October 23, 2019
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 General Description of the Path

gimel----------This is the path number Thirteen, joining Kether to Tiphareth. By reference to the chart, it will be found that “this path joins the first to the sixth Sephiroth, crossing the Abyss which, in Qabalistic symbology, is conceived to be a bartren desert of sand wherein die the thoughts and empirical ego of men, “birth-strangled babes,” as the expression goes.”[1] The title of this path is “the Uniting Intelligence,” and according to Stephen Hoeller, it is “the longest, and possibly the most perious, of all the paths, but it is also the most beautiful and mysterious.”[2] From the apex of human experience it proceeds straightway into the abode of the highest principle of the godhead itself. The only reason for its ability to accomplish this unbelievable task is that is the path of ultimate balance, the last portion of the path of the arrow, which began with the Thirty-second path, continued with the Twenty-fifth, and concludes in this, the Thirteenth. In theory, it would be possible for the soul to travel on this central course only, without touching any of the other paths, but this possibility is minimal and fraught with extreme danger.

gimellllThe temptation may be great to attempt the journey to Kether immediately upon our arrival at Tiphareth; but without strengthening and balancing influence of Geburah and Chesed, as well as of the paths leading to them, we would assuredly perish upon the Thirteenth Path and plunge into the dread abyss which separates the world of the godhead – the three Supernal Sephiroth of Binah, Chokmah and Kether – from the human and semidivine regions. The aspirant thus must resist the temptation to attempt a merging of consciousnesss with the ultimate godhead immediately upon reaching the first authentic divine illumination. Shortcuts are, for the most part, incompatible with lasting progress and extremely hazardous at best.

Keter and Malkhut are duals by tradition, differing views of the One and the Many.  The Many is concealed within the One, and the One is concealed within the Many. Perception is active, and its an act of will whether one perceives One or Many.  For this reason the path from Tiferet to Kether (through Da’at) are also duals.  The experiences are superficially diferent, but when experienced in depth they are the same. (Collin A. Low, The Hermetic Kabbalah, p. 330)

The keynote of this path is “On the central colomn, or the straight path of the arrow, we proceed from the first point of contact between the human and divine worlds to the highest crown of the godhead on a perilous midnight journey, precariously balanced on the back of the camel.”[3] The magical motto of this path is the following quote from Goethe’s Faust : “The Indescribable, Here it is done; The Woman-soul leadeth us Upward and on!”[4]

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[1] Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 69.

[2] Stephen, A. Hoeller, The Fool’s Pilgrimage, Kabbalistic Meditations on the Tarot, p. 56.

[3] Stephen, A. Hoeller, The Fool’s Pilgrimage, Kabbalistic Meditations on the Tarot, p. 101.

[4] Goethe, Faust, part 2, cited in Stephen, A. Hoeller, The Fool’s Pilgrimage, Kabbalistic Meditations on the Tarot, p. 101.

The Hebrew Letter Correspondence: Gimel

Gimel--------This is the third letter of the Hebrew alphabet. His numerical value is 3. Now Gimel TT is the letter given to this path, and when pronounced Gimel TTT, means a “camel.” The camel is the conventional “ship of the desert.” The great journey to Gog, therefore, is often portrayed as being undertaken on the back of a camel, crossing the perilous desert at night, led by the mysterious light of the moon. When the dôgesh is omitted, the Gimel has a soft sound, similar to the English “J.”

The Planetary Correspondence: The Moon

The Yetziratic attribution of the path of Gimel is the moon. The Moon has a long association with insanity and irrationality; the words lunacy and loony are derived from the Latin name for the Moon, Luna. Philosophers such as Aristotle and Pliny the Elder argued that the full Moon induced insanity in susceptible individuals, believing that the brain, which is mostly water, must be affected by the Moon and its power over the tides, but the Moon’s gravity is too slight to affect any single person. Even today, people insist that admissions to psychiatric hospitals, traffic accidents, homicides or suicides increase during a full Moon, although there is no scientific evidence to support such claims.[5]

The_MoonIt is often associated with the Moon, because it is the sphere which reflects the light of all the other sephirot into Malkuth, and it is associated with the sexual organs, because it is here that the higher spheres connect to the earth.

The Moon (Latin: Luna) is the Earth‘s only natural satellite.[e][f][8] Although not the largest natural satellite in the Solar System, it is the largest relative to the size of the object it orbits (its primary) [g] and, after Jupiter‘s satellite Io, it is the second most dense satellite among those whose densities are known.

The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, always showing the same face with its near side marked by dark volcanic maria that fill between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters. It is the most luminous object in the sky after the Sun. Although it appears a very bright white, its surface is actually dark, with a reflectance just slightly higher than that of worn asphalt. Its prominence in the sky and its regular cycle of phases have, since ancient times, made the Moon an important cultural influence on language, calendars, art, and mythology. The Moon’s gravitational influence produces the ocean tides and the slight lengthening of the day. The Moon’s current orbital distance is about thirty times the diameter of Earth, causing it to have an apparent size in the sky almost the same as that of the Sun. This allows the Moon to cover the Sun nearly precisely in total solar eclipse. This matching of apparent visual size is a coincidence. The Moon’s linear distance from Earth is currently increasing at a rate of 3.82±0.07 cm per year, but this rate is not constant.[9]

The Moon is thought to have formed nearly 4.5 billion years ago, not long after Earth. Although there have been several hypotheses for its origin in the past, the current most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized body.

The English proper name for Earth’s natural satellite is “the Moon”.[10][11] The noun moon derives from moone (around 1380), which developed from mone (1135), which derives from Old English mōna (dating from before 725), which, like all Germanic language cognates, ultimately stems from Proto-Germanic *mǣnōn.[12]

The principal modern English adjective pertaining to the Moon is lunar, derived from the Latin Luna. Another less common adjective is selenic, derived from the Ancient Greek Selene (Σελήνη), from which the prefix “seleno-” (as in selenography) is derived.[13]

Understanding of the Moon’s cycles was an early development of astronomy: by the 5th century BC, Babylonian astronomers had recorded the 18-year Saros cycle of lunar eclipses,[129] and Indian astronomers had described the Moon’s monthly elongation.[130] The Chinese astronomer Shi Shen (fl. 4th century BC) gave instructions for predicting solar and lunar eclipses.[131] Later, the physical form of the Moon and the cause of moonlight became understood. The ancient Greek philosopher Anaxagoras (d. 428 BC) reasoned that the Sun and Moon were both giant spherical rocks, and that the latter reflected the light of the former.[132][133] Although the Chinese of the Han Dynasty believed the Moon to be energy equated to qi, their ‘radiating influence’ theory also recognized that the light of the Moon was merely a reflection of the Sun, and Jing Fang (78–37 BC) noted the sphericity of the Moon.[134] In 2nd century AD Lucian wrote a novel where the heroes travel to the Moon, which is inhabited. In 499 AD, the Indian astronomer Aryabhata mentioned in his Aryabhatiya that reflected sunlight is the cause of the shining of the Moon.[135] The astronomer and physicist Alhazen (965–1039) found that sunlight was not reflected from the Moon like a mirror, but that light was emitted from every part of the Moon’s sunlit surface in all directions.[136] Shen Kuo (1031–1095) of the Song Dynasty created an allegory equating the waxing and waning of the Moon to a round ball of reflective silver that, when doused with white powder and viewed from the side, would appear to be a crescent.[137]

In Aristotle’s (384–322 BC) description of the universe, the Moon marked the boundary between the spheres of the mutable elements (earth, water, air and fire), and the imperishable stars of aether, an influential philosophy that would dominate for centuries.[138] However, in the 2nd century BC, Seleucus of Seleucia correctly theorized that tides were due to the attraction of the Moon, and that their height depends on the Moon’s position relative to the Sun.[139] In the same century, Aristarchus computed the size and distance of the Moon from Earth, obtaining a value of about twenty times the radius of Earth for the distance. These figures were greatly improved by Ptolemy (90–168 AD): his values of a mean distance of 59 times Earth’s radius and a diameter of 0.292 Earth diameters were close to the correct values of about 60 and 0.273 respectively.[140] Archimedes (287–212 BC) designed a planetarium that could calculate the motions of the Moon and other objects in the Solar System.[141]

During the Middle Ages, before the invention of the telescope, the Moon was increasingly recognised as a sphere, though many believed that it was “perfectly smooth”.[142] In 1609, Galileo Galilei drew one of the first telescopic drawings of the Moon in his book Sidereus Nuncius and noted that it was not smooth but had mountains and craters. Telescopic mapping of the Moon followed: later in the 17th century, the efforts of Giovanni Battista Riccioli and Francesco Maria Grimaldi led to the system of naming of lunar features in use today. The more exact 1834–36 Mappa Selenographica of Wilhelm Beer and Johann Heinrich Mädler, and their associated 1837 book Der Mond, the first trigonometrically accurate study of lunar features, included the heights of more than a thousand mountains, and introduced the study of the Moon at accuracies possible in earthly geography.[143] Lunar craters, first noted by Galileo, were thought to be volcanic until the 1870s proposal of Richard Proctor that they were formed by collisions.[51] This view gained support in 1892 from the experimentation of geologist Grove Karl Gilbert, and from comparative studies from 1920 to the 1940s,[144] leading to the development of lunar stratigraphy, which by the 1950s was becoming a new and growing branch of astrogeology.[51]

The Moon’s regular phases make it a very convenient timepiece, and the periods of its waxing and waning form the basis of many of the oldest calendars. Tally sticks, notched bones dating as far back as 20–30,000 years ago, are believed by some to mark the phases of the Moon.[189][190][191] The ~30-day month is an approximation of the lunar cycle. The English noun month and its cognates in other Germanic languages stem from Proto-Germanic *mǣnṓth-, which is connected to the above mentioned Proto-Germanic *mǣnōn, indicating the usage of a lunar calendar among the Germanic peoples (Germanic calendar) prior to the adoption of a solar calendar.[192] The same Indo-European root as moon led, via Latin, to measure and menstrual, words which echo the Moon’s importance to many ancient cultures in measuring time (see Latin mensis and Ancient Greek μήνας (mēnas), meaning “month”).[193][194]

The Moon has been the subject of many works of art and literature and the inspiration for countless others. It is a motif in the visual arts, the performing arts, poetry, prose and music. A 5,000-year-old rock carving at Knowth, Ireland, may represent the Moon, which would be the earliest depiction discovered.[195] The contrast between the brighter highlands and the darker maria creates the patterns seen by different cultures as the Man in the Moon, the rabbit and the buffalo, among others. In many prehistoric and ancient cultures, the Moon was personified as a deity or other supernatural phenomenon, and astrological views of the Moon continue to be propagated today.

The Moon plays an important role in Islam; the Islamic calendar is strictly lunar, and in many Muslim countries the months are determined by the visual sighting of the hilal, or earliest crescent moon, over the horizon.[196] The star and crescent, initially a symbol of the Ottoman Empire, has recently been adopted as a wider symbol for the Muslim community. The splitting of the moon (Arabic: انشقاق القمر‎) was a miracle attributed to the prophet Muhammad.[197]

The Moon has a long association with insanity and irrationality; the words lunacy and lunatic (popular shortening loony) are derived from the Latin name for the Moon, Luna. Philosophers Aristotle and Pliny the Elder argued that the full moon induced insanity in susceptible individuals, believing that the brain, which is mostly water, must be affected by the Moon and its power over the tides, but the Moon’s gravity is too slight to affect any single person.[198] Even today, people insist that admissions to psychiatric hospitals, traffic accidents, homicides or suicides increase during a full moon, although there is no scientific evidence to support such claims.[198]

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[5]Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Arkowitz, Hal (2009). “Lunacy and the Full Moon”.Scientific American, Febuary 2009.

The Tarot Trump Correspondence: II – The High Priestess

II-The High-Priestess- Ghimel-13The Tarot trup attributed to this path is The High Priestess (II), the second trump or Major Arcana card in most traditional Tarot decks. In the first Tarot pack with inscriptions, the 18th-century woodcut Marseilles Tarot, this figure is crowned with the Papal tiara and labelled La Papesse, the Popess. The illustration on the card is picturing a throned woman, crowned with a tiara, the Sun above her head, a stole on her breast, and the sign of the Moon at her feet.  Equilibrium is indicated by the equal-armed solar cross on her breast. She is seated between two pillars, one white (male) and the other black (female), comparable to the right and left-hand pillars of the Tree of Life, and the Masonic Yachin and Boaz.[6] In her hand is the scroll of the Law.  Like mentioned by Hoeller, “she is the intuitively feminine virginal guardian of the temple of the mysteries, the enigmatic mistress of the night, whose blue cloak covers and reveals the nature of sacred nocturnal journey’s. Though she is a virgin, the pomegrenates and palms on the temple veil behind her indicate the operation of the energies of the male and female polarities.”[7] She is, in one sense, the Shechinah, and our Lady Babalon according to Crowley’s Thelemic system.[8] In the old Rosicrucian grade system, the Supernal triad constitutes the Inner College of Masters, and is called the Order of the Silver Star.[9] Since the path of Gimel or the Moon links the Supernal triad with Tiphareth, serving as the means of entry to the Inner College, Israel Regardie points out that it is clear here that “the tarot symbols are consistent.”[10] Yet some students have allocated this card to Beth.

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[6] Yachin and Boaz are the names of the two pillars of Solomon’s Temple. See Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p.70.

[7] Stephen, A. Hoeller, The Fool’s Pilgrimage, Kabbalistic Meditations on the Tarot, p. 100.

[8] Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p.70.

[9] The Order of the Silver Star or Argentum Astrum was originally the name of the Golden Dawn’s invisible Third Order. Later, Crowley adopted the name for his own pseudo-Golden Dawn group.

[10] Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p.70.

The Second Step of the Fool’s Pilgrimage

fooll-2

The Greek Deity Correspondence: Artemis & Hecate

artemis--Greco-Roman goddess associated with magic, witchcraft, necromancy, and crossroads. She is attested in poetry as early as Hesiod’s Theogony. An inscription from late archaic Miletus naming her as a protector of entrances is also testimony to her presence in archaic Greek religion. Regarding the nature of her cult, it has been remarked, “she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous, she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition.”[11] In Ptolemaic Alexandria and elsewhere during the Hellenistic period, she appears as a three-faced goddess associated with magic, witchcraft, and curses. Today she is claimed as a goddess of witches and in the context of Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism. Some neo-pagans refer to her as a “crone goddess,”[12] though this characterization appears to conflict with her frequent characterization as a virgin in late antiquity.[13] But this characterization comes clear as she is referred as a triple goddess, which has the phases of virgin maiden, matron and crone. She has been associated with childbirth, nurturing the young, gates and walls, doorways, crossroads, magic, lunar lore, torches and dogs.Cult images and altars of Hecate in her triplicate or trimorphic form were placed at crossroads (though they also appeared before private homes and in front of city gates).[14] In this form she came to be known as closely related if not equivalent to the Roman goddess Trivia “the three ways” in Roman mythology. In what appears to be a 7th century indication of the survival of cult practices of this general sort, Saint Eligius, in his Sermo warns the sick among his recently converted flock in Flanders against putting “devilish charms at springs or trees or crossroads,”[15] and, according to Saint Ouen would urge them “No Christian should make or render any devotion to the deities of the trivium, where three roads meet…”[16]Dogs were closely associated with Hecate in the Classical world. In art and in literature “Hecate is constantly represented as dog-shaped or as accompanied by a dog. Her approach was heralded by the howling of a dog.”[17] Hecate was closely associated with plant lore and the concoction of medicines and poisons. In particular she was thought to give instruction in these closely related arts. Apollonius of Rhodes, in the Argonautica mentions that Medea was taught by Hecate, “I have mentioned to you before a certain young girl whom Hecate, daughter of Perses, has taught to work in drugs.”[18]The goddess is described as wearing oak in fragments of Sophocles’ lost play The Root Diggers (or The Root Cutters), and an ancient commentary on Apollonius of Rhodes’ Argonautica (3.1214) describes her as having a head surrounded by serpents, twining through branches of oak.[19]The yew in particular was sacred to Hecate. “Greeks held the yew to be sacred to Hecate, queen of the underworld, crone aspect of the Triple Goddess. Her attendants draped wreathes of yew around the necks of black bulls which they slaughtered in her honor and yew boughs were burned on funeral pyres. The yew was associated with the alphabet and the scientific name for yew today, taxus, was probably derived from the Greek word for yew, toxos, which is hauntingly similar to toxon, their word for bow and toxicon, their word for poison. It is presumed that the latter were named after the tree because of its superiority for both bows and poison.”[20]Hecate was said to favor offerings of garlic, which was closely associated with her cult.[21] She is also sometimes associated with cypress, a tree symbolic of death and the underworld, and hence sacred to a number of chthonic deities.[22] A number of other plants (often poisonous, medicinal and/or psychoactive) are associated with Hecate.[23]

The attribution of Artemis to this third qabalistic path is somehow partial, only certrains aspects of this deity seem to fit perfectly to the mould. Artemis was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities. Her Roman equivalent is Diana. Some scholars believe that the name and indeed the goddess herself was originally pre-Greek.[24] Homer refers to her as Artemis Agrotera, Potnia Theron: “Artemis of the wildland, Mistress of Animals”.[25] In the classical period of Greek mythology, Artemis (Greek: (nominative) Ἄρτεμις, (genitive) Ἀρτέμιδος) was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and the twin sister of Apollo. She was the Hellenic goddess of the hunt, wild animals, wilderness, childbirth, virginity and young girls, bringing and relieving disease in women; she often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows.[26] The deer and the cypress were sacred to her but she also has hunting dogs. In later Hellenistic times, she even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in aiding childbirth.According to the Homeric Hymn to Artemis, she had golden bow and arrows, as her epithet was Khryselakatos, “of the Golden Shaft”, and Iokheira (Showered by Arrows). The arrows of Artemis could also to bring sudden death and disease to girls and women.

Hecate

hecate-Hecate or Hekate (Greek Ἑκάτη, Hekátē) was a goddess in Greek religion and mythology, most often shown holding two torches or a key[1] and in later periods depicted in triple form. She was variously associated with crossroads, entrance-ways, fire, light, the Moon, magic, witchcraft, knowledge of herbs and poisonous plants, necromancy, and sorcery.[2][3] She had rulership over earth, sea and sky, as well as a more universal role as Saviour (Soteira), Mother of Angels and the Cosmic World Soul.[4][5] She was one of the main deities worshiped in Athenian households as a protective goddess and one who bestowed prosperity and daily blessings on the family.[6]   The etymology of the name Hecate (Ἑκάτη, Hekátē) is not known . Suggested derivations include: From the Greek word for ‘will’.[8] From Ἑκατός Hekatos, an obscure epithet of Apollo.[9] This has been translated as “she that operates from afar”, “she that removes or drives off”,[10] “the far reaching one” or “the far-darter”.[11]  The name of the Egyptian goddess of childbirth, Heqet, has been compared.[12]

In Early Modern English, the name was also pronounced disyllabic and sometimes spelled Hecat. It remained common practice in English to pronounce her name in two syllables, even when spelled with final e, well into the 19th century.

hecateThe spelling Heact is due to Arthur Golding‘s 1567 translation of Ovid‘s Metamorphoses.[13] and this spelling without the final E later appears in plays of the ElizabethanJacobean period.[14] Noah Webster in 1866 particularly credits the influence of Shakespeare for the then-predominant disyllabic pronunciation of the name.[15]

Hecate may have originated among the Carians of Anatolia, where variants of her name are found as names given to children. William Berg observes, “Since children are not called after spooks, it is safe to assume that Carian theophoric names involving hekat- refer to a major deity free from the dark and unsavoury ties to the underworld and to witchcraft associated with the Hecate of classical Athens.”[7] She also closely parallels the Roman goddess Trivia, with whom she was identified in Rome.

The earliest Greek depictions of Hecate are single faced, not three-formed. Farnell states: “The evidence of the monuments as to the character and significance of Hecate is almost as full as that of the literature. But it is only in the later period that they come to express her manifold and mystic nature.”[16]

The earliest known monument is a small terracotta found in Athens, with a dedication to Hecate, in writing of the style of the 6th century. The goddess is seated on a throne with a chaplet bound round her head; she is altogether without attributes and character, and the only value of this work, which is evidently of quite a general type and gets a special reference and name merely from the inscription, is that it proves the single shape to be her earlier form, and her recognition at Athens to be earlier than the Persian invasion.[16]

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[11]Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony, eds (1996). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 671.

[12]Wilshire, Donna (1994). Virgin mother crone: myths and mysteries of the triple goddess. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions International. p. 213.

[13]Edwards, Mark (2000). Neoplatonic Saints: The lives of Plotinus and Proclus by Their Students. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. liii. “In theurgy the queen of rites is Hecate, virgin goddess of the underworld […]”From a prayer addressed to Hecate, in Maas, Michael (2000). Readings in Late Antiquity: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge. p. 167. “[…] Lady, earth-cleaver, leader of the hounds, subduer of all, worshipped in the streets, three-headed, light-bearing, august virgin […]”

[14]Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony, eds (1996). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 671.

[15]Amanda Porterfield (2005), Healing in the History of Christianity, Oxford University Press, p. 72.

[16]Saint Ouen, Vita Eligii book II.16.

[17]Alberta Mildred Franklin, The Lupercalia, Columbia University, 1921, p. 67

[18]R. L. Hunter, The Argonautica of Apollonius, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 142, citing Apollonius of Rhodes.

[19]Daniel Ogden, Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds, Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 82-83.

[20]Matthew Suffness (Ed.), Taxol: Science and Applications, CRC Press, 1995, p. 28.

[21]Frederick J. Simoons, Plants of Life, Plants of Death, University of Wisconsin Press, 1998, p. 143; Fragkiska Megaloudi, Plants and Diet in Greece From Neolithic to Classic Periods, Archaeopress, 2006, p. 71.

[22]Freize, Henry; Dennison, Walter (1902). Virgil’s Aeneid. New York: American Book Company. pp. N111.

[23]These include aconite (also called hecateis), belladonna, dittany, and mandrake. It has been suggested that the use of dogs for digging up mandrake is further corroboration of the association of this plant with Hecate; indeed, since at least as early as the 1st century CE, there are a number of attestations to the apparently widespread practice of using dogs to dig up plants associated with magic.

[24]Rose, H. J. A Handbook of Greek Mythology, Dutton 1959, p. 112; Guthrie, W. C. K. The Greeks and Their Gods, Beacon 1955, p. 99.

[25]Homer, Iliad xxi 470 f.

[26]Her proper sphere is the earth, and specifically the uncultivated parts, forests and hills, where wild beasts are plentiful” Hammond and Scullard (editors), The Oxford Classical Dictionary. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970), p. 126.

The Roman God Correspondence: Diana as the Moon

 

diana-romanThe Roman God correspondence for Yesod is Diana. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p.11)  An important consideration in the understanding of Yesod,  Israel Regardie tells us, is the significance of the attribution of the moon to Diana which, according to the occult tradition, “is a dead yet living body whose particles are full of active and destructive life, of potent magical power.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p.54) Diana was the goddess of light and in the Roman temples represented the moon. The general conception of Yesod is of change with stability. Some writers have referred to the astral light which us the sphere of Yesod as the Anima Mundi, the Soul ou the World.62 The psychoanalyst Jung has a very similar concept which he terms the collective unconscious63 which differs in no wise from the Qabalistic idea. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 54)

The Hindu Deity Correspondence: Chandra

520px-Chandra_grahaIn Hinduism, Chandra (Sanskrit चन्द्रlit. “shining”) is a lunar deity and a Graha. Chandra is also identified with the Vedic Lunar deity Soma (lit. “juice”).[27] The Soma name refers particularly to the juice of sap in the plants and thus makes the Moon the lord of plants and vegetation.[28] He is described as young, beautiful, fair; two-armed and having in his hands a club and a lotus.[29] He rides his chariot across the sky every night, pulled by ten white horses or an antelope. Although the antelope is the animal most commonly depicted with Him in iconography, the rabbit is also particularly sacred to him and all rabbits are under his protection.[30] He is connected with dew, and as such, is one of the gods of fertility. He is also called Rajanipati (lord of the night) and Kshuparaka (one who illuminates the night),[31] Indu (lit. the bright drop). As Soma he presides over Somvar or Monday. He is the father of Budha, (planet Mercury) the mother being Tara (Taraka). He is married to 27 Nakshatras (constellations), who are known to be daughters of Daksha. In Vedic astrology Chandra represents brain and mind, emotions, sensitivity, softness, imagination, queen and mother. Chandra rules over the sign Karka (Cancer), while he is exalted in Vrishabha (Taurus) and in his fall in Vrishchika (Scorpio). The waxing moon is considered to be benefic, and the waning moon is considered to be malefic. The bright moon is considered a benefic of the highest order, while the dark moon is considered a malefic. Chandra is lord of three nakshatras or lunar mansions: Rohini, Hasta and Shravana. Chandra has the following associations: the color white, the metal silver and the gemstones pearl and moonstone. His element is water, direction is north-west and season is winter. The food grain associated with him (one of Nava Dhanyas) is rice. Chandra with Rohini Chandra (pronounced either “CHUHN-drah”) is a Sanskrit name meaning “illustrious.” In Hindu mythology, Chandra is the god of the moon. In Hindu astrology, the moon is considered a planet, and it’s considered to be one of the best planets to be born under as it promises wealth and happiness. It is also referred as Shashi (Kannada: ಶಶಿ) or Tingala(Kannada: ತಿಂಗಳ)

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[27]Ernst Wilhelm , Graha Sutras, Published by Kala Occult Publishers, p.50

[28]Ernst Wilhelm , Graha Sutras, Published by Kala Occult Publishers, p.51

[29]Charles Coleman, Mythology of the Hindus, p.131

[30]Panchatantra the complete version by Pandit Vishnu Sharma translated by G.L. Chandiramani p.134 published by Rupa and Co.1991

[31]Charles Coleman, Mythology of the Hindus, p.132

 The Animal Correspondence: The Dog

dogThe animal attributed to this third path is the dog. Most obviously this is because of its Greek deity attribution, Hecate, which is always depicted in compagny of dogs. This attribution also has a lot to do with the symbolic function of the dog as a threshold guardian that third path being the one crossing the abyss. This function would appear to have some relationship with the iconographic association of Hecate with keys, and might also relate to her appearance with two torches, which when positioned on either side of a gate or door illuminated the immediate area and allowed visitors to be identified. “In Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. Hecate’s importance to Byzantium was above all as a deity of protection. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city, according to the legend she alerted the townspeople with her ever present torches, and with her pack of dogs, which served as her constant companions.”[32] This suggests that Hecate’s close association with dogs derived in part from the use of watchdogs that, particularly at night, raised an alarm when intruders approached. Watchdogs were used extensively by Greeks and Romans.[33] Like Hecate, “the dog is a creature of the threshold, the guardian of doors and portals, and so it is appropriately associated with the frontier between life and death, and with demons and ghosts which move across the frontier. The yawning gates of Hades were guarded by the monstrous watchdog Cerberus, whose function was to prevent the living from entering the underworld, and the dead from leaving it.”[34]Strangely, the dog was Hecate’s regular sacrificial animal, and was often eaten in solemn sacrament.”[35] The sacrifice of dogs to Hecate is attested for Thrace, Samothrace, Colophon, and Athens. Artemis was also associated with the Dog. According to legends, she got her hunting dogs from Pan in the forest of Arcadia. Pan gave Artemis two black-and-white dogs, three reddish ones, and one spotted one – these dogs were able to hunt even lions.[36] Pan also gave Artemis seven bitches of the finest Arcadian race. However, Artemis only ever brought seven dogs hunting with her at any one time.

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[32]Vasiliki Limberis (1994), Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary and the Creation of Christian Constantinople, Routledge, pp. 126-127.

[33]Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony, eds (1996). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 490.

[34]Richard Cavendish (1975), The Powers of Evil in Western Religion, Magic and Folk Belief, Routledge, p. 62.

[35]Alberta Mildred Franklin (1921), The Lupercalia, Columbia University, p. 67

[36] “And speedily again thou [the child Artemis] didst go to get thee hounds; and thou camest to the Arkadian fold of Pan. […] the Bearded God gave two dogs black-and-white, three reddish, and one spotted, which pulled down very lions when they clutched their throats and haled them still living to the fold. (Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis 86 ff)

 

The Plant Correspondence: Moonwort & Hazel

MoonwortThe plants correspondences for the third path of the Tree of Life are the Moonwort and the Hazel.

Moonwort

The moonworts are ferns, seedless vascular plants, of the genus Botrychium lunaria, a rare fern having fronds with crescent-shaped leaflets which is where the name moonworth comes from.It seems obvious that the main reasons for this attribution is the fact that the main correspondences of this path, The High Priestess of the Tarot, the Greek Goddess Artemis and also Hecate, are all intimately related to the Moon. The Latin word Botyrichium comes from the Greek botrus (botrys), which means “grape.” They are called Grape Fern, because of the prominent clusters of round spore cases which resemble miniature clusters of grapes.Those plants are small, with fleshy roots, and reproduce by spores shed into the air. One part of the leaf, the trophophore, is sterile and fernlike; the other, the sporophore, is fertile and carries the clusters of sporangia or spore cases. Some species only occasionally emerge above ground and gain most of their nourishment from an association with mycorrhizal fungi. The circumscription of Botrychium is disputed between different authors; some botanists include the genera Botrypus and Sceptridium within Botrychium, while others treat them as distinct. The latter treatment is provisionally followed here. Moonworts can be found in many environments, including prairies, forests, and mountains. While some Botrychium species are quite rare, conservation efforts can be difficult. Determining the rarity of a species is complicated by the plants’ small leaves, which stand only 2-10 centimeters above the soil.[16] Even more of a challenge in obtaining an accurate population count is the genus’s largely subterranean life cycle. The vast majority of any one population of moonworts actually exists below ground in banks consisting of several types of propagules. One type of propagule is the ungerminated spores, which must percolate through the soil beyond the reach of light in order to germinate. This presumably increases the probability that the spore will be in range of a mycorrhizal symbiont before it produces the tiny, roughly heart-shaped gametophyte, which also exists entirely below ground.[84] Finally, some species produce gemmae, a form of asexual propagation achieved by budding of the root.[16]

Hazel

hazel-treeThe hazels (Corylus) are a genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate northern hemisphere. The genus is usually placed in the birch family Betulaceae. They have simple, rounded leaves with double-serrate margins. The flowers are produced very early in spring before the leaves, and are monoecious, with single-sex catkins, the male pale yellow and 5–12 cm long, the female very small and largely concealed in the buds, with only the bright red 1–3 mm long styles visible. The seeds are nuts 1–2.5 cm long and 1–2 cm diameter, surrounded by an involucre (husk) which partly to fully enclose the nut.[37]The Celts believed hazelnuts gave one wisdom and inspiration. There are numerous variations on an ancient tale that nine hazel trees grew around a sacred pool, dropping into the water nuts that were eaten by salmon (a fish sacred to Druids) which absorbed the wisdom. The number of spots on the salmon were said to indicate how many nuts they had eaten. A Druid teacher, in his bid to become omniscient, caught one of these special salmon and asked a student to cook the fish but not to eat it. While he was cooking it, hot liquid from the cooking fish splashed onto the pupil’s thumb, which he naturally sucked to cool, thereby absorbing the fish’s wisdom. This boy was called Fionn Mac Cumhail and went on to become one of the most heroic leaders in Gaelic mythology. The Hazel Branch, from Grimm’s Fairy Tales, claims that hazel branches offer the greatest protection from snakes and other things that creep on the earth.

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[37]Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins

The Perfume Correspondence: Camphor & Aloes

CamphorThe perfumes attributed to the third path of the Tree of Life are the camphor and aloes. Camphor is a waxy, white or transparent solid with a strong, aromatic odor.[38]The camphor laurel tree belongs to the Lauraceae family and in fact camphor can be extracted from other trees from the Laurel family. The camphor tree is long-lived, some reaching one thousand years. Camphor is found almost anywhere in the tree, although it is taken mainly from its wood and bark.

The word camphor derives from the French word camphre, itself from Medieval Latin camfora, from Arabic kafur, from Sanskrit, karpūra.[4] The term ultimately was derived from Old Malay kapur barus which means “the chalk of Barus”. Barus was the name of an ancient port located near modern Sibolga city on the western coast of Sumatra island (today North Sumatra Province, Indonesia). This port was initially built prior to the Indian – Batak trade in camphor and spices. Traders from India, East Asia and the Middle East would use the term kapur barus to buy the dried extracted ooze of camphor trees from local Batak tribesmen; in proto Malay-Austronesian language (Sanskrit adapted-Bataknese alphabets), it is also known as kapur Barus. Even now, the local tribespeople and Indonesians in general refer to naphthalene balls and moth balls as kapur Barus. For the local tribespeople, the use of camphor ranges from deodorant, wood-finishing veneer, traditional rituals and non-edible preservatives as the camphor tree itself is natively found in that region. The tree, called “Kamfer” in Indonesian, is also known for its resistance to tropical termites.

The camphor tree is considered in China as the tree of life. Its scent is fresh, clean and very penetrating. Marco Polo, during his travels to China in the 13th century, noticed it was used as a medicine and scent. In the East it was also used, in small quantities, as a sweetener. The stature of the camphor trees, compelling aroma, and long life provide an appropriate mystery for that setting. One particular tree has graced Atsuta Jingu (Atsuta Shrine) in Nagoya in Central Japan for 1300 years. The word camphor derives from the French word camphre, itself from Medieval Latin camfora, from Arabic kafur, from Sanskrit, karpuura. Barus was the port on the western coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra where foreign traders would call to buy camphor, hence in Malay it became kapur Barus. Camphor was known in Arabia in pre-Islamic times, as it is mentioned in the Quran as a flavoring for drinks.[39] In the 9th century, the Arab chemist, Al-Kindi (known as Alkindus in Europe), provided the earliest recipe for the production of camphor in his Kitab Kimiya’ al-‘Itr (Book of the Chemistry of Perfume). By the 13th century, it was used in recipes everywhere in the Muslim world, ranging from main dishes such as tharid and stew to desserts. Camphor is widely used in Hindu religious ceremonies. Hindus worship a holy flame by burning camphor, which forms an important part of many religious ceremonies. Camphor is used in the Mahashivratri celebrations of Shiva, the Hindu god of destruction and (re)creation. As a natural pitch substance, it burns cool without leaving an ash residue, which symbolizes consciousness. Of late, most temples in southern India have stopped lighting camphor in the main Sanctum Sanctorum because of the heavy carbon deposits it produces; however, open areas still burn it. In Hindu pujas and ceremonies, camphor is burned in a ceremonial spoon for performing aarti. In Japan, camphor trees often grace Shinto shrines. It is not suitable for cooking, however, and is hazardous to health if eaten.

The sublimating capability of camphor gives it several uses. An early international trade in it made camphor widely known throughout Arabia in pre-Islamic times, as it is mentioned in the Quran 76:5 as a flavoring for drinks.[5] By the 13th century, it was used in recipes everywhere in the Muslim world, ranging from main dishes such as tharid and stew to desserts.[6]

Modern uses include camphor as a plasticizer for nitrocellulose (see Celluloid), as a moth repellent, as an antimicrobial substance, in embalming, and in fireworks. Solid camphor releases fumes that form a rust-preventative coating, and is therefore stored in tool chests to protect tools against rust.[9]

Some folk remedies state camphor will deter snakes and other reptiles due to its strong odor. Similarly, camphor is believed to be toxic to insects and is thus sometimes used as a repellent.[10] Camphor crystals are sometimes used to prevent damage to insect collections by other small insects. They are also used as a cough suppressant.

Culinary

In ancient and medieval Europe, camphor was used as an ingredient in sweets. It was used in a wide variety of both savory and sweet dishes in medieval Arabic language cookbooks, such as al-Kitab al-Ṭabikh compiled by ibn Sayyâr al-Warrâq in the 10th century,[11] and an anonymous Andalusian cookbook of the 13th century.[6] It also appears in sweet and savory dishes in a book written in the late 15th century for the sultans of Mandu, the Ni’matnama.[12]

Currently, camphor is used as a flavoring, mostly for sweets, in Asia. It is widely used in cooking, mainly for dessert dishes, in India where it is known as kachha karpooram or “pachha karpoora” (“crude/raw camphor”), in (Telugu:పచ్చ కర్పూర), (Tamil:பச்சைக் கற்பூரம்), (Kannada:ಪಚ್ಚ ಕರ್ಪೂರ), and is available in Indian grocery stores where it is labeled as “edible camphor”. Flavored tablets of camphor are also used as an anti-odor element and kept in clothes used on special occasions and festivals, and also in cupboard corners as a cockroach repellent.

Medicinal

Camphor is readily absorbed through the skin and produces a feeling of cooling similar to that of menthol, and acts as slight local anesthetic and antimicrobial substance. There are anti-itch gels and cooling gels with camphor as the active ingredient. Camphor is an active ingredient (along with menthol) in vapor-steam products, such as Vicks VapoRub.

Camphor may also be administered orally in small quantities (50 mg) for minor heart symptoms and fatigue.[13] Through much of the 1900s this was sold under the trade name Musterole; production ceased in the 1990s.

Camphor has been used in ancient Sumatra to treat sprains, swellings, and inflammation.[14] Camphor is a component of paregoric, an opium/camphor tincture from the 18th century. Also in the 18th century, camphor was used by Auenbrugger in the treatment of mania.[15] Based on Hahnemann‘s writings, camphor (dissolved in alcohol) was also successfully used to treat the 1854-1855 cholera epidemics in Naples.[16]

Camphor was the original compound used in the development of convulsive therapies for psychiatric illness. It was quite successful, but was supplanted by other chemicals and later electricity as the inducing agent[citation needed].

Herbalism

Camphor is available as an essential oil for aromatherapy or topical application.

Hindu religious ceremonies

Camphor is widely used in Hindu religious ceremonies. Hindus worship a holy flame by burning camphor, which forms an important part of many religious ceremonies. Camphor is used in the Mahashivratri celebrations of Shiva, the Hindu god of destruction and (re)creation. As a natural pitch substance, it burns cool without leaving an ash residue, which symbolizes consciousness. Most temples in southern India have stopped lighting camphor in the main Sanctum Sanctorum because of the heavy carbon deposits it produces; however, open areas still burn it.

In Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala & Andamans, camphor is the primary ingredient in any holy rituals. At the end of a holy ritual camphor flame (called Aarti) is burned for the deities.

In Hindu pujas ceremonies, camphor is burned in a ceremonial spoon for performing aarti. This type of camphor, the processed white crystalline kind, is also sold at Indian grocery stores. It is not suitable for cooking and is hazardous to health if eaten.

 

aloe-veraAloes

Aloe or Aloë, is a genus containing about 500 species of flowering succulent plants. The most common and well known of these is Aloe vera, or “true aloe”. The genus is native to Africa, and is common in South Africa‘s Cape Province, the mountains of tropical Africa, and neighboring areas such as Madagascar, the Arabian peninsula, and the islands of Africa. Most Aloe species have a rosette of large, thick, fleshy leaves. Aloe flowers are tubular, frequently yellow, orange, pink or red, and are borne, densely clustered and pendant, at the apex of simple or branched, leafless stems. Many species of Aloe appear to be stemless, with the rosette growing directly at ground level but some Aloes native to South Africa are arborescent.Of the 500+ species of Aloe, only a few were used traditionally as a herbal medicine, aloe vera again being the most commonly used version of aloe in herbal medicine.

Most Aloe species have a rosette of large, thick, fleshy leaves. Aloe flowers are tubular, frequently yellow, orange, pink, or red, and are borne, densely clustered and pendant, at the apex of simple or branched, leafless stems. Many species of Aloe appear to be stemless, with the rosette growing directly at ground level; other varieties may have a branched or unbranched stem from which the fleshy leaves spring. They vary in color from grey to bright-green and are sometimes striped or mottled. Some aloes native to South Africa are tree-like (arborescent).[5]

Historical use of various aloe species is well documented. Documentation of the clinical effectiveness is available, although relatively limited.[3][8]

Of the 500+ species, only a few were used traditionally as a herbal medicine, Aloe vera again being the most commonly used species. Also included are A. perryi and A. ferox. The Ancient Greeks and Romans used Aloe vera to treat wounds. In the Middle Ages, the yellowish liquid found inside the leaves was favored as a purgative.[citation needed] Unprocessed aloe that contains aloin is generally used as a laxative, whereas processed juice does not usually contain significant aloin.[citation needed]

Some species, particularly Aloe vera, are used in alternative medicine and first aid. Both the translucent inner pulp and the resinous yellow aloin from wounding the aloe plant are used externally to relieve skin discomforts. As an herbal medicine, Aloe vera juice is commonly used internally to relieve digestive discomfort.[9][10]

Relatively few studies about possible benefits of aloe gel taken internally have been conducted. Components of Aloe have shown the possibility of inhibiting tumor growth in animal studies, but these effects have not been demonstrated clinically in humans.[11] Some studies in animal models indicate that extracts of Aloe have a significant antihyperglycemic effect, and may be useful in treating Type II diabetes, but these studies have not been confirmed in humans.[12]

According to Cancer Research UK, a potentially deadly product called T-UP is made of concentrated aloe, and promoted as a cancer cure. They say “there is currently no evidence that aloe products can help to prevent or treat cancer in humans”.[13]

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[38]Mann J.C., Hobbs J.B., Banthorpe D.V., & Harborne J.B. (1994). Natural Products: their Chemistry and Biological Significance. Harlow, Essex, England: Longman Scientific & Technical. pp. 309–11

[39]Quran 76:5

The Drug Correspondence: Juniper & Penny-royal

Junipers

Juniperus_communis_conesJunipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, there are between 50-67 species of juniper, widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere. Juniper’s most common usage was in a liqueur called junivere, made from juniper berries. People found that when the berries were collected and floated in alcohol, the health agent in the berries was transferred to the liquid, which is more readily consumed than the berries. They’re actually more like pine cones (the juniper is a relation of the pine tree) than what we usually associate with the word “berry.”

The South Americans, along with the rest of the world, use ground berries and other parts of the juniper as what is essentially a local antibiotic to treat wounds and sores. There is some scientific basis to this as the phenol contained in the plant is actually a bacteria killer which would indeed keep a wound safe from infection. Despite the fact that eating juniper berries is like chewing pine-flavored gum, they have been used for food at various points in history. Apart from its use as a food and a tonic, the Native Americans used juniper for gynecological health. The Zunis made a tea from the toasted branches to relax a woman’s muscles before childbirth and to speed her recovery from the delivery. The Tewa Indians burned the branches in the dwelling of a woman who had just given birth. The Spanish Americans, who learned of the native plant from various indigenous tribes, advised that women drink a cup or so of the tea a month before their babies were due to assure a safe delivery. In addition, the same Southwesterners used the tea to treat an inflamed stomach and relieve muscle spasms.

Juniper berries are a spice used in a wide variety of culinary dishes and best known for the primary flavoring in gin (and responsible for gin’s name, which is a shortening of the Dutch word for juniper, genever). Juniper berries are also used as the primary flavor in the liquor Jenever and sahti-style of beers. Juniper berry sauce is often a popular flavoring choice for quail, pheasant, veal, rabbit, venison and other meat dishes.

Many of the earliest prehistoric people lived in or near juniper forests which furnished them food, fuel, and wood for shelter or utensils. Many species, such as J. chinensis (Chinese Juniper) from eastern Asia, are extensively used in landscaping and horticulture, and as one of the most popular species for use in bonsai. It is also a symbol of longevity, strength, athleticism, and fertility.

Some junipers are susceptible to Gymnosporangium rust disease, and can be a serious problem for those people growing apple trees, the alternate host of the disease.

Some junipers are given the common name “cedar,” including Juniperus virginiana, the “red cedar” that is used widely in cedar drawers. “Eastern redcedar” is the correct name for Juniperus virginiana. The lack of space between the words “red” and “cedar” indicate that this species is not a true cedar, Cedrus.

In Morocco, the tar (gitran) of the arar tree (Juniperus phoenicea) is applied in dotted patterns on bisque drinking cups. Gitran makes the water more fragrant and is said to be good for the teeth.

American Indians, such as the Navajo, have traditionally used juniper to treat diabetes.[3] Animal studies have shown that treatment with juniper may retard the development of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice.[4] Native Americans also used juniper berries as a female contraceptive.[5] The 17th Century herbalist physician Nicholas Culpeper recommended the ripened berries for conditions such as asthma and sciatica, as well as to speed childbirth.[6]

Juniper berries are steam distilled to produce an essential oil that may vary from colorless to yellow or pale green. Some of its chemical components are alpha pinene, cadinene, camphene and terpineol. Leaves and twigs of Juniperus virginiana are steam distilled to produce oil of juniper. Middle Tennessee and adjacent northern Alabama and southern Kentucky are the centers for this activity. The U.S. Forest Service has provided plans for the apparatus required. This work is typically done during periods of cold weather to reduce the loss of essential oil to evaporation, which is greater in warmer weather, and to take advantage of a time of year when labor might be more readily available.

Juniper in weave is a traditional cladding technique used in Northern Europe, e.g. at Havrå, Norway.[7]

Pennyroyal

ooPennyroyal refers to two plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. For the American species, see American pennyroyal. The European pennyroyal, Mentha pulegium, also called Squaw Mint, Mosquito Plant,[40] and Pudding Grass,[41] is a plant in the mint genus, within the family Lamiaceae. Crushed Pennyroyal leaves exhibit a very strong fragrance similar to spearmint. Pennyroyal is a traditional culinary herb, folk remedy, and abortifacient. The essential oil of pennyroyal is used in aromatherapy, and is also high in pulegone, a highly toxic volatile organic compound affecting liver and uterine function. In the Homeric Hymn of Demeter, Demeter in the guise of an old woman as she searches for the abducted Persephone refuses red wine but accepts a drink of barley, water and pennyroyal called kykeon. Aristophanes made reference to pennyroyal as abortifacient in Lysistrata and Peace.

Pennyroyal was commonly used as a cooking herb by the Greeks and Romans. The ancient Greeks often flavored their wine with pennyroyal. A large number of the recipes in the Roman cookbook of Apicius call for the use of pennyroyal, often along with such herbs as lovage, oregano and coriander. Although it was commonly used for cooking in the Middle Ages, it gradually fell out of use as a culinary herb and is seldom used as such today. The fresh or dried leaves of the plant were used to flavor pudding.[3]

Even though pennyroyal oil is extremely poisonous, people have relied on the fresh and dried herb for centuries. Early settlers in colonial Virginia used dried pennyroyal to eradicate pests. Pennyroyal was such a popular herb that the Royal Society published an article on its use against rattlesnakes in the first volume of its Philosophical Transactions in 1665.[4]

Pennyroyal is used to make herbal teas, which are reputed as safe to ingest in restricted quantities.[citation needed] It has been traditionally employed and reportedly successful as an emmenagogue (menstrual flow stimulant) or as an abortifacient.[citation needed] Pennyroyal is also used to settle an upset stomach[5] and to relieve flatulence.[6] The fresh or dried leaves of pennyroyal have also been used when treating colds, influenza, abdominal cramps, and to induce sweating,[5] as well as in the treatment of diseases such as smallpox and tuberculosis, and in promoting latent menstruation.[6] Pennyroyal leaves, both fresh and dried, are especially noted for repelling insects.[5] However, when treating infestations such as fleas, using the plant’s essential oil should be avoided due to its toxicity to both humans and animals, even at extremely low levels.[7]

Pennyroyal essential oil should never be taken internally because it is highly toxic; even in small doses, consumption of the oil can result in death.[8] The metabolite menthofuran is thought to be the major toxic agent. Complications have been reported from attempts to use the oil for self-induced abortion. For example, in 1978, an 18-year-old pregnant woman from Denver, Colorado, died within one week after consuming one ounce of concentrated Pennyroyal oil in an attempt to self-induce abortion.[9] There are numerous studies that show the toxicity of pennyroyal oil to both humans and animals.[10][11][12][13]

Since the U.S. Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in October 1994 all manufactured forms of pennyroyal in the United States have carried a warning label against its use by pregnant women, but pennyroyal is not regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.[14]

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[40]Gunby, Phil. (1979). “Medical News: Plant Known for Centuries Still Causes Problems Today.” Journal of the American Medical Association 241(21): 2246-2247

[41]Keville, Kathi. (1994). Herbs: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. New York, New York: Friedman/Fairfax Publishers. p. 128.

The Jewel Correspondence: The Moonstone & Pearl

moonstoneIts name moonstone attributed to this gem is derived from a visual effect, or sheen, caused by light reflecting internally in the moonstone from layer inclusion of different feldspars. Moonstone has been used as jewelry for centuries, including ancient civilizations. Moonstone was used in Roman jewelry about 100 A.D.The Romans admired moonstone, as they believed it was born from solidified rays of the moon. Both the Romans and Greeks associated Moonstone with their lunar gods and goddesses. The moonstone is characterised by an enchanting play of light. Indeed it owes its name to that mysterious shimmer which always looks different when the stone is moved and is known in the trade as ‘adularescence’. This gemstone is surrounded by a good deal of mystique and magic. In earlier times, people believed they could recognise in it the crescent and waning phases of the moon. In ancient Rome, moonstones were thought to change their look during the lunar phases. They also thought that a picture of Diana, the Goddess of the Moon, could be seen in every moonstone. In the middle ages, people thought you could look into a moonstone, fall into a deep sleep that would tell you of the future. In many cultures, it is regarded as a holy, magical gemstone The island of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) has, from time immemorial, produced the most desirable and enchanting specimens of moonstone. According to tradition, in the Moonstone Temple of Anuradhapura, the steps of the altar are faced with mosaics of gleaming moonstones.[42]Folk law suggests that moonstone was supposed to awaken tender passions if placed beneath the tongues of lovers at full moon. In addition, it was recommended that holding a moonstone in the mouth would refresh one’s memory. This stone has always been revered because of its lunar attraction. It was believed that the shiller in the stone would follow the cycles of the moon. (Becoming greatest when the moon was full.) In addition, it has always been considered a “feminine, or Goddess” stone. In India, moonstones are also regarded as ‘dream stones’ which bring the wearer beautiful visions at night. In Arabic countries, women often wear moonstones sewn out of sight into their garments, for in their cultures the moonstone is a symbol of fertility. East Indian tradition also holds that moonstone is a symbol of the Third eye and clarifies spiritual understanding. The associations connected with that make it a “lovers’ stone”, evoking tender feelings, drawing love to its wearer and safeguarding the true joys of love. It can even help solve problems between lovers. If it is worn during sexual intercourse, it not only can make the woman very fertile, it is said to help impregnate her too. It is also said that wearing a moonstone strengthens our intuition and our capacity to understand.Traveler stones was a name of moonstones because of the protection that travelers received at night from the gemstone.The Asians point out that when there is a moon there is no rain and so the name, moonstone, means “no tears.” According to legend, a moonstone placed in the mouth while the moon is full gives lovers the power to read their futures together. Superstition says it has the power to hypnotize the person who gazes at it as it moves back and forth. Amulets of moonstone were hung in fruit trees to produce abundant crops. It was thought to protect against wandering of the mind, insanity and epilepsy. It was attributed to improving physical strength and reconciling lovers. If held in the mouth, a moonstone was supposed to help decide matters.Moonstone is associated with the moon and water. It is highly associated with all goddesses, but specifically moon goddesses. Moonstone can help aid in sleeping disorders. Place a moonstone under your pillow at night, and it is said to help you sleep. To dream of a moonstone is said to be a warning of impending danger. Due to its affinity with water, moonstone is supposed to protect those at sea.

pearl-The Pearl

A pearl is a hard object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk. The value of the pearls is determined by a combination of the luster, color, size, lack of surface flaw and symmetry that are appropriate for the type of pearl under consideration. Among those attributes, luster is the most important differentiator of pearl quality. The Hindu tradition describes the sacred Nine Pearls which were first documented in the Garuda Purana, one of the books of the Hindu mythology. Ayurveda contains references to pearl powder as a stimulant of digestion and to treat mental ailments. According to Marco Polo, the kings of Malabar wore a necklace of 104 rubies and pearls which was given from one generation of kings to the next. The reason was that every king had to say 104 prayers every morning and every evening.[43] At least until the beginning of the 20th century it was a Hindu custom to present a completely new, undrilled pearl and pierce it during the wedding ceremony.[44]

In a Christian New Testament parable, Jesus compared the Kingdom of Heaven to a “pearl of great price”[45] “Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant man, seeking goodly (fine) pearls: Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it.” The language of symbolism was in common use around the time of Jesus Christ; most people were familiar with the symbolic meanings. The circle is a symbol of God because it has no beginning and no end. The circle or pearl was considered to represent Love, Knowledge (the combination of equal amounts of Love and Knowledge is a symbol of Wisdom, the 2 circles intertwined (owl eyes) is symbolic of Wisdom. Some other pearls are Truth, and Faith. Holy things are compared to pearls in the gospel of Mattew. “Do not give dogs what is holy, and do not throw your pearls before pigs, lest they trample them underfoot and turn to attack you.”[46] The Qur’an often mentions that dwellers of paradise will be adorned with pearls: Gardens of Eternity will they enter: therein will they be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls; and their garments there will be of silk.[47] The handsome young boys in paradise are similarly depicted: “Round about them will serve, [devoted] to them, youths [handsome] as pearls well-guarded.”[48] The metaphor of a pearl appears in the longer Hymn of the Pearl, a poem respected for its high literary quality, and use of layered theological metaphor, found within one of the texts of Gnosticism.

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[42]The ruins of this temple, which was built about 100 B.C., still can be seen today, but there are no mosaics of moonstone’s left.

[43]Kunz, George F.; Stevenson, Charles (1908). The Book of the Pearl. New York: The Century Co. p. 412.

[44]Kunz, George F.; Stevenson, Charles (1908). The Book of the Pearl. New York: The Century Co. p. 350.

[45] New Testament, Matthew 13: 45–46.

[46] New Testament, Matthew 7:6

[47]Qur’an, 35:33 see also 22:23.

[48]Qur’an, 52:24

The Magical Weapon Correspondence: Bow & Arrow

Bow_and_ArrowsThe bow is an emblem of God’s power. It is a weapon “destined to avengement.” Bows and arrows may signify a man resolved to abide the utmost hazard of battle and who has furnished himself in full to that end, and a bow and a cross symbolizes affliction. Bows alone symbolize martial readiness. The bow and arrow are attributed to this path mainly because they are the magical instrument of Artemis which is a correspondence for this path. According to the Homeric Hymn to Artemis, she had golden bow and arrows, as her epithet was Khryselakatos, “of the Golden Shaft”, and Iokheira (Showered by Arrows).[49] The arrows of Artemis could also to bring sudden death and disease to girls and women. Artemis got her bow and arrow for the first time from The Kyklopes, as the one she asked from her father. The bow of Artemis also became the witness of Callisto’s oath of her virginity.[50] In later cult, the bow became the symbol of waxing moon. Greek poets could not decide whether her bow was silver or gold: “Over the shadowy hills and windy peaks she draws her golden bow.” (Homeric Hymn to Artemis), and it is a golden bow as well in Ovid, Metamorphoses,[51] where her nymph’s is of horn. “And how often goddess, didst thou make trial of thy silver bow?” asks Callimachus for whom it is a Cydonian bow that the Cyclopes make for her.[52]

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[49]”Over the shadowy hills and windy peaks she [Artemis] draws her golden bow, rejoicing in the chase, and sends out grievous shafts.” (Homeric Hymn 27 to Artemis (trans. Evelyn-White) Greek epic C7th to 4th B.C.)

[50] “Callisto once belonged to the sacred circle of Hamadryades and huntress Diana [Artemis]. She touched the goddess’ bow: ‘this bow I touch,’ she cried, ‘Be a witness to my virginity.’ Cynthia [Artemis] praised her, and said: ‘Keep the pledge you vowed and you will be my companions’ princeps.’” (Ovid, Fasti 2. 155 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.)

[51]Ovid, Metamorphoses 1.693

[52]Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis.

 

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