July 18, 2019
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What is Netzach?

Netzach-2Netzach (Hebrew: נצח‎, “victory”) is the seventh of the ten Sefirot in the Jewish mystical system Kabbalah. Located beneath Chesed, at the base of the “Pillar of Mercy” also consisting of Chochmah (‘Wisdom’) and Hesed (‘Loving-Kindness’).  Netzach (Hebrew נצח) communicates the idea of long-suffering, strength, endurance unto completion or patience.

Tiphareth completes the trinity of Sephiroth constituting the second triad, which in turn projects itself still further into matter forming a third triad in the following manner (see illustration).(Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 51)

Within the Sefiroth, Netzach sits geometrically across from Hod. This pairing makes up the third such group, the “tactical” sefirot, meaning that their purpose is not inherent in themselves, but rather as a means for something else.

Netzach is the first Sephirah of the third triad,  generally translates to “Eternity” and in context of Kabbalah refers to “Perpetuity”, “Victory”, or “Endurance”.  Sometimes it is named Eternity and Triumph. It is the seventh potency, and to it is logically attributed the Niké (Victory).

netzach-3In his Greek Studies Walter Pater wrote : “Victory again, ment originally, mythologic science tells us, only the grat victory of the sky, the triumph of morning over darkness. But that physical morning of her origin has its ministry to the later aesthetic sense also. For if Niké, when she appears in compagny with the mortal, and wholly fleshly hero, in whose chariot she stands to guide the horses, or whom she crowns with her garland of parsley or bay, or whose names she writes on a shield, is imaginatively conceived, it is because the old skyey influences are still not quite supressed in her clear-set eyes, and the dew of the morning still clings to her wings and her floating hair. ” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 51-52)

Understanding the attributes of Netzach and Hod gives us a new perspective into understanding what is happening in the world. No longer do we merely look at an act at face value, and attempt to understand it as such, but we must look at it also in terms of “a means to an end.”

These sefirot mark a turning point. Whereas the first two groups of sefirot deal with Yahweh’s intrinsic will, and what it is that He desires to bestow upon man, these sefirot are focused on man: What is the most appropriate way for man to receive G-d’s message? How can G-d’s will be implemented most effectively?

Netzach refers to actions of Yahweh that are chesed, “kindness,” in essence, but are presented through a prelude of harshness. Hod refers specifically to those events where the “wicked prosper.” It is retribution —Gevurah, “strength/restraint,” in essence, but presented by a prelude of pleasantness.

Netzach is “endurance,” the fortitude, and patience to follow through on your passions. It is paired with Hod as the righteous attributes related to group interactivity, with Netzach being leadership, the ability to rally others to a cause and motivate them to act; while Hod is community, the ability to do the footwork needed to follow through on ideas and make them happen. Netzach is identified with the right leg or foot when the Tree of Life is portrayed on the human form, while Hod is the left leg or foot.

Netzach is considered one of the Fruits of the Spirit in the Pauline Epistles (Romans 5:3, Galatians 5:22)

The Astrological Correspondence: Venus

venus-3Astrologically its planet is Venus. It should follow in consequence from this that the gods and qualities of Netzach relate to love, victory, and to the harvest. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 52; Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 11)  Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.[11] It has no natural satellite. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. After the Moon, it is the brightest natural object in the night sky, reaching an apparent magnitude of −4.6, bright enough to cast shadows.[12] Because Venus is an inferior planet from Earth, it never appears to venture far from the Sun: its elongation reaches a maximum of 47.8°. Venus reaches its maximum brightness shortly before sunrise or shortly after sunset, for which reason it has been referred to by ancient cultures as the Morning Star or Evening Star.

Venus is a terrestrial planet and is sometimes called Earth’s “sister planet” because of their similar size, gravity, and bulk composition (Venus is both the closest planet to Earth and the planet closest in size to Earth). However, it has also been shown to be very different from Earth in other respects. It has the densest atmosphere of the four terrestrial planets, consisting of more than 96% carbon dioxide. The atmospheric pressure at the planet’s surface is 92 times that of Earth’s. With a mean surface temperature of 735 K (462 °C; 863 °F), Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System. It has no carbon cycle to lock carbon back into rocks and surface features, nor does it seem to have any organic life to absorb it in biomass. Venus is shrouded by an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light. Venus may have possessed oceans in the past,[13][14] but these would have vaporized as the temperature rose due to a runaway greenhouse effect.[15] The water has most probably photodissociated, and, because of the lack of a planetary magnetic field, the free hydrogen has been swept into interplanetary space by the solar wind.[16] Venus’s surface is a dry desertscape interspersed with slab-like rocks and periodically refreshed by volcanism.

Venus (Venus symbol.svg) is the ruling planet of Libra and Taurus and is exalted in Pisces. In Roman mythology, Venus is the goddess of love and beauty, famous for the passions she could stir among the gods. Her cults may represent the religiously legitimate charm and seduction of the divine by mortals, in contrast to the formal, contractual relations between most members of Rome’s official pantheon and the state, and the unofficial, illicit manipulation of divine forces through magic. The ambivalence of her function is suggested in the etymological relationship of the root *venes- with Latin venenum (poison, venom), in the sense of “a charm, magic philtre”.

Venus orbits the Sun in 225 days, spending about 18.75 days in each sign of the zodiac. Venus is the second brightest object in the night sky, the Moon being the brightest. It is usually beheld as a twin planet to Earth.

Astrologically, Venus is associated with the principles of harmony, beauty, balance, feelings and affections and the urge to sympathize and unite with others. It is involved with the desire for pleasure, comfort and ease. It governs romantic relations, marriage and business partnerships, sex (the origin of the words ‘venery’ and ‘venereal’), the arts, fashion and social life. The 1st-century poet Marcus Manilius described Venus as generous and fecund and the lesser benefic.

The planet Venus In medicine, Venus is associated with the lumbar region, the veins, parathyroids, throat and kidneys. Venus was thought to be moderately warm and moist and was associated with the phlegmatic humor. Venus is the ruler of the second and seventh houses.

Venus is the planet of Friday. In languages deriving from Latin, such as Romanian, Spanish, French, and Italian, the word for Friday often resembles the word Venus (vineri, viernes, vendredi and “venerdì” respectively). Dante Alighieri associated Venus with the liberal art of rhetoric.[21] In Chinese astrology, Venus is associated with the element metal, which is unyielding, strong and persistent. In Indian astrology, Venus is known as Shukra and represents wealth, pleasure and reproduction. In Norse Paganism, the planet is associated to Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty and fertility.

The Roman Deity Correspondence: Venus

vebus-by-boticelliAstrologically its planet is Venus. It should follow in consequence from this that the gods and qualities of Netzach relate to love, victory, and to the harvest. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 52; Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 11)

Venus (/ˈvnəs/, Classical Latin: /ˈwɛnʊs/) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, sex, fertility and prosperity. In Roman mythology, she was the mother of the Roman people through her son, Aeneas, who survived the fall of Troy and fled to Italy. Julius Caesar claimed her as his ancestor. Venus was central to many religious festivals, and was venerated in Roman religion under numerous cult titles.

The Romans adapted the myths and iconography of her Greek counterpart Aphrodite for Roman art and Latin literature. In the later classical tradition of the West, Venus becomes one of the most widely referenced deities of Greco-Roman mythology as the embodiment of love and sexuality.

enus embodies sex, love, beauty, enticement, seduction, and persuasive female charm among the community of immortal gods; in Latin orthography, her name is indistinguishable from the Latin noun venus (“sexual love” and “sexual desire“), from which it derives.[1] Venus has been described as perhaps “the most original creation of the Roman pantheon”,[2] and “an ill-defined and assimilative” native goddess, combined “with a strange and exotic Aphrodite”.[3]

Her cults may represent the religiously legitimate charm and seduction of the divine by mortals, in contrast to the formal, contractual relations between most members of Rome’s official pantheon and the state, and the unofficial, illicit manipulation of divine forces through magic.[4][5] The ambivalence of her function is suggested in the etymological relationship of the root *venes- with Latin venenum (poison), in the sense of “a charm, magic philtre“.[6]

In myth, Venus-Aphrodite was born of sea-foam. Roman theology presents Venus as the yielding, watery female principle, essential to the generation and balance of life. Her male counterparts in the Roman pantheon, Vulcan and Mars, are active and fiery. Venus absorbs and tempers the male essence, uniting the opposites of male and female in mutual affection. She is essentially assimilative and benign, and embraces several otherwise quite disparate functions. She can give military victory, sexual success, good fortune and prosperity. In one context, she is a goddess of prostitutes; in another, she turns the hearts of men and women from sexual vice to virtue.[7]
Images of Venus have been found in domestic murals, mosaics and household shrines (lararia). Petronius, in his Satyricon, places an image of Venus among the Lares (household gods) of the freedman Trimalchio‘s lararium.[8] Prospective brides offered Venus a gift “before the wedding”; the nature of the gift, and its timing, are unknown. Some Roman sources say that girls who come of age offer their toys to Venus; it is unclear where the offering is made, and others say this gift is to the Lares.[9] In dice-games, a popular pastime among Romans of all classes, the luckiest, best possible roll was known as “Venus“.

Venus’ signs were for the most part the same as Aphrodite’s. They include roses, which were offered in Venus’ Porta Collina rites,[10] and above all, myrtle (Latin murtos), which was cultivated for its white, sweetly scented flowers, aromatic, evergreen leaves and its various medical-magical properties. Venus’ statues, and her worshipers, wore myrtle crowns at her festivals.[11] Before its adoption into Venus’ cults, myrtle was used in the purification rites of Cloacina, the Etruscan-Roman goddess of Rome’s main sewer; later, Cloacina’s association with Venus’ sacred plant made her Venus Cloacina. Likewise, Roman folk-etymology transformed the ancient, obscure goddess Murcia into “Venus of the Myrtles, whom we now call Murcia”.[12]

Myrtle was thought a particularly potent aphrodisiac. The female pudendum, particularly the clitoris, was known as murtos (myrtle). As goddess of love and sex, Venus played an essential role at Roman prenuptial rites and wedding nights, so myrtle and roses were used in bridal bouquets. Marriage itself was not a seduction but a lawful condition, under Juno‘s authority; so myrtle was excluded from the bridal crown. Venus was also a patron of the ordinary, everyday wine drunk by most Roman men and women; the seductive powers of wine were well known. In the rites to Bona Dea, a goddess of female chastity,[13] Venus, myrtle and anything male were not only excluded, but unmentionable. The rites allowed women to drink the strongest, sacrificial wine, otherwise reserved for the Roman gods and Roman men; the women euphemistically referred to it as “honey”. Under these special circumstances, they could get virtuously, religiously drunk on strong wine, safe from Venus’ temptations. Outside of this context, ordinary wine (that is, Venus’ wine) tinctured with myrtle oil was thought particularly suitable for women.[14]

Roman generals given an ovation, a lesser form of Roman triumph, wore a myrtle crown, perhaps to purify themselves and their armies of blood-guilt. The ovation ceremony was assimilated to Venus Victrix (“Victorious Venus”), who was held to have granted and purified its relatively “easy” victory.[15][16]

As with most major gods and goddesses in Roman mythology, the literary concept of Venus is mantled in whole-cloth borrowings from the literary Greek mythology of her counterpart, Aphrodite. In some Latin mythology Cupid was the son of Venus and Mars, the god of war. At other times, or in parallel myths and theologies, Venus was understood to be the consort of Vulcan. Virgil, in compliment to his patron Augustus and the gens Julia, embellished an existing connection between Venus, whom Julius Caesar had adopted as his protectress, and Aeneas. Vergil’s Aeneas is guided to Latium by Venus in her heavenly form, the morning star, shining brightly before him in the daylight sky; much later, she lifts Caesar’s soul to heaven.[61] In Ovid‘s Fasti Venus came to Rome because she “preferred to be worshipped in the city of her own offspring”.[62] In Vergil’s poetic account of Octavian‘s victory at the sea-battle of Actium, the future emperor is allied with Venus, Neptune and Minerva. Octavian’s opponents, Antony, Cleopatra and the Egyptians, assisted by bizarre and unhelpful deities such as “barking” Anubis, lose the battle.[63]

In the interpretatio romana of the Germanic pantheon during the early centuries AD, Venus became identified with the Germanic goddess Frijjo, giving rise to the loan translation “Friday” for dies Veneris. The historical cognate of the dawn goddess in Germanic tradition, however, would be Ostara.

The Greek God Attribution: Aphrodite

aphrodite1The Greek Deity attribution for Netzach is Aphrodite.  (Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 8)  Aphrodite (Venus) is the lady of love and beauty, with the power of bestowing her beauty and charms to others. The whole implication of this Sephirah is of love – albeit a love of a sexual nature. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 52)

Aphrodite (Greek: Ἀφροδίτη) is the Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation. Her Roman equivalent is the goddess Venus.[4]  As with many ancient Greek deities, there is more than one story about her origins. According to Hesiod‘s Theogony, she was born when Cronus cut off Uranus‘s genitals and threw them into the sea, and she arose from the sea foam (aphros). According to Homer‘s Iliad, she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione. According to Plato (Symposium 180e), the two were entirely separate entities: Aphrodite Ourania and Aphrodite Pandemos.  Because of her beauty, other gods feared that their rivalry over her would interrupt the peace among them and lead to war, so Zeus married her to Hephaestus, who, because of his ugliness and deformity, was not seen as a threat. Aphrodite had many lovers—both gods, such as Ares, and men, such as Anchises. She played a role in the Eros and Psyche legend, and later was both Adonis‘s lover and his surrogate mother. Many lesser beings were said to be children of Aphrodite.

Aphrodite is also known as Cytherea (Lady of Cythera) and Cypris (Lady of Cyprus) after the two cult sites, Cythera and Cyprus, which claimed to be her place of birth. Myrtle, doves, sparrows, horses, and swans were said to be sacred to her. The ancient Greeks identified her with the Ancient Egyptian goddess Hathor.[5]

Aphrodite had many other names, such as Acidalia, Cytherea and Cerigo, each used by a different local cult of the goddess in Greece. The Greeks recognized all of these names as referring to the single goddess Aphrodite, despite the slight differences in what these local cults believed the goddess demanded of them. The Attic philosophers of the 4th century, however, drew a distinction between a celestial Aphrodite (Aprodite Urania) of transcendent principles, and a separate, “common” Aphrodite who was the goddess of the people (Aphrodite Pandemos).

Aphrodite, perhaps altered after aphrós (ἀφρός) “foam”, stems from the more archaic Cretan Aphordíta and Cypriot Aphorodíta, and was probably ultimately borrowed from Cypriot Phoenician.[6] Herodotus and Pausanias recorded that Aphrodite’s oldest non-Greek temple lay in the Syrian city of Ascalon where she was known as Ourania, an obvious reference to Astarte. This suggests that Aphrodite’s cult located at CytheraCyprus came from the Phoenicians. The fact that one of Aphrodite’s chief centers of worship remained on the southwestern Cypriot coast settled by Phoenicians, where the goddess had long been worshiped as Ashtart (ʻštrt), points to the transmission of Aphrodite’s original cult from Phoenicia to Cyprus then to mainland Greece.[7] So far, however, attempts to derive the name from Aphrodite’s Semitic precursor have been inconclusive.

A number of folk etymologies have been proposed through the ages. Hesiod derives Aphrodite from aphrós “foam,” interpreting the name as “risen from the foam”.[8][9] Janda (2010), accepting this as genuine, claims the foam birth myth as an Indo-European mytheme. Janda intereprets the name as a compound aphrós “foam” + déatai “[she] seems, shines” (infinitive *déasthai[10]), meaning “she who shines from the foam [ocean]”, supposedly a byname of Eos, the dawn goddess.[11]

Aphrodite is usually said to have been born near her chief center of worship, Paphos, on the island of Cyprus, which is why she is sometimes called “Cyprian”, especially in the poetic works of Sappho. However, other versions of her myth have her born near the island of Cythera, hence another of her names, “Cytherea”.[17] Cythera was a stopping place for trade and culture between Crete and the Peloponesus, so these stories may preserve traces of the migration of Aphrodite’s cult from the Middle East to mainland Greece.

In the most famous version of her myth, her birth was the consequence of a castration: Cronus severed Uranus’ genitals and threw them behind him into the sea. The foam from his genitals gave rise to Aphrodite (hence her name, meaning “foam-arisen”), while the Erinyes (furies), and the Meliae emerged from the drops of his blood.[18] Hesiod states that the genitals “were carried over the sea a long time, and white foam arose from the immortal flesh; with it a girl grew.” The girl, Aphrodite, floated ashore on a scallop shell. This iconic representation of Aphrodite as a mature “Venus rising from the sea” (Venus Anadyomene[19]) was made famous in a much-admired painting by Apelles, now lost, but described in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder.

In another version of her origin,[20] she was considered a daughter of Zeus and Dione, the mother goddess whose oracle was at Dodona. Aphrodite herself was sometimes also referred to as “Dione”. “Dione” seems to be a feminine form of “Dios”, the genitive form case of Zeus, and could be taken to mean simply “the goddess” in a generic sense. Aphrodite might, then, be an equivalent of Rhea, the Earth Mother, whom Homer relocated to Olympus.

In Homer, Aphrodite ventures into battle to protect her son, Aeneas, is wounded by Diomedesk and returns to her mother to sink down at her knee and be comforted.

The Egyptian Deity Corresponance: Hathor

hhatorThe Egyptian Deity attribution for Netzach is Hator. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 6)  Like Regardie has pointed out, “Hathor is the Egyptian equivalent and is a lesser aspect of the Mother Isis.”  (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 52) She is usually depicted as a cow goddess, “representing the generative forces of nature, and she was the protectress of agriculture and the fruits of the Earth.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 52)

Hathor (/ˈhæθɔr/ or /ˈhæθər/;[2] Egyptian: ḥwt-ḥr, “mansion of Horus“)[1] is an Ancient Egyptian goddess who personified the principles of joy, feminine love, and motherhood.[3] She was one of the most important and popular deities throughout the history of Ancient Egypt. Hathor was worshiped by Royalty and common people alike in whose tombs she is depicted as “Mistress of the West” welcoming the dead into the next life.[4] In other roles she was a goddess of music, dance, foreign lands and fertility who helped women in childbirth,[4] as well as the patron goddess of miners.[5]

The cult of Hathor predates the historic period, and the roots of devotion to her are therefore difficult to trace, though it may be a development of predynastic cults which venerated fertility, and nature in general, represented by cows.[6]

Hathor is commonly depicted as a cow goddess with horns in which is set a sun disk with Uraeus. Twin feathers are also sometimes shown in later periods as well as a menat necklace.[6] Hathor may be the cow goddess who is depicted from an early date on the Narmer Palette and on a stone urn dating from the 1st dynasty that suggests a role as sky-goddess and a relationship to Horus who, as a sun god, is “housed” in her.[6]

The Ancient Egyptians viewed reality as multi-layered in which deities who merge for various reasons, while retaining divergent attributes and myths, were not seen as contradictory but complementary.[7] In a complicated relationship Hathor is at times the mother, daughter and wife of Ra and, like Isis, is at times described as the mother of Horus, and associated with Bast.[6]

The cult of Osiris promised eternal life to those deemed morally worthy. Originally the justified dead, male or female, became an Osiris but by early Roman times females became identified with Hathor and men with Osiris.[8]

The Ancient Greeks identified Hathor with the goddess Aphrodite and the Romans as Venus.[9]

The Hindu God Attribution: Bhavani

bhavani-Bhavani is the Hindu goddess correspondance for Netzach. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 52)  Bhavani is a ferocious aspect of the Hindu goddess Parvati. Bhavani means “giver of life”, the power of nature or the source of creative energy. In addition to her ferocious aspect, she is also known as Karunaswaroopini, “filled with mercy”.  Bhavani was the tutelary deity of the Maratha leader Shivaji,in whose veneration, he dedicated his sword, Bhavani Talwar. A temple to Bhavani at Tuljapur in Maharashtra, dates back to the 12th century. The temple contains a metre-high granite icon of the goddess, with eight arms holding weapons. She also holds the head of the demon Mahishasura, whom she slew in the region which is the present day Mysore.  Worship of the primeval energy, Shakti, in the form of the mother Goddess is seen in the four Shakti Peethas of Maharashtra – Bhavani with her seat at Tuljapur, Mahalakshmi at Kolhapur, Mahamaya Renuka at Mahur and Jagadamba at Saptashrungi, and also in Tamil Nadu (Periyapalayam)Sri Bhavani Amman. Other Shakti temples in the state are those at Ambejogai and Aundh. (also see Daksha Yagna).  Bhavani was the tutelary deity of Shivaji Maharaj, the valiant Maratha ruler and is held in great reverence throughout the state of Maharashtra. Bhavani is considered to be an embodiment of Ugra or ferocity, as well as a Karunaswaroopini – filled with mercy. A number of castes, sub-castes and families from Maharashtra consider her their family deity or Kuldevta.  The Bhavani temple in Tuljapur is located on a hill known as Yamunachala, on the slopes of the Sahayadri range in Maharashtra near Sholapur. The temple entrance is at an elevation and visitors need to ascend a flight of steps to reach the shrine. Historic records speak of the existence of this temple from as early as the 12th century CE.  Bhavani is worshipped in the form of a 3-foot-high (0.91 m) granite image, with eight arms holding weapons, bearing the head of the slain demon Mahishasura. Bhavani is also known as Tulaja, Turaja, Tvarita and Amba.  Legend has it that a demon by name Matanga wreaked havoc upon the devas and the humans who approached Bhrahma for help and upon his advice turned to the Mother Goddess Shakti, who took up the form of the destroyer, and powered by the other (Sapta) Maataas Varaahi, Bhrahmi, Vaishnavi, Kaumaari, Indraani and Saambhavi and vanquished him for peace to reign again.  Legend also has it that Bhavani vanquished another demon who had taken the form of a wild buffalo (Mahishasura), and took abode on the Yamunachala hill, which is now home to the temple.  Four worship services are offered each day here. The festivals of significance here are Gudi Padva in the month of Chaitra, Shriral Sashti, Lalita Panchami, Makara Sankranti and Rathasaptami. The deity is taken out in procession on Tuesdays. Navaratri is also celebrated with great fanfare, and it culminates in Vijaya Dasami.

The Scandinavian God Attribution: Freya

freyyaaThe Scandinavian Deity correspondence for Netzach is Freya. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 8)

In Norse mythology, Freyja (Old Norse the “Lady“) is a goddess associated with love, sexuality, beauty, fertility, gold, seiðr, war, and death. Freyja is the owner of the necklace Brísingamen, rides a chariot pulled by two cats, owns the boar Hildisvíni, possesses a cloak of falcon feathers, and, by her husband Óðr, is the mother of two daughters, Hnoss and Gersemi. Along with her brother Freyr (Old Norse the “Lord“), her father Njörðr, and her mother (Njörðr’s sister, unnamed in sources), she is a member of the Vanir. Stemming from Old Norse Freyja, modern forms of the name include Freya, Frejya, Freyia, Frøya, Frøjya, Freia, and Freja.

Freyja rules over her heavenly afterlife field Fólkvangr and there receives half of those that die in battle, whereas the other half go to the god Odin‘s hall, Valhalla. Within Fólkvangr is her hall, Sessrúmnir. Freyja assists other deities by allowing them to use her feathered cloak, is invoked in matters of fertility and love, and is frequently sought after by powerful jötnar who wish to make her their wife. Freyja’s husband, the god Óðr, is frequently absent. She cries tears of red gold for him, and searches for him under assumed names. Freyja has numerous names, including Gefn, Hörn, Mardöll, Sýr, Valfreyja, and Vanadís.

Freyja is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources; in the Prose Edda and Heimskringla, both written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century; in several Sagas of Icelanders; in the short story Sörla þáttr; in the poetry of skalds; and into the modern age in Scandinavian folklore, as well as the name for Friday in many Germanic languages.

Scholars have theorized about whether Freyja and the goddess Frigg ultimately stem from a single goddess common among the Germanic peoples highly based on the fact that the name for Frigg in Germany is spelled Freija; about her connection to the valkyries, female battlefield choosers of the slain; and her relation to other goddesses and figures in Germanic mythology, including the thrice-burnt and thrice-reborn Gullveig/Heiðr, the goddesses Gefjon, Skaði, Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr and Irpa, Menglöð, and the 1st century CE “Isis” of the Suebi. Freyja’s name appears in numerous place names in Scandinavia, with a high concentration in southern Sweden. Various plants in Scandinavia once bore her name, but it was replaced with the name of the Virgin Mary during the process of Christianization. Rural Scandinavians continued to acknowledge Freyja as a supernatural figure into the 19th century, and Freyja has inspired various works of art.

The Sacred Plant Attribution: The Rose

roosseeThe sacred plant correspondance is the rose (Aleister crowley, 777, p. 10) Rose is the flower appurtenant. It is common knowledge that in some diseases of a veneral origin oils of sandalwood are employed. Benzoin56 is a perfume of Venus, too, and its sensuous seductiveness is unmistakable. The rose is attributed as being harmonious to the character of Aphrodite. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 52)

A rose is a woody perennial of the genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae. There are over 100 species. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach 7 meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.[1]     The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, which was perhaps borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhódon (Aeolic βρόδον wródon), itself borrowed from Old Persian wrd- (wurdi), related to Avestan varəδa, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr.[2][3]

Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors. They have been also used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover and slope stabilization. They also have minor medicinal uses.  Roses are a favored subject in art and appear in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as architectural elements. The Luxembourg born Belgian artist and botanist Pierre-Joseph Redouté is known for his detailed watercolours of flowers, particularly roses.

Henri Fantin-Latour was also a prolific painter of still life, particularly flowers including roses. The Rose ‘Fantin-Latour’ was named after the artist.

Other impressionists including Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne and Pierre-Auguste Renoir have paintings of roses among their works.

Roses have been long used as symbols in a number of societies. Roses are ancient symbols of love and beauty. “Rose” means pink or red in a variety of languages (such as the Romance languages and Greek).

The rose was sacred to a number of goddesses including Isis, whose rose appears in the late classical allegorical novel The Golden Ass as “the sweet Rose of reason and virtue” that saves the hero from his bewitched life in the form of a donkey.[1] The ancient Greeks and Romans identified the rose with the goddess of love, Aphrodite (Greek name) and Venus (Roman name).

In Rome a wild rose would be placed on the door of a room where secret or confidential matters were discussed. The phrase sub rosa, or “under the rose”, means to keep a secret — derived from this ancient Roman practice.

The cultivation of geometrical gardens, in which the rose has often held pride of place, has a long history in Iran and surrounding lands.[2][3] In the lyric ghazal, it is the beauty of the rose that provokes the longing song of the nightingale[4] – an image prominent, for example, in the poems of Hafez.[5]

In turn, the imagery of lover and beloved became a type of the Sufi mystic’s quest for divine love, so that Ibn Arabi, for example, aligns the rose with the beloved’s blushing cheek on the one hand and, on the other, with the divine names and attributes.[6]

Other well-known examples of rose symbolism in Sufism include;

The rose is the emblem of Islamabad Capital Territory in Pakistan

Medieval Christians identified the five petals of the rose with the five wounds of Christ. Roses also later came to be associated with the Virgin Mary. The red rose was eventually adopted as a symbol of the blood of the Christian martyrs. A bouquet of red roses, often used to show love, is used as a Valentine’s Day gift in many countries.

On St George’s Day in Catalonia people offer dark red roses as gifts, especially between lovers. The Virolai, a hymn to the Virgin of Montserrat, one of the black Madonnas of Europe, begins with the words: “Rosa d’abril, Morena de la serra…” (April rose, dusky lady of the mountain chain…). Therefore this virgin is sometimes known as “Rosa d’abril”. The red rose is thus widely accepted as an unofficial symbol of Catalonia.[7]

Roses are occasionally the basis of design for rose windows comprising five or ten segments (the five petals and five sepals of a rose) or multiples thereof, though most Gothic rose windows are much more elaborate.

The rose is the national flower of England.[8] The usage dates from the reign of Henry VII who introduced the Tudor rose, combining a red rose, representing the House of Lancaster, and a white rose, representing the House of York, as a symbol of unity after the English civil wars of the 15th century which, long after, came to be called the Wars of the Roses. The rose thus appears in the histories of William Shakespeare and in the Child Ballads.

A red rose (often held in a hand) is a symbol of socialism or social democracy: it is used as a symbol by British, Irish, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Finnish, Brazilian, Dutch, Bulgarian, Korean, and other European labour, socialist or social democratic parties, mostly adopted in the period after World War II.[12]

The Sacred Perfume Correspondance: Red Sandal

red-sandal-The perfume attribution for Netzach is  benxoid, rose and red sandal. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 52; Aleister Crowley, p. 13 )

Pterocarpus santalinus (Telugu: రక్తచందనము (raktachandanamu), (malayalam:രക്ത ചന്ദനം (raktha chandanam),(Tamil: சிவப்புச்சந்தனம் (siwappuchchandanam); Red Sanders or Red Sandalwood) is a species of Pterocarpus native to India.[1] It is only found in the districts of Kadapa, Chittoor of Andhra Pradesh state in India, mostly in the hilly region of Nepal, in Pakistan and in Sri Lanka.[2][3][4] In India sandalwood is one main and lucrative market for smugglers as a high price is paid for this wood in China. Since, the exporting of sandalwood in India, the underground market is growing and there are a number of arrests every year of those trying to smuggle this wood to China.

The wood has historically been valued in China, particularly during the Ming and Qing periods, referred to in Chinese as zitan (紫檀) and spelt tzu-t’an by earlier western authors such Gustav Ecke, who introduced classical Chinese furniture to the west.[4] It has been one of the most prized woods for millennia. King Solomon was given tribute logs of Almug in Sanskrit valgu, valgum by the Queen of Sheba[8] Due to its slow growth and rarity, furniture made from zitan is difficult to find and can be expensive.[8] Between the 17th and 19th centuries in China the rarity of this wood led to the reservation of zitan furniture for the Qing dynasty imperial household. Chandan, the Indian word for Red Sandalwood which is Tzu-t’an, are linked by etymology. The word tan in Chinese is a perfect homonym of “tan”, meaning cinnabar, vermillion and the cognition is suggested by the interchange of chan for oriflamme, the vermilion ensign of the ancients. Chinese traders would have been familiar with Chandan. Tzu-t’an then is the ancient Chinese interpretation for the Indian word chandan for red sandalwood.

In Hinduism, this wood has been traditionally used as a sacred wood. The priests and higher class casts such as brahamin extensively use this wood on many of their rituals.

The other form of zitan is from the species Dalbergia luovelii, Dalbergia maritima, and Dalbergia normandi, all similar species named in trade as bois de rose or violet rosewood which when cut are bright crimson purple changing to dark purple again. It has a fragrant scent when worked.[4]

The Sepher Yetzirah Appellation: The Occult Intelligence

The Sepher Yetzirah calls Netzach “The Occult Intelligence”. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 52; Aleister Crowley, 777, p.4)

The Sacred Color Correspondence: Green

00FF00The color attribution for Netzach is green. (Aleister crowley, 777, p. 7) The color of Netzach, obviously, has been being derived from the union of the blue and yellow of Chesed and Tiphareth (see Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 50)

Green is a color on the spectrum of visible light, located between blue and yellow. It is evoked by light with a predominant wavelength of roughly 495–570 nm. In the subtractive color system, used in painting and color printing, it is created by a combination of yellow and blue, or yellow and cyan; in the RGB color model, used on television and computer screens, it is one of the additive primary colors, along with red and blue, which are mixed in different combinations to create all other colors.

The modern English word green comes from the Middle English and Anglo-Saxon word grene, from the same Germanic root as the words “grass” and “grow”.[2] It is the color of growing grass and leaves [3][4] and as a result is the color most associated with springtime, growth and nature.[5] By far the largest contributor to green in nature is chlorophyll, the chemical by which plants photosynthesize and convert sunlight into energy. Many creatures have adapted to their green environments by taking on a green hue themselves as camouflage. Several minerals have a green color, including the emerald, which is colored green by its chromium content.

In surveys made in Europe and the United States, green is the color most commonly associated with nature, youth, spring, hope and envy.[5] In Europe and the U.S. green is sometimes associated with death, sickness, or the devil, but in China its associations are very positive, as the symbol of fertility.[6] Because of its association with youth, it is sometimes used to describe someone who is inexperienced.

In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, when the color of clothing showed showed the owner’s social status, green was worn by merchants, bankers and the gentry. while red was the color of the nobility. The Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci wears green, showing she is not from noble family; the benches in in the British House of Commons are green, while those in the House of Lords are red. [6]

Green is also the traditional color of safety and permission; a green light means go ahead, a green card permits permanent residence in the United States. [6]

It is the most important color in Islam. It was the color the of the banner of Muhammad, and is found in the flags of all Islamic countries, and represents the lush vegetation of Paradise.[7] It is also often associated with the culture of Gaelic Ireland, and is a color of the flag of Ireland. Because of its association with nature, it is the color of the environmental movement. Political groups advocating environmental protection and social justice describe themselves as part of the Green movement, some naming themselves Green parties. This has led to similar campaigns in advertising, as companies have sold green, or environmentally friendly, products.

The word green comes from the Middle English and Old English word grene, which, like the German word grün, has the same root as the words grass and grow.[9] It is from a Common Germanic *gronja-, which is also reflected in Old Norse grænn, Old High German gruoni (but unattested in East Germanic), ultimately from a PIE root *ghre- “to grow”, and root-cognate with grass and to grow.[10] The first recorded use of the word as a color term in Old English dates to ca. AD 700.[11]

Latin with viridis (and hence the Romance languages, and English vert, verdure etc.) also has a genuine term for “green”. Likewise the Slavic languages with zelenъ. Ancient Greek also had a term for yellowish, pale green – χλωρός, chloros (cf. the color of chlorine), cognate with χλοερός “verdant” and χλόη “the green of new growth”.

Thus, the languages mentioned above (Germanic, Romance, Slavic, Greek) have old terms for “green” which are derived from words for fresh, sprouting vegetation. However, comparative linguistics makes clear that these terms were coined independently, over the past few millennia, and there is no identifiable single Proto-Indo-European or word for “green”. For example, the Slavic zelenъ is cognate with Sanskrit hari “yellow, ochre, golden”.[12] The Turkic languages also have jašɨl “green” or “yellowish green”, compared to a Mongolian word for “meadow”.[13]

In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the color of clothing showed a person’s social rank and profession. Red could only be worn by the nobility, brown and gray by peasants, and green by merchants, bankers and the gentry and their families.

In the 18th and 19th century, green was associated with the romantic movement in literature and art. The French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau celebrated the virtues of nature, The German poet and philosopher Goethe declared that green was the most restful color, suitable for decorating bedrooms. Painters such as John Constable and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot depicted the lush green of rural landscapes and forests. Green was contrasted to the smoky grays and blacks of the Industrial Revolution.

The second half of the 19th century saw the use of green in art to create specific emotions, not just to imitate nature.

The late nineteenth century also brought the systematic study of color theory, and particularly the study of how complementary colors such as red and green reinforced each other when they were placed next to each other. These studies were avidly followed by artists such as Vincent van Gogh.

In the 1980s green became a political symbol, the color of the Green Party in Germany and in many other European countries. It symbolized the environmental movement, and also a new politics of the left which rejected traditional socialism and communism.

In China, green is associated with the east, with sunrise, and with life and growth.[61] In Thailand, the color green is consider auspicious for those born on a Wednesday day (light green for those born at night).[62]

Green is the color most commonly associated in the U.S. and Europe with springtime, freshness, and hope.[63] Green is often used to symbolize rebirth and renewal and immortality. In Ancient Egypt; the god Osiris, king of the underworld, was depicted as green-skinned.[64] Green as the color of hope is connected with the color of springtime; hope represents the faith that things will improve after a period of difficulty, like the renewal of flowers and plants after the winter season.[65]

Green the color most commonly associated in Europe and the U.S. with youth. It also often is used to describe anyone young, inexperienced, probably by the analogy to immature and unripe fruit.[66][67]

Surveys also show that green is the color most associated with the calm, the agreeable, and tolerance. Red is associated with heat, blue with cold, and green with an agreeable temperature. Red is associated with dry, blue with wet, and green, in the middle, with dampness. Red is the most active color, blue the most passive; green, in the middle, is the color of neutrality and calm. Blue and green together symbolize harmony and balance.[68]

Green is often associated with jealousy and envy. The expression “green-eyed monster” was first used by William Shakespeare in Othello: “it is the green-eyed monster which doth mock the meat it feeds on.” Shakespeare also used it in the Merchant of Venice, speaking of “green-eyed jealousy.”[69]

Green today is not commonly associated in Europe and the United States with love and sexuality,[70] but in stories of the medieval period it sometimes represented love[71] and the base, natural desires of man.[72] It was the color of the serpent in the Garden of Eden who caused the downfall of Adam and Eve. However, for the troubadours, green was the color of growing love, and light green clothing was reserved for young women who were not yet married.[73]

In Persian and Sudanese poetry, dark-skinned women, called “green” women, were considered erotic.[19] The Chinese term for cuckold is “to wear a green hat.”[74] This was because in ancient China, prostitutes were called “the family of the green lantern” and a prostitute‘s family would wear a green headscarf.[75]

In legends, folk tales and films, fairies, dragons, monsters, and the devil are often shown as green.

In the Middle Ages, the devil was usually shown as either red, black or green. Dragons were usually green, because they had the heads, claws and tails of reptiles. In the theater and in films, green was often connected with horror or ghost stories, and with corpses.

Like other common colors, green has several completely opposite associations. While it is the color most associated by Europeans and Americans with good health, it is also the color most often associated with toxicity and poison. There was a solid foundation for this association; in the nineteenth century several popular paints and pigments, notably verdigris, vert de Schweinfurt and vert de Paris, were highly toxic, containing copper or arsenic.[80]

Green is sometimes thought to be an unlucky color in British and British-derived cultures. In the Celtic tradition, green was avoided in clothing for its superstitious association with misfortune and death.[84] Green wedding dresses and green cars were considered unlucky, even though British racing green was the official color for British racing cars.[85][86] Green costumes for actors were also considered unlucky in France and England, a superstition connected with the death on stage of the French playwright Molière, who was said to have been wearing a green costume.[87]

Green can communicate safety to proceed, as in traffic lights.[88] Green and red were standarized as the colors of international railroad signals in the 19th century.

Green in Europe and the United States is sometimes associated with status and prosperity. From the Middle Ages to the 19th century it was often worn by bankers, merchants country gentlemen and others who were wealthy but not members of the nobility. The benches in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, where the landed gentry sat, are colored green.

In the United States green was connected with the dollar bill. Since 1861,the reverse side of the dollar bill has been green. Green was originally chosen because it deterred counterfeiters, who tried to use early camera equipment to duplicate banknotes. Also, since the banknotes were thin, the green on the back did not show through and muddle the pictures on the front of the banknote. Green continues to be used because the public now associates it with a strong and stable currency.[89]

One of the more notable uses of this meaning is found in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. In this story is the Emerald City, where everyone wears tinted glasses which make everything look green. According to the populist interpretation of the story, the city’s color is used by the author, L. Frank Baum, to illustrate the financial system of America in his day, as he lived in a time when America was debating the use of paper money versus gold.[90]

Green is the traditional color of Islam. According to tradition, the robe and banner of Muhammed were green. and according to the Koran (XVIII, 31 and LXXVI, 21), those fortunate enough to live in paradise wear green silk robes.[106][107][108] Muhammad is quoted in a hadith as saying that “water, greenery, and a beautiful face” were three universally good things.[109]

Al-Khidr (“The Green One”), was an important Qur’anic figure who was said to have met and traveled with Moses.[110] He was given that name because of his role as a diplomat and negotiator. Green was also considered to be the median color between light and obscurity.[107]

Roman Catholic and more traditional Protestant clergy wear green vestments at liturgical celebrations during Ordinary Time.[111] In the Eastern Catholic Church, green is the color of Pentecost.[112] Green is one of the Christmas colors as well, possibly dating back to pre-Christian times, when evergreens were worshiped for their ability to maintain their color through the winter season. Romans used green holly and evergreen as decorations for their winter solstice celebration called Saturnalia, which eventually evolved into a Christmas celebration.[113] In Ireland and Scotland especially, green is used to represent Catholics, while orange is used to represent Protestantism. This is shown on the national flag of Ireland.

In the metaphysics of the “New Age Prophetess”, Alice Bailey, in her system called the Seven Rays which classifies humans into seven different metaphysical psychological types, the “third ray” of “creative intelligence” is represented by the color green. People who have this metaphysical psychological type are said to be “on the Green Ray”.[114] In Hinduism, Green is used to symbolically represent the fourth, heart chakra (Anahata).[115] Psychics who claim to be able to observe the aura with their third eye report that someone with a green aura is typically someone who is in an occupation related to health, such as a physician or nurse, as well as people who are lovers of nature and the outdoors.[116]

The Sacred Animal Correspondance: The Lynx

lyynnxxxThe sacred animal attribution dir Netzach is the lynx (Aleister Crowley, 777, p.10)

A lynx (plural lynx or lynxes[3]) is any of the four species within the Lynx genus of medium-sized wild cats. The name “lynx” originated in Middle English via Latin from the Greek word “λύγξ”,[2] derived from the Indo-European root “leuk-“, meaning “light, brightness”,[4] in reference to the luminescence of its reflective eyes.[4] There is considerable confusion about the best way to classify felids at present, and some authorities[who?] classify them as part of the genus Felis.  Neither the caracal, sometimes called the Persian lynx or African lynx, nor the jungle cat, called the swamp lynx, is a member of the Lynx genus.  ynx have a short tail and characteristic tufts of black hair on the tips of their ears; large, padded paws for walking on snow; and long whiskers on the face. Under their neck, they have a ruff which has black bars, is not very visible, and resembles a bow tie.

Body colour varies from medium brown to goldish to beige-white, and is occasionally marked with dark brown spots, especially on the limbs. All species of lynx have white fur on their chests, bellies and on the insides of their legs, fur which is an extension of the chest and belly fur. Also, the lynx’s colouring, fur length and paw size vary by its climate range—in the Southwestern United States, its short-haired fur is dark and its paws are smaller and less padded. As the lynx ranges to colder northern climates, its fur gets progressively thicker (for warmth), the colour gets lighter (for camouflage), and its paws enlarge and become more padded (for snowy environments). Its paws may become larger than a human hand or foot. The lynx is considered a national animal in the Republic of Macedonia[32][33] and is displayed on the reverse of the 5 denar coin.[34]

The lynx, a type of wildcat, has a prominent role in Greek, Norse, and North American mythology. It is considered an elusive and mysterious creature, known in some American Indian traditions as a ‘keeper of secrets’.[1] It is also believed to have supernatural eyesight, capable of seeing even through solid objects.[2] As a result, it often symbolises the unravelling of hidden truths, and the psychic power of clairvoyance.[3]

One of the earliest known depictions of the lynx in Greco-Roman mythology is recorded in Ovid‘s epic poem, Metamorphoses. The goddess Demeter (often conflated with the Roman goddess Ceres) commands Triptolemus to travel the world teaching the art of agriculture. He arrives at the court of King Lyncus, who grows desirous of the goddess’s favour, and plots to kill Triptolemus in his sleep. No sooner than he raises his sword, however, he is transformed into a lynx.[4]

In medieval times, the lynx was said to produce a gem. According to many bestiaries, the lynx would urinate in a hole that it had dug in ground, and then cover it with dirt. After a number of days, the urine would harden into a gem that resembled a carbuncle. It was believed that the Latin name for amber, ‘Lyncurium’, was derived from this superstition. However, other medieval scholars pointed out that this amber was mined extensively in Lyguria, which may hint at a more plausible etymology.[7]

Lynx is the name of a constellation in the northern sky, defined by Johannes Hevelius in 1687. The name is said to have been chosen because the stars which make up the constellation are so faint that only those with the eyesight of the lynx can perceive them.[8]

The Precious Stone Attribution: Emerald

emeraldThe precious stone correspondance for Netzach is Emerald. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 10)   Emerald is a gemstone, and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.[2] Beryl has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the 10-point Mohs scale of mineral hardness.[2] Most emeralds are highly included, so their toughness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. The word “Emerald” is derived (via Old French: Esmeraude and Middle English: Emeraude), from Vulgar Latin: Esmaralda/Esmaraldus, a variant of Latin Smaragdus, which originated in Greek: σμάραγδος (smaragdos; “green gem”).[3]

Emeralds, like all colored gemstones, are graded using four basic parameters–the four Cs of Connoisseurship: Color, Cut, Clarity and Carat weight. Before the 20th century, jewelers used the term water, as in “a gem of the finest water”,[4] to express the combination of two qualities: color and clarity. Normally, in the grading of colored gemstones, color is by far the most important criterion. However, in the grading of emeralds, crystal is considered a close second. Both are necessary conditions. A fine emerald must possess not only a pure verdant green hue as described below, but also a high degree of transparency to be considered a top gem.[5]

In the 1960s, the American jewelry industry changed the definition of “emerald” to include the green vanadium-bearing beryl as emerald.

In gemology,[citation needed] color is divided into three components: hue, saturation and tone.[7] Emeralds occur in hues ranging from yellow-green to blue-green, with the primary hue necessarily being green. Yellow and blue are the normal secondary hues found in emeralds. Only gems that are medium to dark in tone are considered emerald; light-toned gems are known instead by the species name green beryl. The finest emerald are approximately 75% tone on a scale where 0% tone would be colorless and 100% would be opaque black. In addition, a fine stone should be well saturated; the hue of an emerald should be bright (vivid). Gray is the normal saturation modifier or mask found in emerald; a grayish-green hue is a dull green hue.[5]

Emeralds are green by definition (the name is derived from the Greek word “smaragdus”, meaning green).[8] Emeralds are the green variety of beryl, a mineral which comes in many other colors that are sometimes also used as gems, such as blue aquamarine, yellow heliodor, pink morganite, red red beryl or bixbite, not to be confused with bixbyite, and colorless goshenite.[9]

Emeralds in antiquity have been mined in Egypt since 1500 BCE, and India, and Austria since at least the 14th century CE.[13]

Colombia is by far the world’s largest producer of emeralds, constituting 50–95% of the world production, with the number depending on the year, source and grade.[14][15][16][17]

Zambia is the world’s second biggest producer.

Emerald is regarded as the traditional birthstone for May, as well as the traditional gemstone for the astrological signs of Taurus, Gemini and sometimes Cancer.

One of the quainter anecdotes on emeralds was by the 16th-century historian Brantôme, who referred to the many impressive emeralds the Spanish under Cortez had brought back to Europe from Latin America. On one of Cortez’s most notable emeralds he had the text engraved Inter Natos Mulierum non sur-rexit mayor (“Among those born of woman there hath not arisen a greater,” Matthew 11:11) which referred to John the Baptist. Brantôme considered engraving such a beautiful and simple product of nature sacrilegious and considered this act the cause for Cortez’s loss of an extremely precious pearl (to which he dedicated a work, A beautiful and incomparable pearl), and even for the death of King Charles IX of France, who died soon after.[29]

The Tarot Card Attribution: The Four Sevens

the-four-sevensThe tarot cards correspondances for Netzach are the four Sevens. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 50; Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 4)

The Four Sevens in the Tarot represent challenges and obstacles that must be overcome in order to achieve aims or goals.  After the stabilising time spent in the Six the Universe has decided that more is now required of the individual Suits before they grow lazy or lack lustre about finishing their journey.  Life has changed gear once again and the pressure is beginning to increase the closer they get to the finish line.  Back in the Ace, in their early days, when inspiration, desire, need and burning ambition drove them to take the initial step forward, they may not have realised how hard the road would get, the potholes and sometimes craters that would trip up or indeed swallow the unsuspecting traveller.  Yet, here they are, all Four Suits, and amazingly enough, still standing.

Regardless of the difficulties experienced to date, they are on the home run now and hopefully enough momentum has been built to keep them going to the end no matter what the road throws up at them now.  However, the closer they get to home and attaining their individual goals the harder they will be tested.  Any challenges or obstacles will have to be carefully dealt with and navigated around because mistakes made now may cause serious set backs.  By now, the Four Suits should have a growing understanding of their personal strengths and weaknesses in relation to any apparent successes or failures experienced to date.  The Universe will not tolerate them making the same mistakes over and over so the time has come for them to ‘know thyself and thy abilities’. Therefore, the Sevens also deal with introspection and the reassessment of goals and aims.  Some adjustments may need to be made in the way the Suits go about achieving them.  Some challenges or obstacles faced, may seem familiar at this stage and they may ask, “Hey, what am I doing here again?” but if they stop to think long and hard enough they will realise that if they are getting the same unwanted results for the same actions then change or a new strategy is needed.

In  in the face of challenge and obstacles, a new approach may be necessary to achieve their aims. It is a time to reassess their goals. The Wands have to deal with the challenge of having too many irons in the fire and demands in their life.  The position they fought so hard for and eventually won now brings its own set of problems and burdens.

The Cups after their personal trauma and heartbreak sought refuge and sanctuary but now realise that change is needed once again and with that brings emotional fear and confusion. They must go deep within to find answers and guidance. The challenge is to face themselves.

The Swords after been psychologically overwhelmed and beaten down must move beyond that.  They need to sharpen and start using their brilliant minds to adapt to whatever is thrown at them instead of letting it knock them down each time.

The Pentacles, after their loss and deprivation now have the challenge of getting back on their feet and deciding what to do next. Through introspection and reassessment their challenge is not to let failure have a chance to catch them again.

For Each Suit, all will be riding on what they do next.

All Four Suits may benefit from reviewing their life plan.  Some may need to be torn up and rewritten, others just needing a tweek here and there.  Some may have lost sight of the original goal or now want something else. Getting back out on the road with a new sense of purpose is what the energy of the Seven can bring to the Fours Suits.  With determination, conviction, tenacity and a strong sense of self-belief, the message of the Seven rings strong and clear in their heads, “You must not give up, hang on in there and find a way to succeed.  Victory is yours if you have the courage and stamina to take it. We shall overcome”.

Seven also brings luck and magic but usually as a byproduct of resourcefulness and using initiative.   This combination can be quite powerful indeed but they cannot wait for it to come knocking on the door.  They must go out and make it themselves.  The continued journey of the Four Suits is not for the faint hearted but the wheels have been set in motion and one way or another they will all cross that finish line, successfully or not.

On the Kabbalistic Tree of Life, The Four Sevens reside in the 7th  Sephira – Netzach  (Victory/Endurance) whichprovides the fortitude and determination to succeed in one’s endeavours and overcome obstructions or challenges. It deals with the emotions and feelings and the focussed concentration or control over same.  Astrologically – Corresponds with Venus

In the Major Arcana, the Four Sevens correspond with Card Seven, The Chariot (VII).  The Chariot speaks for itself in its message of Victory by force, stamina, fearlessness, control, determination and endurance. The Chariot drives forth with a steely determination and strong conviction.  The Chariot is also in full control of his emotions, for if not, nothing could be achieved.  The Chariot courageously faces any challenge or obstacle that stands in his way.  The basis of The Chariot’s journey is completion. Therefore, if one steps onto the Chariot, one must be prepared to go the distance for there will not be an option to change one’s mind further down the road. All Fours Suits will need to call on the energy of The Chariot to endure this stage of their journey.

The Tower Card (XVI) of The Major Arcana is also linked to the Four Sevens and stands for the ultimate challenge and the strongest of obstacles. Only the strongest will survive the Tower.

One Seven turning up in your reading may not be terribly significant but will highlight, depending on the Suit, the area of your life that is posing challenging or difficult. Reassess how you are tackling the situation as you may need a new approach.

Two of more Sevens in your Reading will suggest that you are more than likely feeling challenged and have much to overcome or deal with before you can get some peace of mind.  You are bound to be feeling tired and drained and under pressure but you must not give up or give in. Instead, you might have to make some changes in the way you are doing things if you wish to achieve your goals.

All Four Sevens can actually be a good sign and once they are Upright suggests that you are really taking the necessary steps to get your life in order and are making progress.  It is a testimony to your strong assertive and independent personality which is the type that never gives in.  You are finding a way around all the pot holes and thinking on your feet.  Luck is bound to be on your side as a result of all your combined efforts.

One Reversed Seven in a Reading again, is not terribly significant but does show the area of your life where you feel overwhelmed and not in full control.  You may need to let a situation go or change the way you deal with it but instead use the same old approaches and keep going regardless of the unwelcome outcome.

Two or more Reversed Sevens in a Reading is often a sign of stubbornness, rigidity or stupidity.  The Reversed Message of The Seven is “Don’t hang on.  Let go. What you are doing is not working so stop. You are getting the same results over and over, yet you fail to learn.  You are going nowhere with this situation.  Get out or completely overhaul.  Stepping back now will give you a chance to reassess your situation. “

All Four Sevens Reversed can suggest bad luck all round and acting without thought or impulsiveness. Whatever you are doing is not working and you are probably solely responsible for this.

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