October 23, 2019
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What is Tiphareth?

Tiphareth-2Tiphereth, is the sixth sefira in the kabbalistic Tree of Life. The action of the fourth and fifth Sephiroth, male and female, produce in reconciliation Tiphareth, which is “Beauty” and “Harmony.” The diagram will show it in the center of the whole Sephirothal system comparable to a Sun – which indeed is its astrological attribution – with the planets revolving around it. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 49) The word Tiferet  means “Adornment” (Hebrew: תפארת) alternately Tifaret, Tifereth, Tyfereth or  It has the common association of “Spirituality“, “Balance“, “Integration“, “Beauty“, “Miracles“, and “Compassion“.

In the Bahir it states: “Sixth is the adorned, glorious, delightful throne of glory, the house of the world to come. Its place is engraved in wisdom as it says ‘God said: Let there be light, and there was light.'” [1]

Tiferet is the force that integrates the Sefira of Chesed (“compassion”) and Gevurah (“Strength, or Judgement (din)“). These two forces are, respectively, expansive (giving) and restrictive (receiving). Either of them without the other could not manifest the flow of Divine energy; they must be balanced in perfect proportion by balancing compassion with discipline. This balance can be seen in the role of Tiferet, wherein the conflicting forces are harmonized, and creation flowers forth. Tiferet also balances Netzach and Hod in a similar manner. In that case Hod can be seen as the intellect where Netzach is seen as emotion.

Tiferet also occupies a place on the middle pillar, and can be seen as a lower reflection of Kether, as well as a higher reflection of Yesod and Malkuth. Tiferet relates to the sun, and as such, it takes a central place in the lower face of the Tree of Life, much in the same manner that the sun is at the center of the solar system. It is not the center of the universe, as one could perhaps argue Kether to be, but rather it is the center of our local astronomical system. Nonetheless, it is the sun that gives light and life, even though it did not create itself. Tiferet can be seen as a metaphor for these same attributes.

Tiphareth-3Tiferet is unique amongst the Sephirot as it is connected to all the other Sephirot (except Malkuth) via the subjective paths of the unconscious. Its position down the center between Keter and Yesod indicates to many Kabbalists that it is somewhat of a “converting” Sephirot between form (Yesod) and force (Keter). In other words, all crossing over the middle path via Tiferet results in a reversed polarity. The law of conservation of energy and mass tends to corroborate this – in all cases of energy transmutation, a sacrifice is necessary so a new form may be born.

Tiferet is the middle of the tree. Five Sefirot surround it: above are Chesed at the right (south) and Gevurah at the left (north), and below are Netzach at the right, Hod at the left, and Yesod directly below. Together these six are a single entity, Zer Anpin, which is the masculine counterpart of the feminine sefira Malkuth. In certain contexts, Tiferet alone represents all the sefirot of Zer Anpin, so that the entire tree appears with only five sefirot: Keter, Chochmah, Binah, Tiferet, and Malkhut.

In the standard tree, Tiferet has eight paths, leading (counterclockwise) to Keter (through Daat), Binah, Gevurah, Hod, Yesod, Netsach, Chesed, and Chokmah.

Tiferet can be also a variation of the word “Tifarah” and in Modern Hebrew used in Israel is translated as “Glory” (from God – “Elohim, Adonay)

Christianity primarily focuses on Tipharet as a driving spiritual force, emphasising the points of love, beauty, self sacrifice and service in its greater aspect. Particularly the Osirian sect and other derivations of polytheistic religions, with their personification of gods, emphasise the unknowable from the standpoint of Yesod. The eastern religions, particularly Taoism and Buddhism are more closely related to Kether, with their focus on unity and the indefinable aspect of the Divine.

The Astrological Correspondence: The Sun

sunThe Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is almost perfectly spherical and consists of hot plasma interwoven with magnetic fields.[12][13] It has a diameter of about 1,392,684 km (865,374 mi),[5] around 109 times that of Earth, and its mass (1.989×1030 kilograms, approximately 330,000 times the mass of Earth) accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.[14] Chemically, about three quarters of the Sun’s mass consists of hydrogen, while the rest is mostly helium. The remainder (1.69%, which nonetheless equals 5,600 times the mass of Earth) consists of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon and iron, among others.[15]

The Sun formed about 4.567 billion[a][16] years ago from the gravitational collapse of a region within a large molecular cloud. Most of the matter gathered in the center, while the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that would become the Solar System. The central mass became increasingly hot and dense, eventually initiating thermonuclear fusion in its core. It is thought that almost all stars form by this process. The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star (G2V) based on spectral class and it is informally designated as a yellow dwarf because its visible radiation is most intense in the yellow-green portion of the spectrum, and although it is actually white in color, from the surface of the Earth it may appear yellow because of atmospheric scattering of blue light.[17] In the spectral class label, G2 indicates its surface temperature, of approximately 5778 K (5505 °C), and V indicates that the Sun, like most stars, is a main-sequence star, and thus generates its energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium. In its core, the Sun fuses about 620 million metric tons of hydrogen each second.[18][19]

The Angel and Archangel Correspondence: Raphael

angel-raphaelThe archangel of this sphere is Raphael, and the Malachim is the Angelic order.  Raphael (Standard Hebrew רָפָאֵל, Rāfāʾēl, “It is God who heals”, “God Heals”, “God, Please Heal”) is an archangel of Judaism and Christianity, who in the Judeo-Christian tradition performs all manners of healing. In Islam, Raphael is the fourth major angel; in Muslim tradition, he is known as Israfil. Raphael is mentioned in the Book of Tobit, which is accepted as canonical by Catholics, Orthodox, and some Anglo-Catholics, and as useful for public teaching by Lutherans and Anglicans. Raphael is generally associated with the angel mentioned in the Gospel of John as stirring the water at the healing pool of Bethesda. Raphael is also an angel in Mormonism, as he is briefly mentioned in the Doctrine and Covenants.[1]

The angels mentioned in the Torah, the older books of the Hebrew Bible, are without names. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish of Tiberias (A.D. 230–270), asserted that all the specific names for the angels were brought back by the Jews from Babylon, and modern commentators would tend to agree.

Raphael bound Azazel under a desert called Dudael according to Enoch 10:4–6:

And again the Lord said to Raphael: ‘Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening in the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may not see light. And on the day of the great judgment he shall be cast into the fire.[2]

Of seven archangels in the angelology of post-Exilic Judaism, only Michael, mentioned as archangel (Daniel 12:1; Jude verse 9), Abaddon and Gabriel are mentioned by name in the scriptures that came to be accepted as canonical by all Christians.

The name of the angel Raphael appears only in the Deuterocanonical Book of Tobit. The Book of Tobit is considered canonical by Catholics, Orthodox, and some Anglicans. Raphael first appears disguised in human form as the travelling companion of Tobit’s son, Tobiah (Greek: Τωβίας/Tobias), calling himself “Azarias the son of the great Ananias”. During the course of the journey the archangel’s protective influence is shown in many ways including the binding of a demon in the desert of upper Egypt. After returning and healing the blind Tobit, Azarias makes himself known as “the angel Raphael, one of the seven, who stand before the Lord” Tobit 12:15.[3] He is venerated as Saint Raphael the Archangel.

Regarding the healing powers attributed to Raphael,[4] we have his declaration to Tobit (Tobit, 12) that he was sent by the Lord to heal him of his blindness and to deliver Sarah, his future daughter-in-law, from the demon Asmodeus, who kills every man she marries on their wedding night before the marriage can be consummated.

In the New Testament, only the archangels Gabriel and Michael are mentioned by name (Luke 1:9-26; Jude 1:9). Later manuscripts of John 5:1-4 refer to the pool at Bethesda, where the multitude of the infirm lay awaiting the moving of the water, for “an angel of the Lord descended at certain times into the pond; and the water was moved. And he that went down first into the pond after the motion of the water was made whole of whatsoever infirmity he lay under”. Because of the healing role assigned to Raphael, this particular angel is generally associated with the archangel.

Raphael is sometimes shown as standing atop a large fish or holding a caught fish at the end of a line. This is a reference to the Book of Tobit (Tobias), where he told Tobias to catch a fish, and then uses the gallbladder to heal Tobit’s eyes, and to drive away Asmodeus by burning the heart and liver.

Due to his actions in the Book of Tobit and the Gospel of John, St. Raphael is accounted patron of travelers, the blind, happy meetings, nurses, physicians, medical workers, matchmakers,[5] Christian marriage, and Catholic studies. As a particular enemy of the devil, he was revered in Catholic Europe as a special protector of Catholic sailors: on a corner of Venice’s famous Doge’s Palace, there is a relief depicting Raphael holding a scroll on which is written: Efficia fretum quietum (“Keep the Gulf quiet”). On July 8, 1497, when Vasco Da Gama set forth from Lisbon with his four ship fleet to sail to India, the flagship was named — at the King of Portugal’s insistence — the St. Raphael. When the flotilla reached the Cape of Good Hope on October 22, the sailors disembarked and erected a column in the archangel’s honor. The little statue of St. Raphael that accompanied Da Gama on the voyage is now in the Naval Museum in Lisbon.[6]

Raphael is said to guard pilgrims on their journeys, and is often depicted holding a staff. He is also often depicted holding or standing on a fish, which alludes to his healing of Tobit with the fish’s gall.[7]

The feast day of Raphael was included for the first time in the General Roman Calendar in 1921, for celebration on October 24. With the reform of the Roman Catholic Calendar of Saints in 1969, the feast was transferred to September 29 for celebration together with archangels Saints Michael and Gabriel.[8] Due to Pope Benedict XVI‘s Summorum Pontificum, the Roman Catholic Church still permits use of the 1962 calendar, allowing both feast days.

The Archangel Raphael is said to have appeared in Cordova, Spain, during the 16th century; in response to the City’s appeal, Pope Innocent X allowed the local celebration of a feast in the Archangel’s honor on May 7, the date of the principal apparition. St. John of God, founder of the Hospital order that bears his name, is also said to have received visitations from St. Raphael, who encouraged and instructed him. In tribute to this, many of the Brothers Hospitallers of St. John of God’s facilities are called “Raphael Centers” to this day. The 18th century Neapolitan nun, St. Maria Francesca of the Five Wounds is also said to have seen an apparition of Raphael.[6]

The angel Raphael, along with many other prominent angels, appears in John Milton‘s Paradise Lost, in which he is assigned by God to re-warn Adam concerning the sin of eating of the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil. He also expounds to Adam the War in Heaven in which Lucifer and the demons fell, and the creation of the Earth.

The Zodiac Correspondence: Leo

leo-zodiacThe astrological correspondence is again the sun, and the zodiac associated with Tiferet is Leo.   Leo (♌) is the fifth astrological sign of the zodiac, originating from the constellation of Leo. It spans the 120-150th degree of the Tropical zodiac, between 125.25 and 152.75 degree of celestial longitude. Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun transits this area on average between July 23 and August 23 each year, and under the sidereal zodiac, the sun currently transits this area from approximately August 16 to September 15.

Leo is one of the constellations of the zodiac, lying between Cancer to the west and Virgo to the east. Its name is Latin for lion, and to the ancient Greeks represented the Nemean Lion killed by the mythical Greek hero Heracles (known to the ancient Romans as Hercules) as one of his twelve labors. Its symbol is Leo.svg ( ). One of the 48 constellations described by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy, Leo remains one of the 88 modern constellations today, and one of the most easily recognizable due to its many bright stars and a distinctive shape that is reminiscent of the crouching lion it depicts. The lion’s mane and shoulders also form an asterism known as “the Sickle,” which to modern observers may resemble a backwards “question mark.”

Leo was one of the earliest recognized constellations, with archaeological evidence that the Mesopotamians had a similar constellation as early as 4000 BCE.[9] The Persians called Leo Ser or Shir; the Turks, Artan; the Syrians, Aryo; the Jews, Arye; the Indians, Simha, all meaning “lion”.

Some mythologists believe that in Sumeria, Leo represented the monster Khumbaba, who was killed by Gilgamesh.[10]

In Babylonian astronomy, the constellation was called UR.GU.LA, the “Great Lion”; the bright star Regulus was known as “the star that stands at the Lion’s breast.” Regulus also had distinctly regal associations, as it was known as the King Star.[11]

In Greek mythology, Leo was identified as the Nemean Lion which was killed by Heracles (Hercules to the Romans) during the first of his twelve labours.[9][7] The Nemean Lion would take women as hostages to its lair in a cave, luring warriors from nearby towns to save the damsel in distress, to their misfortune.[12] The Lion was impervious to any weaponry; thus, the warriors’ clubs, swords, and spears were rendered useless against it. Realizing that he must defeat the Lion with his bare hands, Hercules slipped into the Lion’s cave and engaged it at close quarters.[12] When the Lion pounced, Hercules caught it in midair, one hand grasping the Lion’s forelegs and the other its hind legs, and bent it backwards, breaking its back and freeing the trapped maidens.[12] Zeus commemorated this labor by placing the Lion in the sky.[12]

The Roman poet Ovid called it Herculeus Leo and Violentus Leo. Bacchi Sidus (star of Bacchus) was another of its titles, the god Bacchus always being identified with this animal. However, Manilius called it Jovis et Junonis Sidus (Star of Jupiter and Juno).

Early Hindu astronomers knew it as Ashlesha(nakshtra-sub constellation) and as Simha, the Tamil Simham.

As of 2002, the Sun appears in the constellation Leo from August 10 to Sept 10. In tropical astrology, the Sun is considered to be in the sign Leo from July 23 to August 23, and in sidereal astrology, from August 16 to September 17. .

The Egyptian God Attribution: Ra, Asar

raThe Egyptian Deity correspondance for the Sephiroth Tiphareth is Ra and Asar. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 6)  Ra is the Egyptian solar god who is sometimes represented as a hawk-headed divinity and at others by a simple solar disk with “whom the brightest side of the Grecian mind is reflected.”  (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 49)

Ra or Re is the ancient Egyptian solar deity. By the Fifth Dynasty (2494 to 2345 BC) he had become a major god in ancient Egyptian religion, identified primarily with the midday sun.

The major cult centre of Ra was Heliopolis (called Iunu, “Place of Pillars”, in Egyptian),[2] where he was identified with the local sun-god Atum. Through Atum, or as Atum-Ra, he was also seen as the first being and the originator of the Ennead, consisting of Shu and Tefnut, Geb and Nut, Osiris, Set, Isis and Nephthys.

In later Egyptian dynastic times, Ra was merged with the god Horus, as Re-Horakhty (“Ra, who is Horus of the Two Horizons”). He was believed to rule in all parts of the created world: the sky, the earth, and the underworld.[2] He was associated with the falcon or hawk. When in the New Kingdom the god Amun rose to prominence he was fused with Ra as Amun-Ra. During the Amarna Period, Akhenaten suppressed the cult of Ra in favour of another solar deity, the Aten, the deified solar disc, but after the death of Akhenaten the cult of Ra was restored.

The cult of the Mnevis bull, an embodiment of Ra, had its centre in Heliopolis and there was a formal burial ground for the sacrificed bulls north of the city.

All forms of life were believed to have been created by Ra, who called each of them into existence by speaking their secret names. Alternatively humans were created from Ra’s tears and sweat, hence the Egyptians call themselves the “Cattle of Ra.” In the myth of the Celestial Cow it is recounted how mankind plotted against Ra and how he sent his eye as the goddess Sekhmet to punish them. When she became bloodthirsty she was pacified by mixing beer with red dye.

The Greek God Attribution: Apollo, Iacchus, Adonis and/or Dyonisos

The Greek Deity correspondances, according to Aleister Crowley, are Iacchus, Appolo and Adonis. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p.8)


apolllloApollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (GEN Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Latin: Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun, truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry, and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu.

As the patron of Delphi (Pythian Apollo), Apollo was an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius, yet Apollo was also seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague. Amongst the god’s custodial charges, Apollo became associated with dominion over colonists, and as the patron defender of herds and flocks. As the leader of the Muses (Apollon Musegetes) and director of their choir, Apollo functioned as the patron god of music and poetry. Hermes created the lyre for him, and the instrument became a common attribute of Apollo. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans.

In Hellenistic times, especially during the 3rd century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios, Titan god of the sun, and his sister Artemis similarly equated with Selene, Titan goddess of the moon.[1] In Latin texts, on the other hand, Joseph Fontenrose declared himself unable to find any conflation of Apollo with Sol among the Augustan poets of the 1st century, not even in the conjurations of Aeneas and Latinus in Aeneid XII (161–215).[2] Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 3rd century CE.


Adonis (Greek: Ἄδωνις), in Greek mythology, is the god of beauty and desire, and is a central figure in various mystery religions. His religion belonged to women: the dying of Adonis was fully developed in the circle of young girls around the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, about 600 BC, as revealed in a fragment of Sappho’s surviving poetry.[1]  Adonis has had multiple roles, and there has been much scholarship over the centuries concerning his meaning and purpose in Greek religious beliefs. He is an annually-renewed, ever-youthful vegetation god, a life-death-rebirth deity whose nature is tied to the calendar. His name is often applied in modern times to handsome youths, of whom he is the archetype.  The Greek Ἄδωνις (Greek pronunciation: [ˈadɔːnis]), Adōnis was a borrowing from the Semitic word adon, meaning “lord”,[2] which is related to Adonai, one of the names used to refer to the god (אֲדֹנָי) of the Hebrew Bible and still used in Judaism to the present day. Syrian Adonis is Gauas[3] or Aos, akin to Egyptian Osiris, the Semitic Tammuz and Baal Hadad, the Etruscan Atunis and the Phrygian Attis, all of whom are deities of rebirth and vegetation.[4]

The most detailed and literary version of the story of Adonis is a late one, in Book X of Ovid‘s Metamorphoses.[5] The central myth in its Greek telling, Aphrodite fell in love with the beautiful youth (possibly because she had been wounded by Eros‘ arrow). Aphrodite sheltered Adonis as a new-born baby and entrusted him to Persephone.

Persephone was also taken by Adonis’ beauty and refused to give him back to Aphrodite. The dispute between the two goddesses was settled by Zeus (or by Calliope on Zeus’ behalf): Adonis was to spend one-third of every year with each goddess and the last third wherever he chose. He chose to spend two-thirds of the year with Aphrodite.

Adonis was killed by a wild boar, said to have been sent vicariously by Artemis, jealous of Adonis’ hunting skills or in retaliation for Aphrodite instigating the death of Hippolytus, a favorite of the huntress goddess; or by Aphrodite’s paramour, Ares, who was jealous of Aphrodite’s love for Adonis; or by Apollo, to punish Aphrodite for blinding his son, Erymanthus.[6] Adonis died in Aphrodite‘s arms, who came to him when she heard his groans.

When he died she sprinkled the blood with nectar, from which sprang the short-lived anemone, which takes its name from the wind which so easily makes its petals fall. And so it is the blood of Adonis that each spring turns to red the torrential river, the Adonis River (also known as Abraham River or Nahr Ibrahim in Arabic) in modern Lebanon. Afqa is the sacred source where the waters of the river emerge from a huge grotto in a cliff 200 meters (660 feet) high. It is there that the myth of Astarte (Venus) and Adonis was born.

An extremely attractive, youthful male is often called an Adonis, often with a connotation of deserved vanity: “the office Adonis.” The legendary attractiveness of the figure is referenced in Sarrasine by Honoré de Balzac, which describes an unrequited love of the main character, Sarrasine for the image in a painting of an Adonis and a castrato. The allusion to extreme physical attractiveness is apparent in the psychoanalytical Adonis Complex which refers to a body image obsession with improving one’s physique and youthful appearance.


Even if he perfectly agrees with this attribution, Israel Regardie thinks that we should also considers Dionysos, or at least some aspects of him.  In his book A Garden of Pomegrenates, Regardie reminds us that “Dionysus is another god in the category of six, because of his youth and gracious form, combining effeminate softness and beauty, or because of his cultivation of the vine which, ceremonially used in the Eleusinian mysteries,52 produced a spiritual intoxication analogous to the mystycal state. It may be, too, because Dionysus is said to have transformed himself into a lion, which is the sacred animal of Tiphareth, being the king of wild beasts, and regality has always been depicted in the form of the lion.53 Astrological reasons may explain this parallelism for Sol O is exhalted in the zodiacal sign of Leo, the lion which was considered to be a creative symbol of the fierce mien of the midsummer Sun. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 49)

The Roman Deity Attribution: Baccus – Apollo

roman-apolloThe Roman Deity correspondance for Tiphareth, according to Crowley, is Apollo. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p.11)  The From Walter Pater’s Greek Studies we learn that : Apollo the “spiritual form” of sunbeams, easily becomes (the merely physical element in his constitution being almost wholly suppressed) exclusively ethical – the “spiritual form” of inward or intellectual light, in all its manifestations. He represents all those specially European ideas of a reasonable polity ; of the sanity of soul and body… his religion is a sort of embodied equity, its aim being the realization of fair reason and just consideration of the truth of things everywhere. ” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 49)  We can find a parallel conception in that section of the Zohar entitled Idra Zuta :49, Israel Regardie tells us, where it is said that Tiphareth is “the highest manifestation of ethical life, the sum of all goodness ; in short, the ideal.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 49)

Baccus, another name of Dionysus for purposes of worship, is the god of intoxication, of inspiration, a giver of superhuman or immortal life. In this “Notes” on the Bacchus of Euripides, Prof. Gilbert Murray writes, with regard to Orphism : “All true worshippers become in a mystical sense one with the God ; they are borna gain and are “Bacchoi.” Dionysus being the God within, the perfectly pure soul is possessed by the God wholly and becomes nothing but the God.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 50)

The Christian Deity Correspondence: Christ

jesus_christIn Christian Cabala, Tiphereth is especially associated with Jesus Christ, ‘God the Son’ (as opposed to Kether, which is God the father, and Yesod, the Holy Spirit). This is because this is the Sephirah in which the divine force ‘sacrifices’ itself, transmutating into the forces of energy and matter, in order that creation might come to be. It is the sephirah in which ‘God becomes a mortal man’. Illustrative of the process of Tipharet is Jesus’ teaching in the Book of John, “No one comes to the Father except through me”. Kether is raw energy as the Godhead and is as such unknowable by the conscious mind; Tiphareth (the son) balances the force and form of Kether and Yesod respectively allowing Kether to assume a knowable form. A Christian mystic, in relating to Jesus, repeats the process in the other direction, by transmutating that which is lower, in order to achieve the divine. In terms of the Kabbalah, Tipharet encompasses not only “God the Son” but also the related myths of Osiris and other sacrificial gods.

Christ ancient Greek: Χριστός, Christós, meaning ‘anointed‘) is a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ (Māšîaḥ) and the Syriac ܡܫܝܚܐ (M’shiha), the Messiah, and is used as a title for Jesus in the New Testament.[3][4] In common usage, “Christ” is generally treated as synonymous with Jesus of Nazareth.[4][5] The followers of Jesus became known as Christians (as in Acts 11:26) because they believed Jesus to be the Messiah (Christós) prophesied in the Hebrew Bible,[6][7] for example in the Confession of Peter.

Jesus came to be called “Jesus Christ”, meaning “Jesus the Christós” (i.e. Jesus, the anointed; or “Jesus, the Messiah” by his followers) after his death and believed resurrection.[8][6] Before, Jesus was usually referred to as “Jesus of Nazareth” or “Jesus son of Joseph”.[8] In the epistles of Paul the Apostle, the earliest texts of the New Testament,[9] Paul most often referred to Jesus as “Christ Jesus”, or “Christ”.[10] Christ was originally a title, yet later became part of the name “Jesus Christ”, though it is still also used as a title, in the reciprocal use Christ Jesus, meaning “The Messiah Jesus”.[11]

Jesus was not, and is not, accepted by most Jews as their Messiah.[12] Religious Jewish people still await the Messiah’s first coming, while Christians await the Second Coming of Christ, when they believe he will fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy.[13] Muslims accept Jesus as the Messiah (known as Isa al-Masih) but not as the Son of God.[14]

The area of Christian theology called Christology is primarily concerned with the nature and person of Jesus Christ as recorded in the canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament.[15]

The Hindu God Attribution: Hari

hariThe Hindu Deity correspondance for Tiphareth, according to Crowley, is Vishnu Hari-Krishna-Rama. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p.9)  Israel Regardie in his book A Garden of Pomegrenates explains: “Hari, the Hindu attribution, is another name for Shri Krishna the divine Avatara,50 attributed here because, being a divine incarnation – one in whom both Spirit and Matter were in complete equilibrium – he expressed the essential idea implied in Tiphareth.”  (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 50) Adonis, Iacchus, Rama, and Asar are other correspondences for six, either because of their inherent nature of beauty, or because they represent in one way or another the solar disk, to which all mystical psychology, ancient and modern, is unanimous in attributing the spiritual consciousness.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 50)

Sanskrit Hari (Devanagari: हरि) is in origin a colour term for yellowish hues, including yellow, golden, yellowish-brown or reddish brown, fallow or khaki, pale yellow, greenish or green-yellow It has important symbolism in the Rigveda and hence in Hinduism; in Rigvedic symbolism, it unites the colours of Soma, the Sun, and bay horses under a single term.[1]

The word Hari is widely used in later Sanskrit and Prakrit literature, Hindu, Buddhist, Jain and Sikh religions. It appears as 650th name of Vishnu in the Vishnu sahasranama of the Mahabharata and hence rose to special importance in Hindu Vaishnavism. The Sanskrit word is cognate with Avestan zari, with the same meaning (zari has (dubiously) been identified as the first part of the name of Zarathustra). The English words gold and yellow (from Germanic gulþan, gelwaz) as well as Latin helvus “light-yellow” are from the same Indo-European root, reconstructed as *ǵʰelH-. Some words in non-Indo-European languages which fell under Hindu dominance during the medieval period also have loanwords derived from the Sanskrit term, including the word for “day” in Malay and Indonesian, and the word for “king” in Tagalog. The Harivamsha (“lineage of Hari”) is a text in both the Puranic and Itihasa traditions.  Hari is also a name for Indra.  As the name of tawny-colored animals, hari may refer to lions (also a name of the zodiacal sign Leo), bay horses, or monkeys. The feminine Harī is the name of the mythological “mother of monkeys” in the Sanskrit epics. Hari is the name of a class of gods under the fourth Manu (manu tāmasa, “Dark Manu”) in the Puranas.  In Hinduism, beginning with Adi Sankara‘s commentary on the Vishnu sahasranama, hari became etymologized as derived from the verbal root hṛ “to grab, seize, steal”, in the context of Vaishnavism interpreted as “to take away or remove evil or sin”,[2] and the name of Vishnu rendered as “he who destroys samsara“, which is the entanglement in the cycle of birth and death, along with ignorance, its cause;[3] compare hara as a name of Shiva, translated as “seizer” or “destroyer”. In the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition, Hari is a name of both Krishna or Vishnu, invoked in the Hare Krishna mantra.

The Scandinavian God Attribution: Balder

balderThe Scandinavian correspondence is in all probability the god Balder, according to Israel Regardie,a god which is considered as being “the favorite of all nature, the son of Odin and Frigg.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 50)  Anderson writes that “It may be truly said of him that he is the best god, and all mankind are loud in his praise.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 50) Crowley, in the other hand, mentioned nothing of the sort in his reference book 777: and other Qabalistic Writtings of Aleister Crowley.

Baldr (also Balder, Baldur) is a god of light and purity in Norse mythology, and a son of the god Odin and the goddess Frigg. He has numerous brothers, such as Thor and Váli. In the 12th century, Danish accounts by Saxo Grammaticus and other Danish Latin chroniclers recorded a euhemerized account of his story. Compiled in Iceland in the 13th century, but based on much older Old Norse poetry, the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda contain numerous references to the death of Baldr as both a great tragedy to the Æsir and a harbinger of Ragnarök. According to Gylfaginning, a book of Snorri Sturluson‘s Prose Edda, Baldr’s wife is Nanna and their son is Forseti. In Gylfaginning, Snorri relates that Baldr had the greatest ship ever built, named Hringhorni, and that there is no place more beautiful than his hall, Breidablik.

Jacob Grimm in his Teutonic Mythology (ch. 11) identifies Old Norse Baldr with the Old High German Baldere (2nd Merseburg Charm, Thuringia), Palter (theonym, Bavaria), Paltar (personal name) and with Old English bealdor, baldor “lord, prince, king” (used always with a genitive plural, as in gumena baldor “lord of men”, wigena baldor “lord of warriors”, et cetera). Old Norse shows this usage of the word as an honorific in a few cases, as in baldur î brynju (Sæm. 272b) and herbaldr (Sæm. 218b), both epithets of heroes in general.

Grimm traces the etymology of the name to *balþaz, whence Gothic balþs, Old English bald, Old High German pald, all meaning “bold, brave”.[1]

But the interpretation of Baldr as “the brave god” may be secondary. Baltic (cf. Lithuanian baltas, Latvian balts) has a word meaning “the white, the good”, and Grimm speculates that the name may originate as a Baltic loan into Proto-Germanic. In continental Saxon and Anglo-Saxon tradition, the son of Woden is called not Bealdor but Baldag (Sax.) and Bældæg, Beldeg (AS.), which shows association with “day”, possibly with Day personified as a deity which, Grimm points out, would agree with the meaning “shining one, white one, a god” derived from the meaning of Baltic baltas, further adducing Slavic Belobog and German Berhta.[2]

Apart from the description of him in the Poetic Edds, Baldr is known primarily for the story of his death. His death is seen as the first in the chain of events which will ultimately lead to the destruction of the gods at Ragnarök. Baldr will be reborn in the new world, according to Völuspá.

He had a dream of his own death and his mother had the same dreams. Since dreams were usually prophetic, this depressed him, so his mother Frigg made every object in every realm vow never to hurt Baldr. All objects made this vow except mistletoe.[6] Frigg had thought it too unimportant and nonthreatening to bother asking it to make the vow (alternatively, it seemed too young to swear).

When Loki, the mischief-maker, heard of this, he made a magical spear from this plant (in some later versions, an arrow). He hurried to the place where the gods were indulging in their new pastime of hurling objects at Baldr, which would bounce off without harming him. Loki gave the spear to Baldr’s brother, the blind god Höðr, who then inadvertently killed his brother with it (other versions suggest that Loki guided the arrow himself). For this act, Odin and the giantess Rindr gave birth to Váli who grew to adulthood within a day and slew Höðr.[7]

Baldr was ceremonially burnt upon his ship, Hringhorni, the largest of all ships. As he was carried to the ship, Odin whispered in his ear. This was to be a key riddle asked by Odin (in disguise) of the giant Vafthrudnir (and which was, of course, unanswerable) in the poem Vafthrudnismal. The riddle also appears in the riddles of Gestumblindi in Hervarar saga.[8]

The dwarf Litr was kicked by Thor into the funeral fire and burnt alive. Nanna, Baldr’s wife, also threw herself on the funeral fire to await Ragnarök when she would be reunited with her husband (alternatively, she died of grief). Baldr’s horse with all its trappings was also burned on the pyre. The ship was set to sea by Hyrrokin, a giantess, who came riding on a wolf and gave the ship such a push that fire flashed from the rollers and all the earth shook.

Upon Frigg’s entreaties, delivered through the messenger Hermod, Hel promised to release Baldr from the underworld if all objects alive and dead would weep for him. All did, except a giantess, Þökk often presumed to be the god Loki in disguise, who refused to mourn the slain god. Thus Baldr had to remain in the underworld, not to emerge until after Ragnarök, when he and his brother Höðr would be reconciled and rule the new earth together with Thor’s sons.



The Chakra System Correspondence: Anahata Chakra

Chakra04Tiphereth is associated with divine love, with healing, balance and harmony. In comparing with Eastern traditions, Tiphereth is usually associated with the central Anahata chakra in tantric tradition, which contains many of the same archetypal ideas.  On the tree of life, the central sephirah (Tiphereth) is associated with the heart.[7] Christian kabbalists, in particular, associate this sephirah with love, healing and Jesus Christ.   Anahata (Sanskrit: अनाहत, Anāhata) is the fourth primary chakra, according to Hindu Yogic, Shakta and Buddhist Tantric traditions. In Sanskrit, anahata means “unhurt, unstruck and unbeaten”. Anahata Nad refers to the Vedic concept of unstruck sound (the sound of the celestial realm). Ananhata is associated with a calm, serene sound devoid of violence. The Anahata chakra is in the central channel in the spine at the heart, with its kshetram (superficial activation site) between the breasts.[2]Anahata is represented by a smoke-grey lotus flower with 12 petals. Inside is a smoke-coloured region made from the intersection of two triangles, creating a shatkona. The shatkona is a symbol used in Hindu Yantra, representing the union of the masculine and feminine. Specifically, it is meant to represent Purusha (the Supreme Being) and Prakriti (Mother Nature) and is often represented by Shiva and Shakti. The deity of this area is Vayu, who is smoke-coloured and four-armed, holding a kusha and riding an antelope (the chakra’s animal).The seed syllable is the, dark-grey mantra “yam”. In the bindu (or dot) above the syllable is the deity Isha. Isha is bright white or blue in color, has one or five faces, with three eyes on each face; has two, four or ten arms; is clad in a tiger skin, holds a trident and drum, grants blessings and dispels fear. His shakti is Kakini, who is shining yellow or rose-coloured. She has a number of variations: one, three or six faces, two or four arms, and holds a variety of implements (occasionally a sword, shield, skull or trident). She is seated on a red lotus.The twelve petals are vermilion-coloured, and on them are inscribed the syllables kam, kham, gam, gham, ngam, cham, chham, jam, jham, nyam, tam and tham in Sanskrit. They match the vrittis of lust, fraud, indecision, repentance, hope, anxiety, longing, impartiality, arrogance, incompetence, discrimination and defiance.  Anahata is considered the seat of the Jivatman and Parashakti. In the Upanishads, this is described as like a tiny flame inside the heart. Anahata is so called because here sages hear the sound (Anahata – Shabda) which comes without the striking of two things together.[3] It is associated with air, touch and actions of the hands. Anahata is associated with the ability to make decisions outside the realm of karma. In Manipura and below, man is bound by the laws of karma and fate. In Anahata one makes decisions (“follows one’s heart”) based on one’s higher self, not the unfulfilled emotions and desires of lower nature. As such, it is known as the heart chakra.[4] It is also associated with love and compassion, charity to others and psychic healing. Meditation on this chakra is said to bring about the following siddhis: he becomes a lord of speech; he is dear to women; his presence controls the senses of others, and he can enter another’s body at will.

Anahata is said to be near the heart. Because of its connection to touch it is associated with the skin, and because of its connection to actions of the hands it is associated with the hands. In the endocrine system, Anahata is said to be associated with the thymus.

In Kundalini yoga, anahata is awakened and balanced by asanas, pranayamas and the practice of ajapa japa (japa, without the mental effort normally needed to repeat the mantra) and purified by bhakti (devotion).

Sufis have a system of Lataif-e-sitta at a number of points on the body; at the heart, there are three positioned horizontally. On the left side of the chest is the Qalb (the heart); the Ruh is on the right side of the chest, and the Sirr (innermost heart) is between them.[8]

The Qalb is called the heart of the mystic; it is caught between the downward pull of the lower nafs, and the upward pull of the spirit of Allah and may be blackened by sin. It may be purified by reciting the names of God. The Ruh is the centre of the spirit, the breath of Allah; when awakened, it counteracts the negative pull of the nafs. The Sirr is the innermost heart, where Allah manifests his mystery.

In Qigong, the middle Dantian (one of the three furnaces which transform energy in the body) is in this region. The middle Dantian transforms qi energy into shen (spiritual energy).

HritImmediately below Anahata (at the solar plexus or, sometimes, on the near left side of the body) is a minor chakra known as Hrit (or Hridaya, “heart”), with eight petals. It has three regions: a vermilion sun region, within which is a white moon region, within which is a deep-red fire region. Within this is the red wish-fulfilling tree, kalpa taru, which symbolises the ability to manifest what one wishes to happen in the world.  Hrit chakra is sometimes known as the Surya (sun) chakra,[5] which is located slightly to the left below the heart. Its role is to absorb energy from the sun and provide heat to the body and the other chakras (to Manipura in particular, to which it provides Agni (fire).

The Sacred Animal Correspondence: Lion, the Phoenix and the Pellican

lion-sacred-animal-tipharethThe sacred animal attribution for Tiphareth is the Lion but also the Phoenix,  the Pellican and Aleister Crowley even add “the child” to this list.  (Aleister Crowley, 777, p.  10)  In addition to the lion, the sacred animal of Tiphareth is the fabulous phoenix who tears open her breast so that her seven young ones may feed upon the blood stream and vitality issuing from her wound. The pelican has a similar legend attached to it.54 They both suggest the idea of a Redeemer giving his life for others, and Murray gives in his “Introductory Notes” above mentioned, an interesting anecdote with avery similar implication : “Semélé, daughter of Cadmus, being loved by Zeus, asked her divine lover to appear to her once in his full glory ; he came, a blaze of miraculous lightning, in the ecstasy of which Semélé died, giving premature birth to a son. Zeus, to save this child’s life and make him truly God as well as Man, tore open his own flesh and therein fostered the child till in due time, by a miraculous and mysterious Second Birth, the child of Semélé came to full life of God.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 50)

The Sacred Plant Attribution: Acacia

AcaciaThe sacred plant correspondance for Tiphareth is acacia, (Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 10) which is  “the Masonic symbol of resurrection, and the vine are the plants of Tiphareth.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 50)

Acacia (/əˈkʃə/ or /əˈksiə/), known commonly as acacia, thorntree, whistling thorn, or wattle, is a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, described by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1773 based on the African species Acacia nilotica. Many non-Australian species tend to be thorny, whereas the majority of Australian acacias are not. All species are pod-bearing, with sap and leaves often bearing large amounts of tannins and condensed tannins that historically found use as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

The generic name derives from ἀκακία (akakia), the name given by early Greek botanist-physician Pedanius Dioscorides (middle to late first century) to the medicinal tree A. nilotica in his book Materia Medica.[2] This name derives from the Greek word for its characteristic thorns, ἀκίς (akis; “thorn”).[3] The species name nilotica was given by Linnaeus from this tree’s best-known range along the Nile river.

The genus Acacia previously contained roughly 1,300 species, about 960 of them native to Australia, with the remainder spread around the tropical to warm-temperate regions of both hemispheres, including Europe, Africa, southern Asia, and the Americas (see List of Acacia species). However, in 2005, the genus was divided into five separate genera under the tribe “Acacieae“. The genus Acacia (sensu stricto) was retained for the majority of the Australian species and a few in tropical Asia, Madagascar, and Pacific Islands. Most of the species outside Australia, and a small number of Australian species, were reclassified into Vachellia and Senegalia. The two final genera, Acaciella and Mariosousa, each contains about a dozen species from the Americas (but see “Classification” below for ongoing debate concerning these name changes).

Acacia species have possible uses in folk medicine. A 19th-century Ethiopian medical text describes a potion made from an Ethiopian species (known as grar) mixed with the root of the tacha, then boiled, as a cure for rabies.[16]

An astringent medicine high in tannins, called catechu or cutch, is procured from several species, but more especially from Senegalia catechu (syn. Acacia catechu), by boiling down the wood and evaporating the solution so as to get an extract.[17][18] The catechu extract from A. catechu figures in the history of chemistry in giving its name to the catechin, catechol, and catecholamine chemical families ultimately derived from it.

The acacia is used as a symbol in Freemasonry, to represent purity and endurance of the soul, and as funerary symbolism signifying resurrection and immortality. The tree gains its importance from the description of the burial of Hiram Abiff, who provided some of the builders for King Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem.[20]

Egyptian mythology has associated the acacia tree with characteristics of the tree of life, such as in the Myth of Osiris and Isis. (There is a Sanskrit word, akasha, which means aether or spirit.)

Several parts (mainly bark, root, and resin) of Acacia species are used to make incense for rituals. Acacia is used in incense mainly in India, Nepal, and China including in its Tibet region. Smoke from acacia bark is thought to keep demons and ghosts away and to put the gods in a good mood. Roots and resin from acacia are combined with rhododendron, acorus, cytisus, salvia, and some other components of incense. Both people and elephants like an alcoholic beverage made from acacia fruit.[21] According to Easton’s Bible Dictionary, the acacia tree may be the “burning bush” (Exodus 3:2) which Moses encountered in the desert.[22] Also, when God gave Moses the instructions for building the Tabernacle, he said to “make an ark” and “a table of acacia wood” (Exodus 25:10 & 23, Revised Standard Version). Also, in the Christian tradition, Christ’s crown of thorns is thought to have been woven from acacia.[23]

In Russia, Italy, and other countries, it is customary to present women with yellow mimosas (among other flowers) on International Women’s Day (March 8). These “mimosas” are actually from A. dealbata (silver wattle).



The Perfume Correspondance: Olibanum

olibanumThe perfume attribution for Tiphareth is the gum of olibanum ;55 (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 50; Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 13)

Frankincense, also called olibanum, is an aromatic resin obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia, particularly Boswellia sacra, B. carteri, B. thurifera, B. frereana and B. bhaw-dajiana (Burseraceae). The English word is derived from Old French “franc encens” (i.e., high quality incense)[1] and is used in incense and perfumes.

There are four main species of Boswellia that produce true frankincense and resin from each of the four is available in various grades. The grades depend on the time of harvesting. The resin is hand-sorted for quality.

Frankincense is mentioned in the Bible as one of the three gifts the wise men gave to the young child Jesus.

Frankincense is tapped from the scraggly but hardy trees by slashing the bark, which is called striping, and allowing the exuded resin to bleed out and harden. These hardened resins are called tears. There are several species and varieties of frankincense trees, each producing a slightly different type of resin. Differences in soil and climate create even more diversity of the resin, even within the same species. Boswellia Sacra trees are considered unusual for their ability to grow in environments so unforgiving that they sometimes grow out of solid rock.

Frankincense has been traded on the Arabian Peninsula and in North Africa for more than 5000 years.[6] A mural depicting sacks of frankincense traded from the Land of Punt adorns the walls of the temple of ancient Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut, who died circa 1458 BC.[7]

Frankincense was one of the consecrated incenses (HaKetoret) described in the Hebrew Bible and Talmud used in Ketoret ceremonies.[8] The frankincense of the Jews, as well as of the Greeks and Romans, is also called Olibanum (from the Arabic al-lubbān). Old Testament references report it in trade from Sheba (Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 6:20). Frankincense is mentioned in the Song of Solomon (Song of Solomon 4:14).[9]

It was offered on a specialized incense altar in the time when the Tabernacle was located in the First and Second Jerusalem Temples. The ketoret was an important component of the Temple service in Jerusalem. It is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible book of Exodus 30:34, where it is named levonah (lebonah in the Biblical Hebrew), meaning “white” in Hebrew.[8] It was one of the ingredients in the perfume of the sanctuary (Exodus 30:34), and was used as an accompaniment of the meal-offering (Leviticus 2:1, 2:16, 6:15, 24:7). When burnt it emitted a fragrant odour, and the incense was a symbol of the Divine name (Malachi 1:11 ; Song of Solomon 1:3) and an emblem of prayer (Psalm 141:2 ; Luke 1:10 ; Revelation 5:8, 8:3). It was often associated with myrrh (Song of Solomon 3:6, 4:6) and with it was made an offering to the infant Jesus (Matthew 2:11). A specially “pure” kind, lebhonah zakkah, was presented with the showbread (Leviticus 24:7).[9]

“While burning incense was accepted as a practice in the later Roman Catholic church, the early church during Roman times forbade the use of incense in services resulting in a rapid decline in the incense trade.”[10]

Frankincense was reintroduced to Europe by Frankish Crusaders, although its name refers to its quality, not to the Franks themselves.[1] Although it is better known as “frankincense” to westerners, the resin is also known as olibanum, in Arabic al-lubān (roughly translated: “that which results from milking”), a reference to the milky sap tapped from the Boswellia tree. Some have also postulated that the name comes from the Arabic term for “Oil of Lebanon“, since Lebanon was the place where the resin was sold and traded with Europeans.[citation needed]

The lost city of Ubar, sometimes identified with Irem in what is now the town of Shisr in Oman, is believed to have been a center of the frankincense trade along the recently rediscovered “Incense Road“. Ubar was rediscovered in the early 1990s and is now under archaeological excavation.

The Greek historian Herodotus was familiar with frankincense and knew it was harvested from trees in southern Arabia. He reported that the gum was dangerous to harvest because of venomous snakes that lived in the trees. He goes on to describe the method used by the Arabs to get around this problem, that being the burning of the gum of the styrax tree whose smoke would drive the snakes away.[11] The resin is also mentioned by Theophrastus and by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia.

Southern Arabia was a major exporter of frankincense in ancient times, with some of it being traded as far as China. The Chinese writer and customs inspector Zhao Rugua wrote on the origin of frankincense, and of its being traded to China:

“Ruxiang or xunluxiang comes from the three Dashi countries of Murbat (Maloba), Shihr (Shihe), and Dhofar (Nufa), from the depths of the remotest mountains.[12] The tree which yields this drug may generally be compared to the pine tree. Its trunk is notched with a hatchet, upon which the resin flows out, and, when hardened, turns into incense, which is gathered and made into lumps. It is transported on elephants to the Dashi (on the coast), who then load it upon their ships to exchange it for other commodities in Sanfoqi. This is the reason why it is commonly collected at and known as a product of Sanfoqi.”[13]

The Sacred Color Correspondance: Yellow

The scared color attribution for Tiphareth is Yellow (Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 7) The reason for this attribution, Regardie tells us, is “because of the Sun – the source of spiritual existence and physical life alike – is its luminary.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 50)

FFCC00Yellow is the color of gold, butter and ripe lemons.[2] In the spectrum of visible light, and in the traditional color wheel used by painters, yellow is found between green and orange.  Yellow is commonly associated with gold, wealth, sunshine, reason, happiness, optimism and pleasure, but also with envy, jealousy and betrayal. It plays an important part in Asian culture, particularly in China.[3]   The word “yellow” comes from the Old English geolu, geolwe, meaning “yellow, yellowish”, derived from the Proto-Germanic word gelwaz. It has the same Indo-European base, -ghel, as the word yell; -ghel means both bright and gleaming, and to cry out. Yellow is a color which cries out for attention.[4]  The English term is related to other Germanic words for yellow, namely Scots (Scottish people) yella, East Frisian jeel, West Frisian giel, Dutch geel, German gelb, and Swedish gul.[5] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of this word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in the year 700.[6]     Yellow, in the form of yellow ochre pigment made from clay, was one of the first colors used in prehistoric cave art. The cave of Lascaux has an image of a horse colored with yellow estimated to be 17,300 years old.   In Ancient Egypt, yellow was associated with gold, which was considered to be imperishable, eternal and indestructible. The skin and bones of the gods were believed to be made of gold. The Egyptians used yellow extensively in tomb paintings; they usually used either yellow ochre or the brilliant orpiment, though it was made of arsenic and was highly toxic. A small paintbox with orpiment pigment was found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun. Men were always shown with brown faces, women with yellow ochre or gold faces.[7]

The ancient Romans used yellow in their paintings to represent gold and also in skin tones. It is found frequently in the murals of Pompeii.

The Precious Stone Correspondance: Topaz and Yellow Diamonds

yellow-sapphireThe precious stones attribution for Tiphareth is Topaz and Yellow Diamods (Aleister Crowley, 777, p.10) Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces.

Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine, yellow, pale gray, reddish-orange, or blue brown. It can also be made white, pale green, blue, gold, pink (rare), reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent.

Orange topaz, also known as precious topaz, is the traditional November birthstone, the symbol of friendship, and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah.[5]

Imperial topaz is yellow, pink (rare, if natural) or pink-orange. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue, sometimes even violet. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow, gold, pink or violet colored. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time.[6][7]

Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas.[8] Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. Typically, colorless, gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more desired darker blue.[7]

Mystic topaz is colorless topaz which has been artificially coated giving it the desired rainbow effect.[9]

The name “topaz” is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from the Greek Τοπάζιος (Τοpáziοs) or Τοπάζιον (Τοpáziοn),[13] the ancient name of St. John’s Island in the Red Sea which was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be chrysolite: yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times; topaz itself (rather than topazios) was not really known before the classical era. Pliny said that Topazos is a legendary island in the Red Sea and the mineral “topaz” was first mined there.

The word topaz is related to the Sanskrit word तपस् “tapas” meaning “heat” or “fire”,[13] and also to the Hebrew word for “orange” (the fruit): tapooz (תפוז), both of which predate the Greek word.

Nicols, the author of one of the first systematic treatises on minerals and gemstones, dedicated two chapters to the topic in 1652.[14] In the Middle Ages, the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but in modern times it denotes only the silicate described above.

Many modern English translations of the Bible, including the King James Version mention topaz in Exodus 28:17 in reference to a stone in the Hoshen: “And thou shalt set in it settings of stones, even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle (garnet): this shall be the first row.”

However, because these translations as topaz all derive from the Septuagint translation topazi[os], which as mentioned above referred to a yellow stone that was not topaz, but probably chrysolite (chrysoberyl or peridot), it should be borne in mind that topaz is likely not meant here.[15] The masoretic text (the Hebrew on which most modern Protestant Bible translations of the Old Testament are based) has pitdah as the gem the stone is made from; some scholars think it is related to an Assyrian word meaning “flashed”.[citation needed]

More likely, pitdah is derived from Sanskrit words (पीत pit = yellow, दह् dah = burn), meaning “yellow burn” or, metaphorically, “fiery”[

The Yetzaric Denomination: Mediating Influence or Lesser Countenance

The Sepher haZohar denominates the hexagram of Sephiroth clustered about Tiphareth as the Microprosopus, or the Lesser Countenance.51  (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 50) Crowley talks about “Mediating Influence.” (Aleister Crowley, 777, p.4)

The Tarot Cards Attribution: The Four Sixes

the-four-sixesThe tarot cards correspondances for Tiphareth are the four Sixes (Aleister crowley, 777, p. 4) , and to Tiphareth is given the title of Son and the letter Vav T of Tetragrammaton, and the four Princes or Knights (Jacks) of the tarot. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 50) The Sepher Yetzirah denominantes this sixth Sephirah as “the Mediating Intelligence.” Its jewels are the topaz and yellow diamond, so attributed because of their color. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 50)

The Four Sixes in the Tarot represent stability and security or the potential or opportunity to find it. A halt or ceasefire has been called on their individual battles or difficulties. Now that the storm has passed each Suit will seek comfort, harmony, peace and equilibrium in the only way they know which is governed by their influencing Element.  Most of the Suits will be showing signs of exhaustion and weariness after the Five and some may just want to crawl into the nearest hole and stay there until their breathing and heart beat returns to normal.  They may all need help and support from those around them and so fittingly, the Sixes in the Tarot are also connected with Charity, Patronage and Support.  Some, more than others, may have found that the demands of the Five have left them drained and low.  They must now look to those around them, family, friends or the wider community to assist them on their continued journey.  All have a role and duty to play at this stage and the act of Giving and Receving comes into strong focus in the Six.

Individually the Suits are halfway through their journey in The Minor Arcana and have reached a kind of crossroad.  I am sure when they started out, all had certain formed attitudes of how their life would run and no doubt, like the rest of us, expected it to work out as planned.  There is a saying that goes “and so go the best laid plans”. Just when you think you have it all figured out, a curve ball comes flying at you out of the blue and can radically alter your Master Plan. They must now figure out how to progress from here.

The Swords had already experienced upset and crisis, in the Two, Three and Four, so of all the Suits, the appearance of the Five in their life was the last thing they needed.  It remains to be seen how well they will use their time in the Six to recover. The Cups experienced their first setback in the Four when the little bubble they had built around them began to deflate. Hot on the heels of that came their Five, blowing them off their feet and cracking their heart right open. With arms wide open they will welcome their Six when it arrives, wrapping themselves in it’s comforting embrace and inhale its wonderful soothing energy.

Of course the Pentacles were probably the most shocked by the arrival of their Five for they thought they had put a contingency plan in place for everything.  They also believed that hard work alone was enough to guarantee success.  Yes, they had their few struggles in the Two when they had to juggle finances and life in order to get ahead.  The Five took everything they had and to add insult to injury, flung them out on the street with just the clothes they had on their back.  Surely they must have thought they had died and gone to hell, not to mention the shame of it all and the massive dent it made to their pride.  When their Six knocks on the door it won’t be a moment too soon for they desperately need to get away from the Five to start all over again, that is, if they have enough strength and self-belief left to do so.

So, that leaves us with the Wands and what they might be looking for in their Six.  Looking back, they really haven’t had to deal with much stress or hassle at all, unless we count their time in the Two with its restrictions, boredom and decisions to be made as particularly worrying.  The rest of their time up to the Five was pretty much doing whatever they wanted to do and blazing a trail for themselves in life.  Much of it was exciting and energetic and most of the time they appeared to be having great fun.  The arrival of their Five wasn’t as upsetting for them as it was for the other Suits.  Indeed, they looked upon it as a personal challenge even though they may have felt frustrated, impatient and irritated at times.  There is nothing like a good fight to fire the blood and test your metal so The Wands may have looked upon their  Five more so as a competition rather than an unpleasant upheaval.  So what will they be looking for in their Six? Well, for a start, a competition must end with a result so they will be looking to see who is declared the winner of all the madness we saw in their Five.  They also will be tired after expending so much energy and a bit like they did in the Four will want the frenetic level to relax a little so that they can enjoy their success and bask in the glory of their superiority.  Tiredness is a sign of weakness to the Wands so don’t expect them to openly declare it. They do need some rest to recharge the batteries regardless of how invincible they think they might be.  However, I don’t think we will see them sitting around or lying in beds trying to recuperate. Life is a game to the Wands and they are always ready to play.

So we shall see how the Suits react to their Six when we explore their individual Cards.  Their key requirements on reaching the Six will be for The Wands to find energetic stability after a goal has been achieved, the Cups to find emotional stability and security after the losses of the Five, the Swords to find mental stability after conflict and the Pentacles to find the financial stability denied them in the Five. We shall see who will be there to help them.

On the Kabbalistic Tree of Life, the Four Sixes reside in the 6th Sephira – Tipareth (Beauty/Balance/Son of God).  Astologically, Tipareth corresponds with The Sun.  It lies half-way between The Divine Source in Kether and the physical or purely world focus of Malkuth (Kingdom/Physical World). Tipareth’s role is that of the converter and harmoniser.  Tipareth on The Tree of Life is unique in the fact that it is connected to all the other Sephiroth except Malkuth (Kingdom/Physical World). Tipareth acts to balance and integrate all of the other Sephiroth’s energies in order to create harmony. Tipareth (Beauty/Balance/Son of God) bridges the divide between The Divine God and the Physical world.

The Four Knights of theCourt Cards in The Minor Arcana also reside here and it is where their masculine energy meets.

In The Major Arcana, The Four Sixes correspond with Card Six (VI), The Lovers and The Devil, Card 15 (XV) 1+5=6. In relation to the Sixes, these Major Arcana Cards carry the Lesson of Balance, Acceptance and Integration.  The Lovers deal with integration of the self; finding balance and harmony by accepting and acknowledging the feminine and masculine within.  It also deals with striking the right balance in relationships and making decisions from a balanced perspective; to know thyself and thy other half, whether internally or externally, to love each part/side/aspect equally and to respect any differences without prejudice.  The Lovers also support and seek comfort from each other.

The Devil brings the Lesson of Balance, Acceptance and Integration by embracing and accepting our Dark Side. To become truly balanced and at peace with our self, we must not hide or feel ashamed of our Shadow-Self for it is part of us and who we are. We only demonise it when we fear and deny it.  We normally work hard to keep this side of us hidden from public scrutiny for people may think differently about us or dislike us should it be exposed or revealed.  As a result, we act out of falseness, are untrue to ourselves and not fully happy.  Striking the right balance between the Normal and Shadow-Self can be more difficult for some than others.  The suppression of it usually has its origins in childhood depending on upbringing, conditioning and culture. When the Shadow-Self gets driven underground, it becomes fragmented and isolated.  It then can become destructive and vindictive to the Normal Self. Healthy balance is then lost.

*The appearance of a Six in a Reading generally is a good omen and much welcomed.  Two Sixes in a Reading could show that someone is being very kind to you and supportive.  Someone may have done you a good deed or acted charitably on your behalf. Three or more Sixes in a spread would suggest that the Querant is entering a period of stability, harmony, peace and security.  There is little to worry about as life becomes less demanding and ticks over quite nicely without much effort.  Some may feel bored under the influence of several Sixes but it is wise to enjoy this time as it won’t last forever.  Several Sixes in a Reading brings the focus of attention to the family and feeling close and secure within its bosom.  Much contact with friends and family members through visits and social occasions suggests a happy and joyful time when strong bonds and connections are felt or formed.  With many Sixes appearing, you now have the time to see and appreciate the beauty around you and the many blessings in your life.

Several Reversed Sixes would suggest the opposite.  Balance is lost or not yet attained.  It would be an indication that the stress and conflict of the Fives still surround and it is not yet possible to find the stability that is so desired. Several Reversed Sixes suggest many areas of your life where conflict and stress still reign supreme. It is a sign that you seek peace and quiet in your life but those around you may be very demanding.  However, you may be making little effort to deal with stress in your life and hope that things will eventually settle down of their own accord.  You may be on you last legs at present and badly need some rest and peace.

Depending on which area/s the Reversed Six/s relate to, they may suggest stagnation and inertia.  Life in these areas may have become too stable, to predictable and too boring.  The Reversed Sixes can point to restriction and lack of freedom. Reversed Sixes can highlight fickleness and empty promises, charity can come with strings attached or may be withdrawn.  Loss of balance in your life can become extreme as each unbalanced area has a knock-on effect on the rest. Inequality and situations of Domination and Submission may be evident.

One Reversed Six suggests an area of your life that has either become too stable or out of control.  Generally, with a bit of effort on your part it can be sorted and stabilised.

 An Absence of Sixes in a Reading does not necessarily suggest a lack of stability but rather that nothing is terribly out of balance at present.

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