds in each lobe, which are released when the capsule dehisces (splits open) at maturity. It is of red and white colours. It is an example of complete flowers.  Many species are grown for their showy flowers or used as landscape shrubs, and are used to attract butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.[6]  One species of Hibiscus, known as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is extensively used in paper-making.

The tea made of hibiscus flowers is known by many names in many countries around the world and is served both hot and cold. The beverage is well known for its color, tanginess and flavor.

It is known as bissap in West Africa, karkadé in Egypt[citation needed] and Sudan, agua de jamaica in Mexico and Honduras (the flower being flor de jamaica) and gudhal (गुड़हल) in India. Some refer to it as roselle, a common name for the hibiscus flower.

In Jamaica, Trinidad and many other islands in the Caribbean, the drink is known as sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa; not to be confused with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the common name sorrel).

Roselle is typically boiled in an enamel-coated large stock pot as most West Indians believe the metal from aluminum, steel or copper pots will destroy the natural minerals and vitamins.[citation needed]

In Cambodia, a cold beverage can be prepared by first steeping the petals in hot water until the colors are leached from the petals, then adding lime juice (which turns the beverage from dark brown/red to a bright red), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and finally cold water/ice cubes.

In Egypt and the Middle east, hibiscus tea is known by the name ” KarKadeh (كركدية)]” and is served as both a hot and a cold drink.

Dried hibiscus is edible, and is often a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and used as a garnish.[7]

The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is used as a vegetable.

Certain species of hibiscus are also beginning to be used more widely as a natural source of food coloring (E163),[citation needed] and replacement of Red #3 / E127.[citation needed]

Hibiscus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidopteran species, including Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth.

Hibiscus species represent nations: Hibiscus syriacus is the national flower of South Korea, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the national flower of Malaysia. The hibiscus is the national flower of the Republic of Haiti. The red hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu goddess Kali, and appears frequently in depictions of her in the art of Bengal, India, often with the goddess and the flower merging in form. The hibiscus is used as an offering to goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is considered to have a number of medical uses in Chinese herbology.[8]

In the Philippines, the gumamela (local name for hibiscus) is used by children as part of a bubble-making pastime. The flowers and leaves are crushed until the sticky juices come out. Hollow papaya stalks are then dipped into this and used as straws for blowing bubbles.

The hibiscus flower is traditionally worn by Tahitian and Hawaiian girls. If the flower is worn behind the left ear, the woman is married or in a relationship. If the flower is worn on the right, she is single or openly available for a relationship.

Nigerian author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her first novel Purple Hibiscus after the delicate flower.

The bark of the hibiscus contains strong bast fibres that can be obtained by letting the stripped bark set in the sea to let the organic material rot away.

he tea is popular as a natural diuretic; it contains vitamin C and minerals, and is used traditionally as a mild medicine.

Dieters or people with kidney problems often take it without adding sugar for its beneficial properties and as a natural diuretic.

A 2008 USDA study shows consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood pressure in a group of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults. Three cups of tea daily resulted in an average drop of 8.1 mmHg in their systolic blood pressure, compared to a 1.3 mmHg drop in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Study participants with higher blood pressure readings (129 or above) had a greater response to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood pressure went down by 13.2 mmHg. These data support the idea that drinking hibiscus tea in an amount readily incorporated into the diet may play a role in controlling blood pressure, although more research is required.[9]

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a number of medical uses in Chinese herbology.[8] Lokapure s.g.et al. their research indicates some potential in cosmetic skin care; for example, an extract from the flowers of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis has been shown to function as an anti-solar agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.[10]

In the Indian traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda, hibiscus, especially white hibiscus and red hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), is considered to have medicinal properties. The roots are used to make various concoctions believed to cure ailments such as cough, hair loss or hair greying. As a hair treatment, the flowers are boiled in oil along with other spices to make a medicated hair oil. The leaves and flowers are ground into a fine paste with a little water, and the resulting lathery paste is used as a shampoo plus conditioner.

Hibiscus tea also contains bioflavenoids, which are believed to help prevent an increase in LDL cholesterol, which can increase the build up of plaque in the arteries.[11]

 The Sacred Jewel Correspondence: Opal

OpalThe precious stone attribution for this path is opal.  (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 88)  This precious stone is also a correspondence for Hod  (Aleister Crowley, 777, p.  10 ; Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 53)   Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica; its water content may range from 3% to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6% and 10%. Because of its amorphous character it is classed as a mineraloid, unlike the other crystalline forms of silica which are classed as minerals. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone, rhyolite, marl and basalt. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia, which produces 97% of the world’s supply.[4] This includes the production of the state of South Australia, which accounts for approximately 80% of the world’s supply.[5]   The internal structure of precious opal makes it diffract light; depending on the conditions in which it formed, it can take on many colors. Precious opal ranges from clear through white, gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, magenta, rose, pink, slate, olive, brown, and black. Of these hues, the reds against black are the most rare, whereas white and greens are the most common. It varies in optical density from opaque to semi-transparent.   Common opal, called “potch” by miners, does not show the display of color exhibited in precious opal.[6]  Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid, it has an internal structure. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the opal.[8] It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal.   For gemstone use, most opal is cut and polished to form a cabochon. “Solid” opal refers to polished stones consisting wholly of precious opal. Opals too thin to produce a “solid,” may be combined with other materials to form attractive gems. An opal doublet consists of a relatively thin layer of precious opal, backed by a layer of dark-colored material, most commonly ironstone, dark or black common opal (potch), onyx or obsidian. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color, and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. An opal triplet is similar to a doublet, but has a third layer, a domed cap of clear quartz or plastic on the top. The cap takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. The top layer also acts as a magnifier, to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath, which is often of lower quality. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance, and are not classed as precious opal.

Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color, there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal, milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality); resin opal, which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster; wood opal, which is caused by the replacement of the organic material in wood with opal;[9] menilite, which is brown or grey; hyalite, a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller’s Glass; geyserite, also called siliceous sinter, deposited around hot springs or geysers; and diatomite or diatomaceous earth, the accumulations of diatom shells or tests.

The word opal is adapted from the Roman term opalus, but the origin of this word is a matter of debate. However, most modern references suggest it is adapted from the Sanskrit word úpala.[28]

References to the gem are made by Pliny the Elder. It is suggested it was adapted it from Ops, the wife of Saturn and goddess of fertility. The portion of Saturnalia devoted to Ops was “Opalia”, similar to opalus.

Another common claim that the term is adapted from the Greek word, opallios. This word has two meanings, one is related to “seeing” and forms the basis of the English words like “opaque”, the other is “other” as in “alias” and “alter”. It is claimed that opalus combined these uses, meaning “to see a change in color”. However, historians have noted that the first appearances of opallios do not occur until after the Romans had taken over the Greek states in 180 BC, and they had previously used the term paederos.[28]

However, the argument for the Sanskrit origin is strong. The term first appears in Roman references around 250 BC, at a time when the opal was valued above all other gems. The opals were supplied by traders from the Bosporus, who claimed the gems were being supplied from India. Before this the stone was referred to by a variety of names, but these fell from use after 250 BC.

In the Middle Ages, opal was considered a stone that could provide great luck because it was believed to possess all the virtues of each gemstone whose color was represented in the color spectrum of the opal.[29] It was also said to confer the power of invisibility if wrapped in a fresh bay leaf and held in the hand.[29][30] Following the publication of Sir Walter Scott‘s Anne of Geierstein in 1829, however, opal acquired a less auspicious reputation. In Scott’s novel, the Baroness of Arnheim wears an opal talisman with supernatural powers. When a drop of holy water falls on the talisman, the opal turns into a colorless stone and the Baroness dies soon thereafter. Due to the popularity of Scott’s novel, people began to associate opals with bad luck and death.[29] Within a year of the publishing of Scott’s novel in April 1829, the sale of opals in Europe dropped by 50%, and remained low for the next twenty years or so.[31]

Even as recently as the beginning of the 20th century, it was believed that when a Russian saw an opal among other goods offered for sale, he or she should not buy anything more since the opal was believed to embody the evil eye.[29]

Opal is considered the birthstone for people born in October or under the sign of Scorpio and Libra.

The Sacred Perfume Correspondence: Olibanum

olibanumThe sacred perfume attribution for this path is “olibanum and all fiery odors.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 88)  Frankincense, also called olibanum (Hebrew: לבונה, levonah; Arabic: لُبَّانٌ, lubbān; Armenian: խունկ, khunk), is an aromatic resin obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia, particularly Boswellia sacra, B. carteri, B. thurifera, B. frereana, and B. bhaw-dajiana (Burseraceae). It is used in incense and perfumes. There are four main species of Boswellia which produce true frankincense and each type of resin is available in various grades. The grades depend on the time of harvesting, and the resin is hand-sorted for quality. Frankincense is tapped from the very scraggy but hardy Boswellia tree by slashing the bark, which is called striping, and allowing the exuded resins to bleed out and harden. These hardened resins are called tears. There are numerous species and varieties of frankincense trees, each producing a slightly different type of resin. Differences in soil and climate create even more diversity of the resin, even within the same species. Frankincense has been traded on the Arabian Peninsula and in North Africa for more than 5000 years. A mural depicting sacks of frankincense traded from the Land of Punt adorns the walls of the temple of ancient Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut, who died in 1458 BCE. Frankincense was a part of the Ketoret which is used when referring to the consecrated incense described in the Hebrew Bible and Talmud. It is also referred to as the HaKetoret (the incense). It was offered on the specialized incense altar in the time when the Tabernacle was located in the First and Second Jerusalem Temples. The ketoret was an important component of the Temple service in Jerusalem. It is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible book of Exodus 30:34, where it is named levonah, meaning “white” in Hebrew.[112] “While burning incense was accepted as a practice in the later Roman Catholic church, the early church during Roman times forbade the use of incense in services resulting in a rapid decline in the incense trade.”[113] Frankincense was reintroduced to Europe by Frankish Crusaders (Frank-incense). Although it is better known as “frankincense” to westerners, the resin is also known as olibanum, which is derived from the Arabic al-lubān (roughly translated: “that which results from milking”), a reference to the milky sap tapped from the Boswellia tree. Some have also postulated that the name comes from the Arabic term for “Oil of Lebanon” since Lebanon was the place where the resin was sold and traded with Europeans. The lost city of Ubar, sometimes identified with Irem in what is now the town of Shisr in Oman, is believed to have been a center of the frankincense trade along the recently rediscovered “Incense Road.” Ubar was rediscovered in the early 1990s and is now under archaeological excavation. The Greek historian Herodotus was familiar with Frankincense and knew it was harvested from trees in southern Arabia. He reports, however, that the gum was dangerous to harvest because of venomous snakes that lived in the trees. He goes on to describe the method used by the Arabians to get around this problem, that being the burning of the gum of the styrax tree whose smoke would drive the snakes away.[114] The resin is also mentioned by Theophrastus and by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia. Frankincense is used all around the world in perfumery and aromatherapy. Frankincense essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the dry resin. Some of the smell of the frankincense smoke is due to the products of pyrolysis. Frankincense was lavishly used in religious rites. According to the gospel of Matthew 2:11, gold, frankincense, and myrrh were among the gifts to Jesus by the Biblical Magi “from out of the East.” Tradition says that it was presented to the Christ Child by Balthasar, the black king from Ethiopia or Saba, thus fulfilling Isaiah’s prophecy that gold and frankincense would be brought from the Gentiles to honor the heavenly king. [Is 60:6] Frankincense was the purest incense. When burned it produced a white smoke which symbolized the prayers and praises of the faithful ascending to heaven.The frankincense represented His sinless deity, sym. Worship (Savior). Lev. 2:15 – the meal offering was flour mingled with oil, signifying the sinless person of Jesus, with flour His humanity, and oil His divinity Lev. 5:11 – no frankincense could be put on the sin offering In the Bible’s old Testament, it was part of the temple rites . The aroma of frankincense is said to represent life and the Judaic, Christian and Islamic faiths have often used frankincense mixed with oils to anoint newborn infants and individuals considered to be moving into a new phase in their spiritual lives. Because the ancients often burned frankincense during religious rituals, this gift symbolizes sacrifice, Christ’s divinity, His sweet savor, and His priestly role. It is also a symbol of the Divine name of God. The Egyptians ground the charred resin into a powder called kohl. Kohl was used to make the distinctive black eyeliner seen on so many figures in Egyptian art. The aroma of frankincense is said to represent life and the Judaic, Christian, and Islamic faiths have often used frankincense mixed with oils to anoint newborn infants and individuals considered to be moving into a new phase in their spiritual lives.

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[112]Klein, Ernest, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English, The University of Haifa, Carta, Jerusalem, p.292
[113]Gibson, Dan (2011). Qur’anic Geography: A Survey and Evaluation of the Geographical References in the Qur’an with Suggested Solutions for Various Problems and Issues. Independent Scholars Press, Canada.p. 160.
[114]Herodotus 3,107

The Sepher Yetzirah Title Correspondence: The Perpetual Intelligence

The Sepher Yetzirah title is “the Perpetual Intelligence.”(Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 88)

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