The General Description of the Path
This is path number Twenty-six, joining Tiphareth to Hod. The Hebrew letter Ayin attributed to it represents the spiritual creative force of godhead, which, should it become openly manifest in a man, make of him Aegipan, the All. This path is symbolical of the man-god, eager and exalted, consciously aware of his True Will land ready to set out on his long and wearisome journey of redeeming the world. The divine illumination of of Tiphareth spells doom to the rule of the intellect; therefore this path is ardous and painful. The escape from the limitations of form is not without its trials.”
Small Picture/Big Picture – When a person seems to be lost in the details of a problem they may be asked to see ‘the big picture’. The Big Picture transcends the Small Picture. The truths of the Small Picture are subsumed within the larger perspective of the Big Picture. The level of awareness associated with Hod is fascinated by details, by definition and classification, by fine shades of differences. There are antique specialists who can turn over a teacup and tell you the name of the designer., the year it was made, the name of the pattern, the name of the person who applied the pattern, how long the pattern was manufactured, its rarity value, and its current market value. This is an important skill in the antiques trades, but it is narrow in it’s focus. There are people in every walk of life who possess this narrow focus, and their skills are often extremely valuable, but there is a limited utility in a skill of this type. There is always a larger picture. This path is about stepping and looking around. Or conversely, it is about the details of a small world that seems in its fascination and complexity. (Collin A. Low, The Hermetic Kabbalah, p. 327)
The keynote to this path is “Only the empty cup can be filled. If our hearts are to be irradiated with Divine Love, all human loves and attachments must pass away. The many must die in order to make way for the the One.” The magical motto for this path is the following:”O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?”
Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 82.
Stephen Hoeller, The Fool’s Pilgrimage. Kabbalistic Meditation of the Tarot, p. 83.
 Stephen, A. Hoeller, The Fool’s Pilgrimage, Kabbalistic Meditations on the Tarot, p.89.
 – I, Corr , 15:55. Cited in Stephen, A. Hoeller, The Fool’s Pilgrimage, Kabbalistic Meditations on the Tarot, p.89.
The Hebrew Letter Correspondence: Ayin
This is the sixteenth letter of alphabet. Its has the numerical value 70. Pronounced Ayin (with a slight nasal twang) and means an “eye” – referring to the Eye of Shiva, said to be atrophied into the pineal gland.
The Tarot Trump Correspondence: XV – The Devil
The Devil (XV) is the fifteenth trump or Major Arcana card in most traditional Tarot decks.In the Rider-Waite-Smith deck, the Devil sits above two naked human demons—one male, one female, who are chained to his seat. The Tarot Devil card is derived in part from Eliphas Levi‘s famous illustration “Baphomet” in his notorious book Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie (1855). Baphomet is winged and horned, combining human and bestial features. Many modern Tarot decks portray the Devil as a satyr-like creature. In the Tarot of Marseilles, the devil is portrayed with facial features in unusual places, such as a mouth on his stomach, eyes on his knees, and with female breasts and male genitalia. According to Waite, the Devil is standing on an altar. In his left hand, the Devil holds a great flaming torch inverted towards the earth. A reversed pentagram is on his forehead. Eliphas Levi says in his book, Transcendental Magic, its Doctrine and Ritual that: “A reversed pentagram, with two points projecting upwards, is a symbol of evil and attracts sinister forces because it overturns the proper order of things and demonstrates the triumph of matter over spirit. It is the goat of lust attacking the heavens with its horns, a sign execrated by initiates.” 
The 15th Step of the Fool’s Pilgrimage
The Fool has his health, peace of mind and a graceful composure. What more could he need? On everyday terms, not much, but the Fool is courageous and continues to pursue the deepest levels of his being. He soon comes face to face with the Devil (15). The Devil is not an evil, sinister figure residing outside of us. He is the knot of ignorance and hopelessness lodged within each of us at some level. The seductive attractions of the material bind us so compellingly that we often do not even realize our slavery to them. We live in a limited range of experience, unaware of the glorious world that is our true heritage. The couple on Card 15 are chained, but acquiescent. They could so easily free themselves, but they do not even apprehend their bondage. They look like the Lovers, but are unaware that their love is circumscribed within a narrow range. The price of this ignorance is an inner core of despair.
The Zodiacal Correspondence: Capricornus
The zodiacal correspondence for this 26th path of the qabalistic Tree of Life is Capricornus, “the mountain goat leaping forwards and upwards, boldly without fear, yet remaining close to the hilltops.” Its symbols, again, are both the yoni and the lingam, and its gods are emblematic of the creative forces of nature. Capricornus is one of the constellations of the zodiac; it is often called Capricorn, especially when referring to the corresponding astrological sign. Its name is Latin for “horned male goat” or “goat horn”, and it is commonly represented in the form of a sea-goat: a mythical creature that is half goat, half fish. Its symbol is. Capricornus is one of the 88 modern constellations, and was also one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy. Under its modern boundaries it is bordered by Aquila, Sagittarius, Microscopium, Piscis Austrinus and Aquarius. The constellation is located in an area of sky called the Sea or the Water, consisting of many water-related constellations such as Aquarius, Pisces and Eridanus. It is the second faintest constellation in the zodiac after Cancer. Despite its faintness, Capricornus has one of the oldest mythological associations, having been consistently represented as a hybrid of a goat and a fish since the Middle Bronze Age. First attested in depictions on a cylinder-seal from around the 21st century BCE, it was explicitly recorded in the Babylonian star catalogues as MULSUḪUR.MAŠ “The Goat-Fish” before 1000 BC. The constellation was a symbol of the god Ea and in the Early Bronze Age marked the winter solstice. Due to the precession of the equinoxes the December solstice no longer takes place while the sun is in the constellation Capricornus, but the astrological sign called Capricorn begins with the solstice. The sun’s most southerly position, which is attained at the northern hemisphere’s winter solstice, is now called the Tropic of Capricorn, a term which also applies to the line on the Earth at which the sun is directly overhead at noon on that solstice. In Greek mythology, the constellation is sometimes identified as Amalthea, the goat that suckled the infant Zeus after his mother Rhea saved him from being devoured by his father Cronos (in Greek mythology). The goat’s broken horn was transformed into the cornucopia or horn of plenty. The planet Neptune was discovered in Capricornus by German astronomer Johann Galle, near Deneb Algedi (δ Capricorni) on September 23, 1846, which is appropriate as Capricornus can be seen best from Europe at 4:00am in September.
 Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 83.
The Egyptian Deity Correspondence: Khem & Oan
Khem, or Min, is the Egyptian creative principle, almost always shown with the head of a lustful goat. He is an Ancient Egyptian god whose cult originated in predynastic times (4th millennium BC). He was represented in many different forms, but was often represented in male human form, shown with an erect penis which he holds in his left hand and an upheld right arm holding a flail. As Khem (or Min), he was the god of reproduction; as Khnum, he was the creator of all things, “the maker of gods and men”. As a god of fertility, he was shown as having black skin. His cult was strongest in Coptos and Akhmim (Panopolis), where in his honour great festivals were held celebrating his “coming forth” with a public procession and presentation of offerings. His other associations include the eastern desert and links to the god Horus. Flinders Petrie excavated two large statues of Min at Qift which are now in the Ashmolean Museum and it is thought by some that they are pre-dynastic. Although not mentioned by name a reference to ‘he whose arm is raised in the East’ in the Pyramid Texts is thought to refer to Min. His importance grew in the Middle Kingdom when he became even more closely linked with Horus as the deity Min-Horus. By the New Kingdom he was also fused with Amen in the deity Min-Amen-kamutef (Min-Amen – bull of his mother). Min’s shrine was crowned with a pair of bull horns.As the central deity of fertility and possibly orgiastic rites Min became identified by the Greeks with the god Pan. One feature of Min worship was the wild prickly lettuce Lactuca virosa and Lactuca serriola of which is the domestic version Lactuca sativa which has aphrodisiac and opiate qualities and produce latex when cut, possibly identified with semen. He also had connections with Nubia. However, his main centres of worship were Qift (Coptos) and Akhmim (Khemmis). As a god of male sexual potency, he was honoured during the coronation rites of the New Kingdom, when the Pharaoh was expected to sow his seed — generally thought to have been plant seeds, although there have been controversial suggestions that the Pharaoh was expected to demonstrate that he could ejaculate — and thus ensure the annual flooding of the Nile. At the beginning of the harvest season, his image was taken out of the temple and brought to the fields in the festival of the departure of Min, when they blessed the harvest, and played games naked in his honour, the most important of these being the climbing of a huge (tent) pole. In Egyptian art, Min was depicted as wearing a crown with feathers, and often holding his penis erect in his left hand and a flail (referring to his authority, or rather that of the Pharaohs) in his upward facing right hand. Around his forehead, Min wears a red ribbon that trails to the ground, claimed by some to represent sexual energy. The symbols of Min were the white bull, a barbed arrow, and a bed of lettuce, that the Egyptians believed to be an aphrodisiac, as Egyptian lettuce was tall, straight, and released a milk-like substance when rubbed, characteristics superficially similar to the penis. Even some war goddesses were depicted with the body of Min (including the phallus), and this also led to depictions, ostensibly of Min, with the head of a lioness. Min usually was depicted in an ithyphallic (with an erect and uncovered phallus) style. Christians routinely defaced his monuments in temples they co-opted and Victorian Egyptologists would take only waist-up photographs of Min, or otherwise find ways to cover his protruding penis. However, to the ancient Egyptians, Min was not a matter of scandal – they had very relaxed standards of nudity: in their warm climate, farmers, servants, and entertainers often worked partially or completely naked, and children did not wear any clothes until they came of age. In the 19th century, there was an alleged erroneous transcription of the Egyptian for Min as ḫm (“khem”). Since Khem was worshipped most significantly in Akhmim, the separate identity of Khem was reinforced, Akhmim being understood as simply a corruption of Khem. However, Akhmim is an alleged corruption of ḫm-mnw, meaning Shrine of Min, via the demotic form šmn.
John H. Rogers, “Origins of the ancient contellations: I. The Mesopotamian traditions”, Journal of the British Astronomical Association 108 (1998) 9–28.
Frankfort, Henry (1978). Kingship and the Gods: A Study of Ancient Near Eastern Religion as the Integration of Society and Nature. University of Chicago Press. pp. 187–189.
The Greek Deity Correspondence #1: Pan
The Greek deity attributions for this 26th path of the qabalictic Tree of Life are Pan and Priapus. The aspect of the nature god attributed here is Pan “when represented as the goat of the flock raving and raping, ripping and rending everlasting.” Pan (Greek: Πᾶν, Pān), in Greek religion and mythology, is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music, as well as the companion of the nymphs. His name originates within the Ancient Greek language, from the word paein (πάειν), meaning “to pasture.” He has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat, in the same manner as a faun or satyr. Bearded, horned and hairy, lively, agile, swift and crafty, he expressed animal cunning. He preyed sexually upon nymphs and boys indifferently, but his sexual appetite was insatiable, and he also indulged in soliraty masturbation. With his homeland in rustic Arcadia, he is recognized as the god of fields, groves, and wooded glens; because of this, Pan is connected to fertility and the season of spring. The ancient Greeks also considered Pan to be the god of theatrical criticism. In Roman religion and myth, Pan’s counterpart was Faunus, a nature god who was the father of Bona Dea, sometimes identified as Fauna. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Pan became a significant figure in the Romantic movement of Western Europe, and also in the 20th-century Neopagan movement. In his earliest appearance in literature, Pindar’s Pythian Ode iii. 78, Pan is associated with a mother goddess, perhaps Rhea or Cybele; Pindar refers to virgins worshipping Cybele and Pan near the poet’s house in Boeotia. The parentage of Pan is unclear; in some myths he is the son of Zeus, though generally he is the son of Hermes or Dionysus, with whom his mother is said to be a nymph, sometimes Dryope or, in Nonnus, Dionysiaca (14.92), Penelope of Mantineia in Arcadia. This nymph at some point in the tradition became conflated with Penelope, the wife of Odysseus. Pausanias 8.12.5 records the story that Penelope had in fact been unfaithful to her husband, who banished her to Mantineia upon his return. Other sources, namely Duris of Samos and the Vergilian commentator Servius, report that Penelope slept with all 108 suitors in Odysseus’ absence, and gave birth to Pan as a result. This myth reflects the folk etymology that equates Pan’s name (Πάν) with the Greek word for “all” (πᾶν). It is more likely to be cognate with paein, “to pasture”, and to share an origin with the modern English word “pasture”. In 1924, Hermann Collitz suggested that Greek Pan and Indic Pushan might have a common Indo-European origin. In the Mystery cults of the highly syncretic Hellenistic eraPan is made cognate with Phanes/Protogonos, Zeus, Dionysus and Eros. The Roman Faunus, a god of Indo-European origin, was equated with Pan. However, accounts of Pan’s genealogy are so varied that it must lie buried deep in mythic time. Like other nature spirits, Pan appears to be older than the Olympians, if it is true that he gave Artemis her hunting dogs and taught the secret of prophecy to Apollo. Pan might be multiplied as the Panes or the Paniskoi. Kerenyi notes from scholia that Aeschylus in Rhesus distinguished between two Pans, one the son of Zeus and twin of Arcas, and one a son of Cronus. “In the retinue of Dionysos, or in depictions of wild landscapes, there appeared not only a great Pan, but also little Pans, Paniskoi, who played the same part as the Satyrs”. The constellation Capricornus is traditionally depicted as a sea-goat, a goat with a fish’s tail (see “Goatlike” Aigaion called Briareos, one of the Hecatonchires). A myth reported as “Egyptian” in Gaius Julius Hyginus’ Poetic Astronomy that would seem to be invented to justify a connection of Pan with Capricorn says that when Aegipan — that is Pan in his goat-god aspect —was attacked by the monster Typhon, he dove into the Nile; the parts above the water remained a goat, but those under the water transformed into a fish. Pan is famous for his sexual powers, and is often depicted with a phallus. Diogenes of Sinope, speaking in jest, related a myth of Pan learning masturbation from his father, Hermes, and teaching the habit to shepherds.Pan’s greatest conquest was that of the moon goddess Selene. He accomplished this by wrapping himself in a sheepskin to hide his hairy black goat form, and drew her down from the sky into the forest where he seduced her.
Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 83.
Edwin L. Brown, “The Lycidas of Theocritus Idyll 7″, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, 1981:59–100.
Edwin L. Brown, “The Divine Name ‘Pan'” Transactions of the American Philological Association 107 (1977:57–61), notes (p. 59) that the first inscription mentioning Pan is a 6th-century dedication to ΠΑΟΝΙ, a “still uncontracted” form.
The Homeric Hymn to Pan provides the earliest example of this wordplay, suggesting that Pan’s name was born from the fact that he delighted “all” the gods.
H. Collitz, “Wodan, Hermes und Pushan,” Festskrift tillägnad Hugo Pipping pȧ hans sextioȧrsdag den 5 november 1924 1924, pp 574–587.
Eliade, Mircea (1982) A History of Religious Ideas Vol. 2. University of Chicago Press. § 205.
In the second-century “Hieronyman Theogony’, which harmonized Orphic themes from the theogony of Protogonos with Stoicism, he is Protogonos, Phanes, Zeus and Pan; in the Orphic Rhapsodies he is additionally called Metis, Eros, Erikepaios and Bromios. The inclusion of Pan seems to be a Hellenic syncretization (West, M. L. (1983) The Orphic Poems. Oxford:Oxford University Press. p. 205).
Pan “even boasted that he had slept with every maenad that ever was—to facilitate that extraordinary feat, he could be multiplied into a whole brotherhood of Pans.” See Burkert 1985, III.3.2; Ruck and Staples 1994 p 132.
Kerenyi, Karl (1951), The Gods of the Greeks. Thames & Hudson, p 174.
Poetic Astronomy 2.18: see Theony Condos, Star Myths of the Greeks and Romans 1997:72.
Dio Chrysostom, Discourses, vi. 20.
Kerenyi, Karl (1951), The Gods of the Greeks. Thames & Hudson p.95.
The Greek Deity Correspondence #2: Priapus
Another Greek deity correspondence for this 26th path of the qabalistic Tree of Life is the Greek god Priapus, “insofar as he was the god of sexual fecundity and fruitfulness. “ In Greek mythology, Priapus or Priapos (Ancient Greek: Πρίαπος), was a minor rustic fertility god, protector of livestock, gardian of the bounty of the vegetable garden, fruit plants, and the protector of sheep, goats, bees, flocks, the vine and of all garden produce.He became a popular figure in Roman erotic art and Latin literature, and is the subject of the often humorously obscene collection of verse called the Priapeia. Priapus was depicted as a dwarfish man with a huge penis, which symbolised garden fertility. His absurdly oversized, permanent erection enventually gave rise to the medical term “priapism.” The most famous extant depiction of Priapus is the Pompeian wall-painting shown above. Here he is depicted weighing his enormous member on a set of scales against the produce of the fields. He is crowned with a peaked Phrygian cap, wears Phrygian boots, and has a Bacchic, cone-tipped thyrsus resting by his side. His head was crowned with a peaked Phrygian cap, belying his origin as a god native to the Mysian city of Lampsakos on the Hellespont. Like other divinities presiding over agricultural pursuits, he was believed to be possessed of prophetic powers, and is sometimes mentioned in the plural. Because Priapus had many attributes in common with other gods of fertility, the Orphics identified him with their mystic Dionysus, Hermes, Helios, &c.
The Attic legends connect Priapus with such sensual and licentious beings as Conisalus, Orthanes, and Tychon. In like manner he was confounded by the Italians with Mutunus or Muttunus, the personification of the fructifying power in nature. The sacrifices offered to him consisted of the first-fruits of gardens, vineyards, and fields, of milk, honey, cakes, rams, asses, and fishes. He was represented in carved images, mostly in the form of hermae, with very large genitals, carrying fruit in his garment, and either a sickle or cornucopia in his hand. The hermae of Priapus in Italy, like those of other rustic divinities, were usually painted red, whence the god is called ruber or rubicundus. The earliest Greek poets, such as Homer, Hesiod, and others, do not mention this divinity, and Strabo expressly states, that it was only in later times that he was honoured with divine worship, and that he was worshipped more especially at Lampsacus on the Hellespont, whence he is sometimes called Hellespontiacus. His cult was introduced into Greece and Italy, where his mythology were reinterpreted in Greek terms. Primitive statues of the god were traditionally set-up in vegetable plots to promote fertility with the added benefit of functioning as a type of “scarecrow” scaring away birds.Priapus was described as the son of Aphrodite by Dionysus, or son of Dioysus and Chione, perhaps as father or son of Hermes, son of Zeus or Pan, depending on the source. According to legend, Hera cursed him with impotence, ugliness and foul-mindedness while he was still in Aphrodite’s womb, in revenge for the hero Paris having the temerity to judge Aphrodite more beautiful than Hera. The other gods refused to allow him to live on Mount Olympus and threw him down to Earth, leaving him on a hillside. He was eventually found by shepherds and was brought up by them. Priapus joined Pan and the satyrs as a spirit of fertility and growth, though he was perennially frustrated by his impotence. In a ribald anecdote told by Ovid, he attempted to rape the nymph Lotis but was thwarted by an ass, whose braying caused him to lose his erection at the critical moment and woke Lotis. He pursued the nymph until the gods took pity on her and turned her into a lotus plant. The episode gave him a lasting hatred of asses and a willingness to see them destroyed in his honour. The emblem of his lustful nature was his permanent erection and his giant penis. In the writtings of Greek historian Diodorus Siculus, the Greek god Priapus is identified with the Egyptian god Min, which is especially interesting here because it provides to the hermetic qabalist an historical confirmation of the validity of those deity attributions for this 26th path of the Tree of Life.
 Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 83.
 Schol. ad Theocr. i. 21; Eustath. ad Hom. pp. 691, 242.
 .Tibull. i. 4. 67; Moschus, iii. 27.
 Schol. ad Theocr. i. 21; Eustath. ad Hom. pp. 691, 242.
 Strab. l. c. ; Aristoph. Lys. 982; comp. Diod. iv. 6.
 Salmas. ad Solin. p. 219; Arnob. iv. 11.
 Anthol. Palat. vi. 102.
 Anthol. Palat. x. 14; Ov. Fast. i. 391, 416; Serv. ad Virg. Georg. ii. 84.
 Tibull. i. 1. 22, 4. 8; Virg. Georg. iv. 110; Horat. Sat. i. 8; Hirt. Mythol. Bilderb. p. 172.
 Ov. Fast. i. 415, vi. 319, 333.
 Strabo (xiii. p. 558)
 Ov. Fast. i. 440, vi. 341; Arnob. iii. 10.
 “Let the watchmen against thieves and birds, guardian Priapus, lord of the Hellespont, protect them [the bees of the beehive] with his willow hook.” (Virgil, Georgics 4. 110 ff).
Scholia on Theocritus, 1. 21.
Kerenyi, Gods of the Greeks, 1951, p. 175, noting G. Kaibel, Epigrammata graeca ex lapidibus collecta, 817, where the other god’s name, both father and son of Hermes, is obscured; Hyginus (Fabulae 160) makes Hermes the father of Pan.
”Priapus”. The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. David Leeming. Oxford University Press, 2004.
 “An elaboration on a scholium on Apollonius of Rhodes’ Argonautica i. Kereny remarks of the jealousy of Hera in this case, “a cheap theme, and certainly not an ancient one” (Kerenyi 1951, The Gods of the Greeks. Thames & Hudson , p.176).
Ovid, Fasti, vi.319ff.
 “He [Dionysos] gave a human voice to the ass which had carried him. This ass later had a contest with Priapus on a matter of physique, but was defeated and killed by him. Pitying him because of this, Liber [Dionysos] numbered him among the stars.” (Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 23 (trans. Grant)).
Priapus.” Who’s Who in Classical Mythology, Routledge. 2002.
”Priapus.” Bloomsbury Dictionary of Myth. 1996.
 After digressing on Piriapus, he conclude: “…now this is the myth about the birth of Priapos [who the author identifies with the Egyptian god Min] and the honours paid to him, as it is given by the ancient Aigyptians.” (Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 6. 1.)
The Roman Deity Correspondence: Bacchus as a Nature God
The Roman deity correspondence for the 26th Bacchus, “the jovial representative of the reproductive and intoxicating power of nature.” Dionysus is a complicated and powerful deity. He is a young god, but he is primal: his element is wilderness, the world of beasts and the hunt. He “delights in the raw flesh” (ll. 136-8). The image is frightening, and it hints at the violence and savagery of which Bacchus is capable. But the Bacchae speak of his generosity as well: the abundance of nature is at his command. He is a god of wild ecstasies, dancing and revelry. He is also, Teiresias tells us, a god of war. His nature is as ambivalent as the nature of his greatest gift. Wine is the product of civilization and the abundance of the earth. It is a part of celebration, and helps men to lose inhibitions. It is also a potentially dangerous substance, capable of making men lose control, even to the point of violence. Bacchus is as complicated, as beneficial and potentially dangerous, as his gift to mankind. He is the symbol and embodiment of the irrational, the religious, the popular, the primal, the very force (destructive and creative) of nature. His androgyny reflects his dual nature. Some notes on Dionysiac rituals will be helpful. The rites of Dionysus involved ecstatic, divine possession. The rituals, most suitably taking place in wild and natural settings, involved drinking, frenzied dances, and flesh-eating rituals. In a ritual similar to the Christian Eucharist, an animal (or, in this play, a man) would be infused with the spirit of the god Dionysus and then killed. The worshippers of the god, called Bacchae, would eat the flesh, transformed by the ritual into the flesh of their god, and thereby share Bacchus’ divine nature.
 Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 83.
The Animal Correspondence: The Goat
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the family Bovidae and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over three hundred distinct breeds of goat. Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species. Goats have been used for their milk, meat, hair, and skins over much of the world. In the twentieth century they also gained in popularity as pets.The Modern English word goat comes from the Old English gāt which meant “she-goat”, and this in turn derived from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz (cf. Old Norse and Dutch geit “goat”, German Geiß “she-goat”, and Gothic gaits “goat”), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ghaidos meaning “young goat” (cf. Latin haedus “kid”), itself perhaps from a root meaning “jump” (assuming that Old Church Slavonic zajęcǐ “hare”, Sanskrit jihīte “he moves” are related). To refer to the male of the species, Old English used bucca (which survives as “buck”) until a shift to he-goat (and she-goat) occurred in the late 12th century. “Nanny goat” (for females) originated in the 18th century and “billy goat” (for males) in the 19th. Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans. The most recent genetic analysis confirms the archaeological evidence that the Anatolian Zagros are the likely origin of almost all domestic goats today. Another major genetic source of modern goats is the Bezoar goat, distributed from the mountainous regions of Asia Minor across the Middle East to Sind. Neolithic farmers began to keep goats for access to milk and meat, primarily, as well as for their dung, which was used as fuel, and their bones, hair, and sinew for clothing, building, and tools. The earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 years before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iran. Goat remains have been found at archaeological sites in Jericho, Chogha, Mami, Djeitun and Cayonu, dating the domestication of goats in western Asia at between 8000 and 9000 years ago. Historically, goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale. It has also been used to produce parchment. Goats are extremely curious and intelligent. They are easily trained to pull carts and walk on leads. They are also known for escaping their pens. Goats will test fences, either intentionally or simply because they are handy to climb on. If any of the fencing can be spread, pushed over or down, or otherwise be overcome, the goats will escape. Due to their high intelligence, once they have discovered a weakness in the fence, they will exploit it repeatedly. Goats are very coordinated and can climb and hold their balance in the most precarious places. Goats are also widely known for their ability to climb trees, although the tree generally has to be on somewhat of an angle. The vocalization goats make is called bleating. Goats have an intensely inquisitive and intelligent nature: they will explore anything new or unfamiliar in their surroundings. According to Norse mythology, the god of thunder, Thor, has a chariot that is pulled by the goats Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr. At night when he sets up camp, Thor eats the meat of the goats, but take care that all bones remain whole. Then he wraps the remains up, and in the morning, the goats always come back to life to pull the chariot. When a farmer’s son who is invited to share the meal breaks one of the goats’ leg bones to suck the marrow, the animal’s leg remains broken in the morning, and the boy is forced to serve Thor as a servant to compensate for the damage. Possibly related, the Yule Goat is one of the oldest Scandinavian and Northern European Yule and Christmas symbols and traditions. Yule Goat originally denoted the goat that was slaughtered around Yule, but it may also indicate a goat figure made out of straw. It is also used about the custom of going door-to-door singing carols and getting food and drinks in return, often fruit, cakes and sweets. “Going Yule Goat” is similar to the British custom wassailing, both with heathen roots. The Gävle Goat is a giant version of the Yule Goat, erected every year in the Swedish city of Gävle. The Greek god, Pan, is said to have the upper body of a man and the horns and lower body of a goat. Pan was a very lustful god, nearly all of the myths involving him had to do with him chasing nymphs. He is also credited with creating the pan flute. The goat is one of the twelve-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. Each animal is associated with certain personality traits; those born in a year of the goat are predicted to be shy, introverted, creative, and perfectionist. Several mythological hybrid creatures are believed to consist of parts of the goat, including the Chimera. The Capricorn sign in the Western zodiac is usually depicted as a goat with a fish’s tail. Fauns and satyrs are mythological creatures that are part goat and part human. The mineral bromine is named from the Greek word “brόmos,” which means “stench of he-goats.” Goats are mentioned many times in the Bible. A goat is considered a “clean” animal by Jewish dietary laws and was slaughtered for an honored guest. It was also acceptable for some kinds of sacrifices. Goat-hair curtains were used in the tent that contained the tabernacle. Its horns can be used instead of sheep’s horn to make a shofar. On Yom Kippur, the festival of the Day of Atonement, two goats were chosen and lots were drawn for them. One was sacrificed and the other allowed to escape into the wilderness, symbolically carrying with it the sins of the community. From this comes the word “scapegoat”. A leader or king was sometimes compared to a male goat leading the flock. In the New Testament, Jesus told a parable of The Sheep and the Goats. Popular Christian folk tradition in Europe associated Satan with imagery of goats. A common superstition in the Middle Ages was that goats whispered lewd sentences in the ears of the saints. The origin of this belief was probably the behavior of the buck in rut, the very epitome of lust. The common medieval depiction of the Devil was that of a goat-like face with horns and small beard (a goatee). The Black Mass, a probably-mythological “Satanic mass,” was said to involve a black goat, the form in which Satan supposedly manifested himself for worship. The goat has had a lingering connection with Satanism and pagan religions, even into modern times. The inverted pentagram, a symbol used in Satanism, is said to be shaped like a goat’s head. The “Baphomet of Mendes” refers to a satanic goat-like figure from 19th century occultism.
 Naderi et al.; Rezaei, HR; Pompanon, F; Blum, MG; Negrini, R; Naghash, HR; Balkiz, O; Mashkour, M et al. (November 18, 2008). “The goat domestication process inferred from large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of wild and domestic individuals”. PNAS 105 (46): 17659–17664.
The Bible, Exodus 25:4.
Gospel of Matthew 25.
Heaney, P. J.; Vicenzi, E. P.; De, S. (2005). “Strange Diamonds: the Mysterious Origins of Carbonado and Framesite”. Elements 1 (2): 85.
The Sacred Plant Correspondence: Thistle
Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants characterised by leaves with sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the family Asteraceae. Prickles often occur all over the plant – on surfaces such as those of the stem and flat parts of leaves. These are an adaptation that protects the plant against herbivorous animals, discouraging them from feeding on the plant. Typically, an involucre with a clasping shape of a cup or urn subtends each of a thistle’s flowerheads. The term thistle is sometimes taken to mean exactly those plants in the tribe Cynareae (synonym: Cardueae), especially the genera Carduus, Cirsium, and Onopordum. However, plants outside this tribe are sometimes called thistles, and if this is done thistles would form a polyphyletic group. Thistle is the floral emblem of Scotland. In the language of flowers, the thistle (like the burr) is an ancient Celtic symbol of nobility of character as well as of birth, for the wounding or provocation of a thistle yields punishment. The thistle has been the national emblem of Scotland since the reign of Alexander III (1249–1286) and was used on silver coins issued by James III in 1470. It is the symbol of the Order of the Thistle, a high chivalric order of Scotland. According to a legend, an invading Norse army was attempting to sneak up at night upon a Scottish army’s encampment. During this operation one barefoot Norseman had the misfortune to step upon a thistle, causing him to cry out in pain, thus alerting Scots to the presence of the Norse invaders. Some sources suggest the specific occasion was the Battle of Largs, which marked the beginning of the departure of King Haakon IV (Haakon the Elder) of Norway who, having control of the Northern Isles and Hebrides, had harried the coast of the Kingdom of Scotland for some years.Maud Grieve recorded that Pliny and medieval writers had thought it could return hair to bald heads and that in the early modern period it had been believed to be a remedy for headaches, plague, canker sores, vertigo, and jaundice.
The Jewel Correspondence: The Black Diamond
The jewel appropriate to the twenty-sixth is the black diamond; the animals the goat and ass. It will be remembered that Jesus is pictured in the Gospel as riding into Jerusalem astride an ass, and if my memory serves me correctly there is reference somewhere of Dionysus, too, riding an ass. Carbonado, commonly known as the “Black Diamond”, is a natural polycrystalline diamond found in alluvial deposits in the Central African Republic and Brazil. Its natural colour is black or dark grey, and it is more porous than other diamonds.The characteristics of carbonado noted in this section are based mainly on the summary of Heaney et al. (2005), unless otherwise noted. Carbonado diamonds are typically pea-sized or larger porous aggregates of many tiny black crystals. The most characteristic carbonados have been found only in the Central African Republic and in Brazil, in neither place associated with kimberlite, the source of typical gem diamonds. Lead isotope analyses have been interpreted as documenting crystallization of carbonados about 3 billion years ago. The carbonados are found in younger sedimentary rocks. Mineral grains included within diamonds have been studied extensively for clues to diamond origin. Some typical diamonds contain inclusions of common mantle minerals such as pyrope and forsterite, but such mantle minerals have not been observed in carbonado. In contrast, some carbonados do contain inclusions of minerals characteristic of the Earth’s crust: these inclusions do not necessarily establish formation of the diamonds in the crust, however, because these obvious crustal inclusions occur in the pores that are common in carbonados. These inclusions within pores may have been introduced after carbonado formation. Inclusions of other minerals, rare or nearly absent in the Earth’s crust, are found at least partly incorporated in diamond, not just in pores: among such other minerals are those with compositions of Si, SiC, and Fe‑Ni. Carbonado exhibits strong luminescence (photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence) induced by nitrogen and by vacancies existing in the crystal lattice. Luminescence halos are present around radioactive inclusions, and it is suggested that the radiation damage occurred after formation of the carbonados, an observation perhaps pertinent to the radiation hypothesis listed below.Supporters of an extraterrestrial origin of carbonados, such as Dr. Stephen Haggerty, a geoscientist from Florida International University, propose that their material source was a supernova which occurred at least 3.8 billion years ago. After coalescing and drifting through outer space for about one and a half billion years, a large mass fell to earth as a meteor approximately 2.3 billion years ago, possibly fragmenting during entry into the Earth’s atmosphere, and impacting in a region which would much later split into Brazil and the Central African Republic, the only two known locations of carbonado deposits.
Kagi, H., Sato, S., Akagi, T., and Kanda, H., 2007 (2007). “Generation history of carbonado inferred from photoluminescence spectra, cathodoluminescence imaging, and carbon-isotopic composition”. American Mineralogist 92: 217–224.
The Perfume Correspondence: Musk
The perfume correspondence for this 27th path of the qabalistic Tree of Life is Musk. Musk is a class of aromatic substances commonly used as base notes in perfumery. They include glandular secretions from animals such as the musk deer, numerous plants emitting similar fragrances, and artificial substances with similar odors. Musk was a name originally given to a substance with a penetrating odor obtained from a gland of the male musk deer. The substance has been used as a popular perfume fixative since ancient times and is one of the most expensive animal products in the world. The name, originated from Sanskrit muṣká meaning “testicle,” has come to encompass a wide variety of substances with somewhat similar odors although many of them are quite different in their chemical structures. Until the late 19th century, natural musk was used extensively in perfumery until economic and ethical motives led to the adoption of synthetic musk, which is now used almost exclusively. The organic compound primarily responsible for the characteristic odor of musk is muscone. Modern use of natural musk pods occurs in traditional Chinese medicine. Some plants such as Angelica archangelica or Abelmoschus moschatus produce musky smelling macrocyclic lactone compounds. These compounds are widely used in perfumery as substitutes for animal musk or to alter the smell of a mixture of other musks. The musk deer belongs to the family Moschidae and lives in India, Pakistan, Tibet, China, Siberia and Mongolia. To obtain the musk, the deer is killed and its gland, also called “musk pod”, is removed. Upon drying, the reddish-brown paste inside the musk pod turns into a black granular material called “musk grain”, which is then tinctured with alcohol. The aroma of the tincture gives a pleasant odor only after it is considerably diluted. No other natural substance has such a complex aroma associated with so many contradictory descriptions; however, it is usually described abstractly as animalic, earthy and woody or something akin to the odor of baby’s skin.Musk has been a key constituent in many perfumes since its discovery, being held to give a perfume long-lasting power as a fixative. Today the trade quantity of the natural musk is controlled by CITES but illegal poaching and trading continues. In Ayurveda, Musk has been considered as a life saving drug and used in various cardiac, mental and neurological disorders. It has also been included in various compound formulations like Kasturi Bhairav Ras, Kasturi Modak, Mrignabhyadi Vati and Mrigamadsar etc., which have wide therapeutic applications.Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), a rodent native to North America, has been known since the 17th century to secrete a glandular substance with a musky odor. A chemical means of extracting it was discovered in the 1940s, but it did not prove commercially worthwhile. Glandular substances with musk-like odor are also obtained from the musk duck (Biziura lobata) of southern Australia, the muskox, the musk shrew, the musk beetle (Aromia moschata), African civet (Civettictis civetta), the musk turtle, the alligator of Central America, and from several other animals. In crocodiles, there are two pairs of musk glands, one pair situated at the corner of the jaw and the other pair in the cloaca. Musk glands are also found in snakes. The plant sources include musk flower (Mimulus moschatus), the muskwood (Olearia argophylla) of the Guianas and West Indies, and the seeds of Abelmoschus moschatus (musk seeds). Since obtaining the deer musk requires killing the endangered animal, nearly all musk fragrance used in perfumery today is synthetic, sometimes called “white musk”. They can be divided into three major classes: aromatic nitro musks, polycyclic musk compounds, and macrocyclic musk compounds. The first two groups have broad uses in industry ranging from cosmetics to detergents.
Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 83.
Chantraine, Pierre (1990). Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque. Klincksieck. pp. 715.
Rimkus, Gerhard G. (Ed.); Cornelia Sommer (2004). “The Role of Musk and Musk Compounds in the Fragrance Industry”. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in the Environment (Handbook of Environmental Chemistry).
Rimkus, Gerhard G. (Ed.); Cornelia Sommer (2004). “The Role of Musk and Musk Compounds in the Fragrance Industry”. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in the Environment (Handbook of Environmental Chemistry).
Groom, Nigel (1997). New Perfume Handbook. Springer. pp. 219–220.
Groom, Nigel (1997). New Perfume Handbook. Springer. pp. 219–220.
Wareham, D.C. (2005). Elsevier’s Dictionary of Herpetological and Related Terminology. Elsevier Science. pp. 129.
The Color Correspondence: Black
Black is the color of objects that do not emit or reflect light in any part of the visible spectrum; they absorb all such frequencies of light. Although black is sometimes described as an “achromatic”, or hueless, color, in practice it can be considered a color, as in expressions like “black cat” or “black paint”. The word black comes from Old English blæc (“black, dark”, also, “ink”), from Proto-Germanic *blakkaz (“burned”), from Proto-Indo-European *bhleg- (“to burn, gleam, shine, flash”), from base *bhel- (“to shine”), related to Old Saxon blak (“ink”), Old High German blah (“black”), Old Norse blakkr (“dark”), Dutch blaken (“to burn”), and Swedish bläck (“ink”). More distant cognates include Latin flagrare (“to blaze, glow, burn”), and Ancient Greek phlegein (“to burn, scorch”). Black supplanted the wonted Old English word sweart (“black, dark”), which survives as swart, swarth, and swarthy (compare German schwarz and Dutch zwart, “black”). Black can be defined as the visual impression experienced when no visible light reaches the eye. (This makes a contrast with whiteness, the impression of any combination of colors of light that equally stimulates all three types of color-sensitive visual receptors.) Pigments or dyes that absorb light rather than reflect it back to the eye “look black”. A black pigment can, however, result from a combination of several pigments that collectively absorb all colors. If appropriate proportions of three primary pigments are mixed, the result reflects so little light as to be called “black”. This provides two superficially opposite but actually complementary descriptions of black. Black is the lack of all colors of light, or an exhaustive combination of multiple colors of pigment. In physics, a black body is a perfect absorber of light, but, by a thermodynamic rule, it is also the best emitter. Thus, the best radiative cooling, out of sunlight, is by using black paint, though it is important that it be black (a nearly perfect absorber) in the infrared as well. In elementary science, far Ultraviolet light is called “black light” because, while itself unseen, it causes many minerals and other substances to fluoresce. On January 16, 2008, researchers from Troy, New York’s Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute announced the creation of the darkest material on the planet. The material, which reflects only .045 percent of light, was created from carbon nanotubes stood on end. This is 1/30 of the light reflected by the current standard for blackness, and one third the light reflected by the previous record holder for darkest substance.A material is said to be black if most incoming light is absorbed equally in the material. Light (electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum) interacts with the atoms and molecules, which causes the energy of the light to be converted in to other forms of energy, usually heat. This means that black surfaces can act as thermal collectors, absorbing light and generating heat. Absorption of light is contrasted by transmission, reflection and diffusion, where the light is only redirected, causing objects to appear transparent, reflective or white respectively.In Japanese culture, kuro (black) is a symbol of nobility, age, and experience, as opposed to shiro (white), which symbolizes serfdom, youth, and naiveté. Thus the black belt is a mark of achievement and seniority in many martial arts, whereas in, for example, Shotokan karate, a white belt is a rank-less belt that comes before all other belts. These ranks are called dan. Black was the color of the Arab dynasty of Abbasid caliphs, which is the reason black is frequently used in flags of Arab countries. Black Watch is the senior Highland Regiment of the British Army. Black is used for anarchist symbolism, sometimes split in diagonal with other colors to show alignment with another political philosophy. The plain black flag The blackshirts were Italian Fascist militias. In Nazi Germany, the blackshirts was a nickname for the SS, as opposed to the brownshirts, the SA. The black triangle was used by the Nazis to designate “asocial” people (homeless and Roma, for example); later the symbol was adopted by lesbian culture. Black sky refers to the appearance of space as one emerges from the Earth’s atmosphere. A black box is any device whose internal workings are unknown or inexplicable. Black sky refers to the appearance of space as one emerges from the Earth’s atmosphere. A black project is a secretive project, like Enigma Decryption, other classified military programs or operations, Narcotics, or police sting operations. Some organizations are called “black” when they keep a low profile, like Sociétés Anonymes and secret societies. A polished black mirror is used for scrying, and is thought to help see into the paranormal world without interference or distraction. Black frequently symbolizes ambiguity, secrecy, and the unknown. In English heraldry, black means darkness, doubt, ignorance, and uncertainty.Black is a symbol of mourning and bereavement in Western societies, especially at funerals and memorial services. In some traditional societies, within for example Greece and Italy, widows wear black for the rest of their lives. In contrast, across much of Africa and parts of Asia, white is a color of mourning and is worn during funerals. The Black Sun is an occult symbol that is said to be related to Nazism and occultism. The Hindu deity Krishna means “the black one”. Native Americans associated black with the life-giving soil. In the Maasai tribes of Kenya and Tanzania, the color black is associated with rain clouds, a symbol of life and prosperity. Black-dog bias is a veterinarian and animal shelter phenomenon in which black dogs are passed over for adoption in favor of lighter colored animals. Black cats may be thought of as either good luck or bad. To say one’s accounts are “in the black” is used to mean that one is or “no longer in the red”, or free of debt. Being “in the red” is to be in debt—in traditional bookkeeping, negative amounts, such as costs, were printed in red ink, and positive amounts, like revenues, were printed in black ink, so that if the “bottom line” is printed in black, the firm is profiting. In Western fashion, black is considered stylish, sexy, elegant and powerful. Black magic is a destructive or evil form of magic, often connected with death, as opposed to white magic. This was already apparent during Ancient Egypt when the Cush Tribe invaded Egyptian plantations along the Nile River. Evil witches are stereotypically dressed in black and good fairies in white. A “black day” (or week or month) usually refers to a sad or tragic time. The Romans marked fasti days with white stones and nefasti days with black. E.g., the Wall Street Crash 1929, the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, which is the start of the Great Depression, is nicknamed Black Tuesday, and was preceded by Black Thursday, a downturn on October 24 the previous week. The Black Death, also known as the Black Plague, was a pandemic in Europe that killed tens of millions of people. A black-hearted person is mean and unloving. A blacklist is a list of undesirable persons or entities (to be placed on the list is to be “blacklisted”). A black mark against a person relates to something bad they have done. A black mood is a bad one (cf Winston Churchill’s clinical depression, which he called “my black dog”).Black market is used to denote the trade of illegal goods, or alternatively the illegal trade of otherwise legal items at considerably higher prices, e.g. to evade rationing. Black propaganda is the use of known falsehoods, partial truths, or masquerades in propaganda to confuse an opponent. Blackmail is the act of threatening to reveal information about a person unless the threatened party fulfills certain demands. This information is usually of an embarrassing or socially damaging nature. Ordinarily, such a threat is illegal. The black sheep of the family is the ne’er-do-well.
The American Girls Handy Book, p. 370.
The Magical Weapon Correspondence: The Lamp
An oil lamp is an object used to produce light continuously for a period of time using an oil-based fuel source. The use of oil lamps began thousands of years ago and is continued to this day. It is very difficult to say when and where the first oil lamp was used. This is partly because it is difficult to draw a line detailing when the primitive forms of creating a continuous source of light from fire can be termed a lamp. The first lamps were made of naturally occurring objects, coconuts, sea shells, egg shells and hollow stones. Some believe that the first proper lamps were carved from stones. Curved stone lamps were found in places dated to the 10th millennium BCE. Some Archaeologists claim that the first shell-lamps were in existence more than 6,000 years ago. They believe that the alabaster shell-shaped lamps dug up in Sumerian sites dating 2,600 BCE were imitations of real shell-lamps that were used for a long time. Before the invention of the wheel in the Middle Bronze Age, lamps were made by hand. An early form of the potter’s wheel was invented and introduced in the Middle Bronze Age and used to manufacture lamps until around the 3rd century BCE. The use of molds was first developed in Greece and Egypt during the 3rd century BCE. In Roman times, stone, clay, or plaster molds were utilized on a large scale across the Roman Empire until around the 8th century CE. In the Religio Romana, which is the modern reconstruction of the religion of Ancient Rome, an oil lamp is placed on the lararium and lit before prayers are said. The lamp symbolizes Vesta, as well as the protective power she offers to a home. Lamps appear in the Torah and other Jewish sources as a symbol of “lighting” the way for the righteous, the wise, and for love and other positive values. While fire was often described as being destructive, light was given a positive spiritual meaning. The oil lamp and its light were important household items, and this may explain their symbolism. Oil lamps were used for many spiritual rituals. The oil lamp and its light also became important ritualistic articles with the further development of Jewish culture and its religion. The Temple Menorah, a ritual seven branched oil lamp used in the Second Temple, forms the centre of the Chanukah story and centers on the miracle that during the cleansing of the Jewish temple in Jerusalem after its looting, the lamp was supposed to burn continuously, forever, but there was only oil enough for one day, and no more oil would be available for 8 days; miraculously the oil expected to last for only one day instead burnt for 8 full days. There are several references to oil lamps in the New Testament:“Your eye is the lamp of your body; when your eye is sound, your whole body is sound, your whole body is full of light; but when it is not sound, your body is full of darkness.” “He was a burning and shining lamp, and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light.” “And night shall be no more; they need no light of lamp or sun, for the Lord God will be their light, and they shall reign for ever and ever.” In the Orthodox Church and many Eastern Catholic Churches oil lamps (Greek: kandili, Slavonic: lampada) are still used both on the Holy Table (altar) and to illuminate icons on the iconostasis and around the temple (church building). Orthodox Christians will also use oil lamps in their homes to illuminate their icon corner. Traditionally, the sanctuary lamp in an Orthodox church is an oil lamp. It is lit by the bishop when the church is consecrated, and ideally it should burn perpetually thereafter. The oil burned in all of these lamps is traditionally olive oil. Oil lamps are commonly used in Hindu temples as well as in home shrines. Generally the lamps used in temples are circular with places for five wicks. They are made of metal and either suspended on a chain or screwed onto a pedestal. There will usually be at least one lamp in each shrine, and the main shrine may contain several. Usually only one wick is lit, with all five burning only on festive occasions. The oil lamp is used in the Hindu ritual of Aarti. In the home shrine, the style of lamp is usually different, containing only one wick. There is usually a piece of metal that forms the back of the lamp, which has a picture of a Hindu deity embossed on it. In many houses, the lamp burns all day, but in other homes, it is lit at sundown. The lamp in the home shrine is supposed to be lit before any other lights are turned on at night. A hand-held oil lamp or incense sticks (lit from the lamp) are also used during the Hindu puja ceremony. In the North of India, a five-wick lamp is used, usually fueled with ghee. On special occasions, various other lamps may be used for puja, the most elaborate having several tiers of wicks. Oil lamps are lit at traditional Chinese shrines before either an image of a deity or a plaque with Classical Chinese characters giving the name of the deity. Such lamps are usually made from clear glass (they look similar to normal drinking glasses) and are filled with oil, sometimes with water underneath. A cork or plastic floater containing a wick is placed on top of the oil with the bottom of the wick submerged in the oil.Such lamps are kept burning in shrines, whether private or public, and incense sticks or joss sticks are lit from the lamp.
 Mesolithic, Middle Stone Age Period, circa 10,300 – 8000 BCE.
 Neolithic, Later Stone Age, C. 8500 – 4500 BCE.
 Early Bronze, Canaanite / Bronze I-IV, c.3300 – 2000 BCE.
“And you shall command the people of Israel that they bring to you pure beaten olive-oil for the light, that a lamp may be set to burn continually”. Exodus 27:20; “For a commandment is a lamp and the Torah is light; and reproving discipline is the way of life.” (Proverbs 6:23); “There I shall cause pride to sprout for David; I have prepared a lamp for my anointed.” (Psalms 132:16); “When you set the lamps, the seven lamps shall give light in front of the lamp stand (menorah).” Numbers 8: 1 -4; “A man’s soul is the lamp of God, which searches the chambers of one’s innards.” (Proverbs 20:27).
“A lamp is called a lamp, and the soul of man is called a lamp.” (Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat 30B)
 The Bible, Luke 11:34.
 The Bible, John 5:35.
 The Bible, Rev 22:5.
The Drug Correspondence: Hemp
Hemp, from which hashish is a derivative, is attributed “because of its intoxicating and ecstasy-producing qualities.” Hemp (from Old English hænep) is mostly used as a name for low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) strains of the plant Cannabis sativa, of fiber and/or oilseed varieties. In modern times, hemp has been used for industrial purposes including paper, textiles, biodegradable plastics, construction, health food and fuel with modest commercial success. Since 2007, commercial success of hemp food products has grown considerably. Hemp is one of the faster growing biomasses known, producing up to 25 tonnes of dry matter per hectare per year. A normal average yield in large scale modern agriculture is about 2.5–3.5 t/ac (air dry stem yields of dry, retted stalks per acre at 12% moisture). Approximately, one tonne of bast fiber and 2–3 tonnes of core material can be decorticated from 3–4 tonnes of good quality, dry retted straw.Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa var. sativa is the variety grown for industrial use, while C. sativa subsp. indica generally has poor fiber quality and is primarily used for production of recreational and medicinal drugs. The major difference between the two types of plants is the appearance and the amount of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) secreted in a resinous mixture by epidermal hairs called glandular trichomes, although they can also be distinguished genetically. Oilseed and fiber varieties of Cannabis approved for industrial hemp production produce only minute amounts of this psychoactive drug, not enough for any physical or psychological effects. Typically, hemp contains below 0.3% THC, while cultivars of Cannabis grown for marijuana can contain anywhere from 2% to over 20%.Hemp is used for a wide variety of purposes including the manufacture of cordage of varying tensile strength, durable clothing and nutritional products. The bast fibers can be used in 100% hemp products, but are commonly blended with other organic fibers such as flax, cotton or silk, for apparel and furnishings, most commonly at a 55%/45% hemp/cotton blend. The inner two fibers of hemp are more woody and are more often used in non-woven items and other industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter. The oil from the fruits (“seeds”) oxidizes (commonly, though inaccurately, called “drying”) to become solid on exposure to air, similar to linseed oil, and is sometimes used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, and in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird seed mix as well. Hempseed is also used as a fishing bait.Hemp oil has anti-inflammatory properties.
 Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 83.
 “The yield of hemp fibre varies from 400 to 2,500 pounds per acre, averaging 1,000 pounds under favorable conditions.” Dewey & Merrrill, Hemp Hurds As Papermaking Material, USDA Bulletin No.404, 1916, p. 3.
Struik, P.C.; Amaducci, S.; Bullard, M.J.; Stutterheim, N.C.; Venturi, G.; Cromack, H.T.H. (2000). “Agronomy of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in Europe”. Industrial Crops and Products 11 (2–3): 107.
Karus, Michael (2004). European Hemp Industry 2002 Cultivation, Processing and Product Lines. . Journal of Industrial Hemp (London: Taylor & Francis, Informaworld) 9 (2).
Datwyler SL, Weiblen GD. Genetic Variation in Hemp and marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) sativa plants are taller and less dense. Indica plants are shorter but a lot more dense than sativas. According to Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2006; 51(2):371-375.
Callaway, JC, Schwab U, Harvimaa I, Halonen P, Mykkänen O, Hyvönen P & Järvinen T (2005). Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis. Journal of Dermatological Treatment 16: 87-94.