Fear of God – In Proverbs it states that ‘The beginning of wisdom (chokhmah) is the fear of the Lord.” We are finite beings with small minds and limited concerns. As one moves from the root of personal identity in Tiferet towards the fount of cosmic manifestation, our personal frailty and insignificance become apparent. Every person has felt the power of the sea, its immensity and unpredictability, its beauty and danger. How much more then can we experience the immensity of God’s outpouring? (Collin A. Low, The Hermetic Kabbalah, p. 330)
The keynote to this path goes like this: “The harmonious condition of enlightenment allows the soul to travel to the source of Divine Love is the inseminating father principle of all creation. It is thus that we gain a window into eternity and behold our Father who is in heaven.” The magical motto of this path is an exterp of Goethe’s Faust : “The highest virtue, like a halo-zone, circles the Emperor’s head; and he alone is worthy vilidly to exercise it.”
The Hebrew Letter Correspondence: Héh (5)
The Tarot Trump Correspondence: The Emperor
The Tarot card attribution for Héh, the fifth path of the qabalistic Tree of Life is IV – entitled The Emperor. He is generaly depicted as an aged character who has a red robe, and seated on a throne (in his crown are rubies), his legs forming a cross. His arms and head form a triangle. We have, therefore, the alchemical symbol of Sulphur, a fiery energetic principle, the Hindu Gunam of Rajas, the quality of energy and volition. On the arms of his throne are carved two ram’s heads, showing that this attribution is harmonious. “The feminine power of love and the male force of live giving potency are balanced in his hands, as orb and sceptre. Seated on a mountain of barren rock, he rules over the world of matter and has mastered the strength to rise above it. Order, virility, paternity, and the tawful regulation of life are embodied in this Arcanum of the kingly man who becomes a reigning god by transmuting earthly power into the spiritual power of unlimited love.” The Emperor represents structure, order and regulation – forces to balance the free-flowing, lavish abundance of the Empress. He advocates a four-square world where trains are on time, games are played by rules, and commanding officers are respected. In chaotic situations, the Emperor can indicate the need for organization. Loose ends should be tied up, and wayward elements, harnessed. In situations that are already over-controlled, he suggests the confining effect of those constraints. The Emperor can represent an encounter with authority or the assumption of power and control. As the regulator, he is often associated with legal matters, disciplinary actions, and officialdom in all its forms. He can also stand for an individual father or archetypal Father in his role as guide, protector and provider.
The Fifth Step of the Fool’s Pilgrimage
The next person the Fool encounters is the Father in the figure of the Emperor (4). He is the representative of structure and authority. As a baby leaves his mother’s arms, he learns that there are patterns to his world. Objects respond in predictable ways that can be explored. The child experiences a new kind of pleasure that comes from discovering order. The Fool also encounters rules. He learns that his will is not always paramount and there are certain behaviors necessary for his well-being. There are people in authority who will enforce such guidelines. These restrictions can be frustrating, but, through the patient direction of the Father, the Fool begins to understand their purpose.
The Planetary Correspondence: Mars
The planetary correspondence for the fifth path (Héh) of the qabalistic Tree of Life is Mars. The Yetziratic title for this path is “the Constituting Intelligence,” and its astrological attribution is Aries, the sign of the Ram, ruled by Mars, and in which the Sun is exalted. Its attributions are, hence, fiery and martial. Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is often described as the “Red Planet”, as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance.This is coherent with the color attribution for this path, which is scarlet red. The planet is named after the Roman god of war, Mars. The mythologic Mars was second in importance only to Jupiter, and he was the most prominent of the military gods worshipped by the Roman legions.Under the influence of Greek culture, Mars was identified with the Greek god Ares, whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars. But the character and dignity of Mars differed in fundamental ways from that of his Greek counterpart, who is often treated with contempt and revulsion in Greek literature.Although Ares was viewed primarily as a destructive and destabilizing force, Mars represented military power as a way to secure peace, and was a father (pater) of the Roman people. The spear is the instrument of Mars in the same way that Jupiter wields the lightning bolt, Neptune the trident, and Saturn the scythe or sickle. The fact that Mars wear this weapon is coherent with the Greek deity attribution Athena and the Roman deity attribution, Artemis, which both have the spear as a magical weapon. A relic or fetish called the spear of Mars was kept in the Regia, the former residence of the Kings of Rome. When Mars is pictured as a peace-bringer, his spear is wreathed with laurel or other vegetation, as on the Ara Pacis or a coin of Aemilianus.
The Zodiacal Correspondence: Aries
Aries (♈) (meaning “ram”) is the first astrological sign in the Zodiac, which spans the zodiac between the zero degree and the 29th degree of celestial longitude. The Sun enters Aries when it reaches the northern vernal equinox, which is usually on March 21 each year, and remains in this sign until around April 20 (sometimes the dates vary slightly). Individuals born during these dates, while the Sun is within this sign, are called Arians or Ariens.The ancients (Isidore and Varro) saw a link between the word Aries the word ara (another constellation Ara), meaning altar, Isidore says: “The ram (aries) is either named after the word Ares, that is, after ‘Mars‘ – whence we call the males in a flock ‘males‘ (mas, genitive maris) – or because this animal was the first to be sacrificed on altars (ara, genitive aris) by pagans. So, the ‘ram’ because it was placed on the altar; whence also this (Sedulius, Paschal Poem 1.115: The ram is offered at the altar.” The Greeks associated Aries with the Ram who carried Phrixus and his sister Helle on his back to Colchis (the Georgian region of the Caucasus) to escape the evil designs of their stepmother, Ino, who was about to kill them. In crossing the strait that divides Europe from Asia, Helle became giddy and lost her hold, falling off the Ram into the sea when she disobeyed a warning not to look down, the place thereafter became the Hellespont which today separates Greece and Turkey. Continuing his flight, the ram bore the boy to Colchis, at the eastern end of the Euxine or Black sea. On reaching his journey’s end Phrixus sacrificed the ram and hung its fleece in the Grove of Ares where it was turned to gold and became the object of the Argonauts’ (Argo Navis) quest. One possible consequence of Helle falling off the Ram might be symbolic over-representation of the masculine element in the Arian psyche. According to Apollonius Rhodius, Phrixos had journeyed to Aia (better known as Kholkis, or Colchis); “bestriding a ram which Hermes had made all of gold.” Rams or lambs were sacrificed to redeem the firstborn of animals and humans, to make atonement for sin, as God told Moses to do in Exodus 12:29. The jubilee was proclaimed by the sound of a ram’s horn on the Day of Atonement. As the first sign of the tropical zodiac, Aries is seasonally associated with spring and according to astrologers represents a strong sometimes creative thrust and powerful expression of energy. The sign is governed by Mars, the planet of activity and assertiveness, which astrologers believe adds the traits of competitiveness, impulsiveness, and the instinct to act spontaneously. The Sun is also strongly associated with this sign, which it governs by exaltation. The solar-association is seen as adding expression of the ego, and the desire to make a mark as an individual. Joanna Watters (2003) defined a keyphrase for this sign as “I am”. Martin Seymour-Smith (1981) suggested “Initiative is expressed aggressively, impulsively and probably very emotively”. In Hellenistic astrology, the sign of the ram was mythologically associated with the golden winged ram that rescued Phrixos and his sister Helle from the altar where they were to be offered as a sacrifice to Zeus. The golden ram carried them to the land of Colchis but on the way Helle fell into the sea and drowned. When Phrixos arrived at Colchis he sacrificed the ram to Zeus and presented the Golden Fleece to his father-in-law, the King of Colchis. The fleece was then hung upon a sacred oak and guarded by a dragon until rescued by Jason and the Argonauts. The myth recounts that Zeus was so moved by the ram’s fate that he gave it the greatest honour of being moved to the heavens.According to Alan Leo, generally considered to be the founder of modern psychological astrology and sun sign astrology, people born with the sun in Aries are “always looking forward, they are leaders in ideals and pioneers of advanced thought. They have great mental energy but are inclined to be very headstrong and impulsive. They are always prophetic, and love to predict things that will happen. They can look ahead into the future and foresee things with remarkable clearness of vision. When freed from other influences and not slaves to their personality, they become truly clairvoyant, and are remarkably gifted in this direction. This sign gives extreme ideality, and those born under it are more ideal than practical. They are always full of new schemes and plans, ever exploring and originating. They are fond of constant change, loving novelty, romance and speculation and nearly always live in a world of theory. They are very highly strung, sometimes hyper-sensitive and are remarkable for their perception. They seem to live more in the perceptive region of their brain than the reflective, and they are rarely deceived where perception is concerned.”In classical times battering rams were used to break through doors and walls. The zodiacal sign Aries rules the head in general. When a baby is about to be born, the head acts as a battering ram until the cervix is wide enough to let the head through. To act as a dilating wedge against the cervix, the infant’s head must push against it with a rhythmic force. A battering ram is a crude yet accurate metaphor.The ancients (Isidore and Varro) saw a link between the word Aries the word ara (another constellation Ara), meaning altar. The Roman god of war, Mars, was identified with the Greek god Ares. His name is the basis of the words; martial (as in martial arts or martial law), March (the third month of the year), the names Marcus, Mark, Martin. Roman Mars/Greek Aries represents the masculinearchetype; Isidore sees a relationship between the words Mars and male, from Latin masculus, diminutive of mas, male. Isidore thinks the word marriage is also a relative.
The Greek Deity Correspondence: Athena
The Greek Goddesses, attributed to Héh, the Fifth path of the qabalistic Tree of Life, are Athena and Minerva. In Greek mythology, Athena or Athene, also referred to as Pallas Athena/Athene (Παλλὰς Ἀθηνᾶ; Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη), is the goddess of wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, warfare, strength, strategy, the arts, crafts, justice, and skill. Minerva, Athena’s Roman incarnation, embodies similar attributes. Athena is also a shrewd companion of heroes and is the goddess of heroic endeavour. She is the virgin patron of Athens. The Athenians built the Parthenon on the Acropolis of her namesake city, Athens (Athena Parthenos), in her honour. Athena’s veneration as the patron of Athens seems to have existed from the earliest times, and was so persistent that archaic myths about her were recast to adapt to cultural changes. In her role as a protector of the city (polis), many people throughout the Greek world worshiped Athena as Athena Polias (Ἀθηνᾶ Πολιάς “Athena of the city”). The Greek philosopher, Plato (429–347 BC), identified her with the Libyan deity Neith, the war goddess and huntress deity of the Egyptians since the ancient Pre-Dynastic period, who was also identified with weaving. In poetry from Homer, an oral tradition of the eighth or 7th century BC, onward, Athena’s most common epithet is glaukopis (γλαυκώπις), which usually is translated as, bright-eyed or with gleaming eyes. The word is a combination of glaukos (γλαύκος, meaning gleaming, silvery, and later, bluish-green or gray) and ops (ώψ, eye, or sometimes, face).
It is interesting to note that glaux (γλαύξ, “owl”) is from the same root, presumably because of the bird’s own distinctive eyes. The bird which sees well in the night is closely associated with the goddess of wisdom: in archaic images, Athena is frequently depicted with an owl perched on her head. This pairing evolved in tangent so that even in present day the owl is upheld as a symbol of perspicacity and erudition. Unsurprisingly, the owl became a sort of Athenian mascot. The olive tree is likewise sacred to her. In earlier times, Athena may well have been a bird goddess, similar to the unknown goddess depicted with owls, wings, and bird talons on the Burney relief, a Mesopotamian terracotta relief of the early second millennium BC.
The Roman Deity Correspondence: Minerva
Minerva is also an attribution, for “she was believed to have guided men in war, where victory was to be gained by prudence, courage, and perseverance.” Minerva (Etruscan: Menrva) was the Roman goddess whom Romans from the 2nd century BC onwards equated with the Greek goddess Athena. She was the virgin goddess of poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, crafts, magic. She is often depicted with her sacred creature, an owl, which symbolizes her ties to wisdom. Even if one of her symbols was the butterfly, her main symbol was the owl. Stemming from an Italic moon goddess *Meneswā ‘She who measures’, the Etruscans adopted the inherited Old Latin name, *Menerwā, thereby calling her Menrva. Extrapolating from her Roman nature, it is assumed that in Etruscan mythology, Minerva was the goddess of wisdom, war, art, schools and commerce. She was the Etruscan counterpart to Greek Athena. Like Athena, Minerva was born from the head of her father, Jupiter (Greek Zeus). It is possible that such a goddess was “imported” to both Greece and Italy from beliefs originating in the Near East during the extreme antiquity. The very few extant Lemnian inscriptions suggest that the Etruscans may have originated in Asia Minor, in which case subsequent syncretism between Greek Athena and Italic Minerva may have been all the easier. It is suggestive that the Illuminati employed the term “Minerval” for one of their introductory stages of initiation. The term apparently denotes the Roman goddess Minerva. She was connected to intelligence and warfare. She was probably revered by the Illuminati because of her connection to Prometheus who, with the goddess’s assistance, stole fire (knowledge) from the gods of Olympus so that men on earth could rise above a primitive level and eventually match the gods in power and ability.So we can see that the Illuminati were inclined to worship pagan goddesses, and more importantly, their version of Minerva was based on Egyptian antetypes. This helps us to link them to the Solar and Stellar Cults of antiquity. Minerva was the first deity to build an enclosed house. She is therefore connected with building and architecture. In her warlike aspect, Minerva resembles the Egyptian goddess Neith, who was also considered “virginal.” As a warlike divinity “it was defensive war only that she patronized, and she had no sympathy with Mars’s savage love of violence and bloodshed. Athens was her chosen seat, her own city, awarded to her as the prize of a contest with Neptune, who also aspired to it.”regular playing decks Minerva is depicted as the Queen of Spades. The suit of Spades represents the warrior (knightly) class.
The Hidu Deity Correspondence: Shiva
The Sanskrit word Shiva (शिव) is an adjective meaning “auspicious, kind, gracious”. Shiva is a major Hindu deity, and is the destroyer god or transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. Rudra. In simple English transliteration it is written either as Shiva or Siva. The adjective śiva, meaning “auspicious”, is used as an attributive epithet not particularly of Rudra, but of several other Vedic deities. As a proper name it means “The Auspicious One”, used as a name for The Sanskrit word śaiva means “relating to the god Shiva”, and this term is the Sanskrit name both for one of the principal sects of Hinduism and for a member of that sect. It is used as an adjective to characterize certain beliefs and practices, such as Shaivism. The God Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. Yet one with great power lives a life of a sage at Mount Kailash. In the Shaiva tradition of Hinduism, Shiva is seen as the Supreme God. In the Smarta tradition, he is regarded as one of the five primary forms of God. Followers of Hinduism who focus their worship upon Shiva are called Shaivites or Shaivas (Sanskrit Śaiva). Shaivism, along with Vaiṣṇava traditions that focus on Vishnu and Śākta traditions that focus on the goddess Shakti, is one of the most influential denominations in Hinduism. Lord Shiva is usually worshipped in the abstract form of Shiva linga. In images, He is represented as a handsome young man immersed in deep meditation or dancing the Tandava upon Apasmara, the demon of ignorance in his manifestation of Nataraja, the Lord of the dance, goodness, humility, and every good quality a human should have. It is said that He looks like an eternal youth because of his authority over death, rebirth and immortality. He is also the father of Ganesha, Murugan (Kartikeya), and Ayyappan (Dharma Sastha). Shiva is often depicted as an archer in the act of destroying the triple fortresses, Tripura, of the Asuras. Shiva’s name Tripurantaka (Sanskrit: त्रिपुरान्तक, Tripurāntaka), “ender of Tripura”, refers to this important story. In this aspect, Shiva is depicted with four arms wielding a bow and arrow, but different from the Pinakapani murti. He holds an axe and a deer on the upper pair of his arms. In the lower pair of the arms, he holds a bow and an arrow respectively. After destroying Tripura, Tripurantaka Shiva smeared his forehead with three strokes of Ashes. This has become a prominent symbol of Shiva and is practiced even today by Shaivites. The depiction of Shiva as Nataraja (Tamil: நடராஜா, Telugu: నటరాజు, Sanskrit: naṭarāja, “Lord of Dance”) is popular. The names Nartaka (“dancer”) and Nityanarta (“eternal dancer”) appear in the Shiva Sahasranama. His association with dance and also with music is prominent in the Puranic period.
The Egyptian Deity Correspondence: Mentu
The Egyptian deity correspondence for the fifth path of the qabalistic Tree of Life is Monthu. In Ancient Egyptian religion, Monthu was a falcon-god of war. Monthu’s name, shown in Egyptian hieroglyphs to the right, is technically transcribed as mntw. Because of the difficulty in transcribing Egyptian, it is often realized as Montu, Montju, or Menthu. Monthu was an ancient god depicted with the head of a hawk, his name meaning nomad, originally a manifestation of the scorching effect of the sun, Ra, and as such often appeared under the epithet Monthu-Ra. The destructiveness of this characteristic led to him gaining characteristics of a warrior, and eventually becoming a war-god. Because of the association of raging bulls with strength and war, Monthu was also said to manifest himself in a white bull with a black face, which was referred to as the Bakha. Egypt’s greatest general-kings called themselves Mighty Bulls, the sons of Monthu. In Ancient Egyptian art, he was pictured as a falcon-headed or bull-headed man who wore the sun-disc, with two plumes on his head, the falcon representing the sky, and the bull representing strength and war. He would hold various weaponry, including scimitars, bows and arrows, and knives in his hands. The Temple of Monthu at Medamud was probably begun during the Old Kingdom era. During the New Kingdom, large and impressive temples to Monthu were constructed in Armant. In fact, the Greek name of the city of Armant was Hermonthis, meaning the land of Monthu. Earlier temples to Monthu include one located adjacent to the Middle Kingdom fortress of Uronarti below the Second Cataract of the Nile, dating to the nineteenth century BCE. Monthu formed a triad with the goddess Reto and their son Hor-Pre. Mentuhotep, a name given to several pharaohs in the Middle Kingdom, means “Menthu is satisfied”.
The Scandinavian Deity Correspondence: Tyr
The Scandinavian deity attribution for the fifth path of the qabalistic Tree of Life is the god Týr which is considered as the most daring and intrepid of the gods in Norse mythology. He is the god of single combat, victory and heroic glory and it is him who dispenses valor, courage, and honor in the wars. Tyr is usually portrayed as a one-handed man. The Old Norse name Tyr in origin was a generic noun meaning “god” (cf. Hangatyr, the “god of the hanged” as one of Odin’s names; probably inherited from Tyr in his role as judge). The Old Norse name became Norwegian Ty, Swedish Tyr, Danish Tyr, while it remains Týr in Modern Icelandic and Faroese. Corresponding names in other Germanic languages are Gothic Teiws, Old English Tīw and Old High German Ziu, all from Proto-Germanic *Tîwaz (*Tē₂waz).In the late Icelandic Eddas, Tyr is portrayed, alternately, as the son of Odin (Prose Edda) or of Hymir (Poetic Edda), while the origins of his name and his possible relationship to Tuisto (see Tacitus‘ Germania) suggest he was once considered the father of the gods and head of the pantheon, since his name is ultimately cognate to that of *Dyeus (cf. Dyaus), the reconstructed chief deity in Indo-European religion. It is assumed that Tîwaz was overtaken in popularity and in authority by both Odin and Thor at some point during the Migration Age. Tiw was equated with Mars in the interpretatio romana. The name of Mars Thingsus (Thincsus) is found in an inscription on an 3rd century altar from the Roman fort and settlement of Vercovicium at Housesteads in Northumberland, thought to have been erected by Frisian mercenaries stationed at Hadrian’s Wall. It is interpreted as “Mars of the Thing“. Here is also worth noting what Tacitus stated in his work Germania about capital punishment amongst the Germanic folk; that none could be flogged, imprisoned or executed, not even on order of the warlord, without the consent of the priest; who was himself required to render his judgement in accordance with the will of the god they believe accompanies them to the field of battle In the same source this god is stated being the chief deity. Tacitus also named the German “Mars”, along with the German “Mercury”, as the primary deity associated with the Germanic custom of the disposal of the spoils of war; as practiced from the 4th century BCE to the 6th century CE.
The Color Correspondence: Scarlet Red
Scarlet (from the Persian سقرلات saqerlât) is a bright red color with a hue that is somewhat toward the orange and is redder than vermilion. It is a pure chroma on the color wheel one-fourth of the way between red and orange. Scarlet is sometimes used as the color of flame. It may also symbolize the color of the blood of a living person, like crimson, although the actual color of blood (from hemoglobin) is closer to crimson than scarlet. An early recorded use of scarlet as a color name in the English language dates to 1250.
Scarlet is a bright red with a slightly orange tinge. In the spectrum of visible light, and on the traditional color wheel, it is one-fourth of the way between red and orange, slightly less orange than vermilion.
According to surveys in Europe and the United States, scarlet and other bright shades of red are the colors most associated with courage, force, passion, heat, and joy. In the Roman Catholic Church, scarlet is the color worn by a cardinal, and is associated with the blood of Christ and the Christian martyrs, and with sacrifice.
Scarlet is also often associated with immorality and sin, particularly prostitution or adultery, largely because of a passage referring to “The Great Harlot“, “dressed in purple and scarlet”, in the Bible (Revelations 17: 1-6).
The Ancient world
Scarlet has been a color of power, wealth and luxury since ancient times. Scarlet dyes were first mentioned in 8th century BC, under the name Armenian Red, and they were described in Persian and Assyrian writings. The color was exported from Persia to Rome. During the Roman Empire, it was second in prestige only to the purple worn by the Emperors. Roman officers wore scarlet cloaks, and persons of high rank were referring to as the coccinati, the people of red.
The color is also mentioned several times in the Bible, both in the Old and New Testament; in the Latin Vulgate version of the book of Isaiah (1:18) it says, “If your sins be as scarlet (si fuerint peccata vestra ut coccinum) they shall be made white as snow”, and in the book of Revelation (17:1-6) it describes the “Great Harlot” (meretricius magnus) dressed in scarlet and purple (circumdata purpura et coccino), and riding upon a scarlet beast (besteam coccineam).
The Latin term for scarlet used in the Bible comes from coccus, a “tiny grain”. The finest scarlets in ancient times were made from the tiny scale insect called kermes, which fed on certain oak trees in Turkey, Persia, Armenia and other parts of the Middle East. The insects contained a very strong natural dye, also called kermes, which produced the scarlet color. The insects were so small they were thought to be a kind of grain. This was the origin of the expression “dyed in the grain.” 
The Middle Ages and the Renaissance
The early Christian church adopted many of the symbols of the Roman Empire, including the importance of the color scarlet. The flag of the Crusaders was a scarlet cross on a white background, with scarlet indicating blood and sacrifice. By a church edict in 1295, Cardinals of the church, second in authority to the Pope, wore red robes, but a red closer in color to the purple of the Byzantine Emperors, a color coming from murex, a type of mollusk. After the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453, however, the imperial purple was no longer available, and Cardinals began instead to wear scarlet made from Kermes.
During the Middle Ages and Renaissance, scarlet was the color worn by Kings, princes and the wealthy, partly because of its color and partly because of its high price. The exact shade, which varied widely, was not as important as the brilliance and richness of the color. The finest scarlet, called scarlatto or Venetian scarlet, came from Venice, where it was made from kermes by a specific guild which closely guarded the formula. Cloth dyed scarlet cost as much as ten times more cloth dyed with blue.
16th to 19th century
In the 16th century, an even more vivid scarlet began to arrive in Europe from the New World. When the Spanish conquistadores conquered Mexico, they found that the Aztecs were making brilliant reds from another variety of scale insect called cochineal, similar to the European kermes vermiilo, but producing a better red at a lower cost. The first shipments were sent from Mexico to Seville in 1523. The Venetian guilds at first tried to block the use of the cochineal in Europe, but before the century was over, it was being used to make scarlet dye in Spain, France, Italy, and Holland, and almost all the fine scarlet garments of Europe were made with cochineal.
Scarlet was the traditional color of the British nobility in the 17th and 18th century. The members of the House of Lords wore red ceremonial gowns for the opening of Parliament, and today sit on red benches.
The red military uniform was adopted by the British Army in 1645, and was still worn as a dress uniform until the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914. Ordinary soldiers wore red coats dyed with madder, while officers wore scarlet coats dyed with the more expensive cochineal. This led to British soldiers being known as red coats.
From the 8th century until the early 20th century, the most important scarlet pigment used in western art was vermilion, made from the mineral cinnebar. It was used, along with red lake pigments, by artists from Botticelli and Raphael to Renoir. However, in 1919 commercial production began of an intense new synthetic pigment, cadmium red. made from cadmium sulfide and selenium. The new pigment became the standard red of Henri Matisse and the other important painters of the 20th century.
In the 20th century, scarlet also became associated with Revolution. Red flags had first been used as revolutionary emblems, symbolizing the blood of martyrs, during the French Revolution and Paris uprisings in 1848. Red became the color of socialism, then communism, and became the color of the flags of both the Soviet Union and Communist China. China still uses a scarlet flag; in Chinese culture red is also the color of happiness. Since the fall of the Soviet Union The flag of Russia is red, blue and white, the colors of the historic Russian flag from the time of Peter the Great, adapted by him from the colors of the Dutch flag.
Scarlet is the color worn in traditional academic dress in the United Kingdom for those awarded doctorates. It is also the color of many of the undergraduate gowns worn by students of the ancient universities of Scotland. In academic dress in the USA, scarlet is used for hood bindings (borders) and, depending on the university or school, other parts of the dress (velvet chevrons, facings, etc.) to denote a degree in some form or branch of Theology (e.g., Sacred Theology, Canon Law, Divinity, Ministry). In the French academic dress system, the five traditional fields of study (Arts, Science, Medicine, Law and Divinity) are each symbolized by a distinctive color, which appears in the academic dress of the people who graduated in this field. Scarlet is the distinctive color for Law. As such, it is also the color worn on their court dress by French high magistrates.
In the Roman Catholic Church, scarlet robes — symbolizing the color of the blood of Christ and the Christian martyrs — are worn by cardinals as a symbol of their willingness to defend their faith with their own blood.
In countries that have traditionally been dominated by Christian ideas, scarlet is associated with lust for sexual outlets considered sinful by church groups, such as premarital sex and prostitution. The Book of Revelation refers to a the Whore of Babylon riding upon a “scarlet beast” and dressed in purple and scarlet. The phrase Great Scarlet Whore has been used by Puritans in the 17th century, and the phrase The Scarlet Woman was used by many Protestants and later Mormons in North America well into the 20th century.  Scarlet and crimson are also linked to the Judeo-Chrisitan concept of sin in in the book of Isaiah, rendered in the King James Version “though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool.”
The connection of red or scarlet with sin was very common in Europe and America. Prostitutes were obliged to wear red in some European cities, and even today areas in European cities where prostitutes can work legally are known as red-light districts. Sex worker advocacy groups like the Scarlet Alliance use the striking colour to associate themselves with prostitution.
The Animal Correspondence: The Ram & the Owl
The Ram is a male of the sheep and allied animals. The Ram Christian Symbol represents protection as the ram protected the herd and also symbolises sacrifice as the ram was one of the first animals to be sacrificed on alters, hence their Latin name Aries which comes from aris meaning “alters”.. It is a symbol for Christ taken from the Old Testament. All along history, the Ram has been a symbol of force and power as well as a symbol of sacrifice. The Ram is also a symbol of new beginnings. This is an animal that has had a predominant role in most cultures. The Ram can bring great rewards or adventure. Remember Jason and The Golden Fleece. When the Ram arrives in your life, you can be sure it will stimulate your mind and give you inspiration. With the Ram by your side you will have the balance to climb to great heights. The ram is a symbol of authority and leadership common in heraldic symbolism. A person who bore such a device on his shield was supposed to possess all of the power and nobility that was attributed to the ram. It is a very common symbol in a crest or a coat of arms, as is the symbol of a ram’s head. The ram is often rampant, or in the fighting position on a crest or coat of arms, though it is also found in the positions of passant, statant and couchant. The ram was symbolic of virility and violence and was an attribute of Mars. The Ram is associated with the zodiac sign Aries. The aggressiveness of the ram is traditionally depicted as two butting rams colliding. Rams and sheep are one of the earliest animsl that were domesticated. Sheep and rams have been used as sacrificail animals in various religions around the world. The wool from sheep and rams is a notable insulator and harvested in many cultures
The Owl is also an attribution for this fifth path since it is the totem animal of the Roman Goddess Minerva which is also an attribution. Owls are a group of birds that belong to the order Strigiformes, constituting 200 extant bird of prey species. Most are solitary and nocturnal, with some exceptions (e.g. the Northern Hawk Owl). Owls hunt mostly small mammals, insects, and other birds, although a few species specialize in hunting fish. They are found in all regions of the Earth except Antarctica, most of Greenland and some remote islands. Though owls are typically solitary, the literary collective noun for a group of owls is a parliament. Living owls are divided into two families: the typical owls, Strigidae; and the barn-owls, Tytonidae. The modern West generally uses the owl as a symbol meaning vigilance, wisdom and acute wit. The owl has long been associated with the spiritual and the magical. This link goes back at least as far as Ancient Greece, where Athens, noted for art and scholarship, and Athena, Athens’ patron goddess and the goddess of wisdom, had the owl as a symbol. Marija Gimbutas traces veneration of the owl as a goddess, among other birds, to the culture of Old Europe, long pre-dating Indo-European cultures. T. F. Thiselton-Dyer in his Folk-lore of Shakespeare says that “from the earliest period it has been considered a bird of ill-omen, and Pliny tells us how, on one occasion, even Rome itself underwent a lustration, because one of them strayed into the Capitol. He represents it also as a funereal bird, a monster of the night, the very abomination of human kind. Virgil describes its death-howl from the top of the temple by night, a circumstance introduced as a precursor of Dido’s death. Ovid, too, constantly speaks of this bird’s presence as an evil omen; and indeed the same notions respecting it may be found among the writings of most of the ancient poets.” In Celtic symbolism, the owl is noted for wisdom, keen sight, and patience. The owl is a guide in the underworld and an effective hunter. The owl can help to reveal those who would take advantage of another or deceive others. Owls are generally solitary and nocturnal. There are about 200 species of owls, Owls hunt small mammels such as mice, insects, samll birds or sometimes fish.During medieval times in Europe, owls were believed to be witches and wizards, shapeshifters in disguise. In France, where owls are divided into eared owls (hiboux) and earless owls (chouettes), the former are seen as symbols of wisdom while the latter are assigned the grimmer meaning. In Arab mythology, owls are seen as bad omens. In some middle and far eastern cultures, the owl is a sacred guardian of the afterlife, ruler of the night, a seer and keeper of souls transitioning from one plane of existence to another. West African and Aboriginal Australian cultures also saw the owl as a messenger of secrets, and companions to medicine people.Native Americans attributed owls with wisdom and sacred knowledge. The shaman would call upon Owl medicine for insight into the truth of ill-intent. Plains Indians wore owl feathers to protect against evil spirits.
The Magical Weapon Correspondence: The Spear
The magical tool ascribed to the fifth path of the qabalistic Tree of Life is the spear. A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head. The head may be simply the sharpened end of the shaft itself, as is the case with bamboo spears, or it may be made of a more durable material fastened to the shaft, such as flint, obsidian, iron, steel or bronze. The most common design for hunting or combat spears since ancient times has incorporated a metal spearhead shaped like a barbed triangle, lozenge or leaf. The heads of fishing spears usually feature barbs or serrated edges. Spears can be divided into two broad categories: those designed for thrusting and those designed for throwing. Like many weapons, a spear may also be a symbol of power. In the Chinese martial arts community, the Chinese spear (Qiang 槍) is popularly known as the “king of weapons.” The Celts would symbolically destroy a dead warrior’s spear to prevent its use by another. In classical Greek mythology Zeus’ bolts of lightning may be interpreted as a symbolic spear. Some would carry that interpretation to the spear that frequently is associated with Athena, interpreting her spear as a symbolic connection to some of Zeus’ power beyond the Aegis once he rose to replacing other deities in the pantheon. Athena was depicted with a spear prior to that change in myths, however. Chiron‘s wedding-gift to Peleus when he married the nymph Thetis in classical Greek mythology, was an ashen spear as the nature of ashwood with its straight grain made it an ideal choice of wood for a spear. The Romans and their early enemies would force prisoners to walk underneath a ‘yoke of spears’, which humiliated them. The yoke would consist of three spears, two upright with a third tied between them at a height which made the prisoners stoop. It has been surmised that this was because such a ritual involved the prisoners’ warrior status being taken away. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the arrangement has a magical origin, a way to trap evil spirits. The word subjugate has its origins in this practice (from Latin sub = under, jugum=a yoke). In Norse Mythology, the God Odin‘s spear (named Gungnir) was made by the sons of Ivaldi. It had the special property that it never missed its mark. During the War with the Vanir, Odin symbolically threw Gungnir into the Vanir host. This practice of symbolically casting a spear into the enemy ranks at the start of a fight was sometimes used in historic clashes, to seek Odin’s support in the coming battle. In Wagner‘s opera Siegfried, the haft of Gungnir is said to be from the “World-Tree” Yggdrasil. Other spears of religious significance are the Holy Lance and the Lúin of Celtchar, believed by some to have vast mystical powers. The Japanese ronin Miyamoto Musashi killing a giant nue – print by Utagawa Kuniyoshi, nineteenth century Sir James George Frazer in The Golden Bough noted the phallic nature of the spear and suggested that in the Arthurian Legends the spear or lance functioned as a symbol of male fertility, paired with the Grail (as a symbol of female fertility). Tamil (Thamizh) people worship the spear as the weapon of the god Murugan. Murugan’s spear is called the Vel. In Srilanka and India there is a dominant caste named Vellalar. The name vellalar is derived from vel + aalar, which means “ruler of the spear”. In the tradition of Seax-Wica, the spear is used as a ritual tool as it is symbolic of the god Woden, who, in that tradition, is viewed as an emanation of God in place of the Horned God. According to Norse mythology, the god Odin, who is the Norse equivalent to the Anglo-Saxon Woden, carried the spear Gungnir.
The Perfume Correspondence: Dragon’s Blood
Dragon’s blood is a bright red resin that is obtained from different species of a number of distinct plant genera: Croton, Dracaena, Daemonorops, Calamus rotang and Pterocarpus.The dragon’s blood known to the ancient Romans was mostly collected from D. cinnabari, and is mentioned in the 1st century Periplus (30: 10. 17) as one of the products of Socotra. The Dragon blood tree is arguably the most famous and distinctive plant of the island of Socotra. It has a unique and strange appearance, described as “upturned, densely -packed crown having the shape of an upside-down umbrella”. This evergreen species is named after its dark red resin, that is known as “dragon’s blood”.Socotra had been an important trading centre since at least the time of the Ptolemies. Dragon’s blood was used as a dye and medicine (respiratory & gastrointestinal problems) in the Mediterranean basin, and was held by early Greeks, Romans, and Arabs to have medicinal properties. Dioscorides and other early Greek writers described its medicinal uses.Dragon’s Blood is also a well known fragrance enjoyed by both men and women worldwide. Commonly found in incense, Dragon’s Blood has notes of resinous amber, sandalwood and a light touch of musk. Dragons Blood Fragrance Oil has a mysterious scent that is slightly sweet and spicy. It has a warm, earthy scent, with notes of amber, vanilla, sandalwood, light tones of musks and hints of Asian florals to bring out subtle spice undertones. This incense is used by magicians and witches across the world to aids in protection, adds potency, adds strength and power to magick and spells, aids in love spells, good protection, used during exorcisms, restores and strengthens sexual potency, dispels negativity, aids in exorcising evil supernatural entities, used during spell casting and invoking spirits, used in purification, and cleansing. Dragon’s blood incense is made with essential oils extracted from the resin of the dracaena draco, or dragon tree. Dragon trees are native to the Canary Islands and Sumatra. Traditionally, dragon’s blood was used for ceremonies in China, India and ancient Rome. There are many myths and legends surrounding the use of dragon’s blood. Dragon’s blood from both Daemonorops were used for ceremonies in India. Sometimes Dracaena resin, but more often Daemonorops resin, was used in China as red varnish for wooden furniture. It was also used to colour the surface of writing paper for banners and posters, used especially for weddings and for Chinese New Year. In American Hoodoo, African-American folk magic, and New Orleans voodoo, it is used in mojo hands for money-drawing or love-drawing, and is used as incense to cleanse a space of negative entities or influences. It is also added to red ink to make “Dragon’s Blood Ink”, which is used to inscribe magical seals and talismans. In folk medicine, dragon’s blood is used externally as a wash to promote healing of wounds and to stop bleeding. It is used internally for chest pains, post-partum bleeding, internal traumas and menstrual irregularities. The demand for dragon’s blood incense in religious and spiritual ceremonies has caused the dragon’s blood tree resin to rise in price. Genuine dragon’s blood resin and essential oils for making incense is very expensive. Dragon’s blood of both Dracaena draco (commonly referred to as the Draconis Palm) and Dracaena cinnabari were used as a source of varnish for 18th century Italian violinmakers. There was also an 18th century recipe for toothpaste that contained dragon’s blood. In modern times it is still used as a varnish for violins, in photoengraving, and as a body oil. Theories abound about dragon’s blood and its potency. One explanation claims dragon’s blood is used to cleanse wounds and stop bleeding. Other people once claimed any reddish-colored resin was true “dragon’s blood.”
The Flower Correspondence: The Geranium
Geranium is a genus of 422 species of flowering annual, biennial, and perennial plants that are commonly known as the cranesbills. It is found throughout the temperate regions of the world and the mountains of the tropics, but mostly in the eastern part of the Mediterranean region. The long, palmately cleft leaves are broadly circular in form. The flowers have 5 petals and are coloured white, pink, purple or blue, often with distinctive veining. Geraniums will grow in any soil as long as it is not waterlogged. The genus name is derived from the Greek γέρανος, géranos, or γερανός, geranós, crane. The English name “cranesbill” derives from the appearance of the fruit capsule of some of the species. Species in the Geranium genus have a distinctive mechanism for seed dispersal. This consists of a beak-like column which springs open when ripe and casts the seeds some distance. The fruit capsule consists of five cells each containing one seed, joined to a column produced from the centre of the old flower. The common name cranesbill comes from the shape of the un-sprung column, which in some species is long and looks like the bill of a crane. Geraniums symbolize preference and friendship. Geranium flowers’ symbolic meanings range from true friend and gentility, to stupidity, melancholy, folly and meeting. Generally, geraniums are a sign of a peaceful mind, conveying a sense of gentility. In the Aromatherapy, its Essential Oil is used to balance the Female energy in our bodies. The etymology of the word came from the Greek geranos, which means crane. It’s because the geranium’s seeds resemble the bill of the bird.
The Jewel Correspondence: The Ruby
The jewel attribution the fifth path of the qabalistic Tree of Life (Héh) is the ruby mainly “because of its color”. A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide). The red color is caused mainly by the presence of the element chromium. Its name comes from ruber, Latin for red. Other varieties of gem-quality corundum are called sapphires. The name “ruby” comes from the Latin rubeus meaning “red”. Most of its mythological associations stem from its colour.The ruby is considered one of the four precious stones, together with the sapphire, the emerald, and the diamond. To the ancients, ruby was known as “the king of gems”. Ruby is the birthstone for July. To some it was a representation of the sun. This connection with power and the heat of the sun led to a legend that a ruby dropped in water would cause it to boil. The homes of the gods were sometimes said to be lit by the glow of rubies. The fiery color of the suby symbolizes integrity, devotion, desire, happiness, healing, courage, romance, generosity, inspiration, prosperity and even immortality. It is supposed to bestow energy and willpower, counteracting lethargy. According to legend, warriors implanted rubies under their skin to bring valor in battle. As a talisman, ruby would warn its owner against danger and disaster. Ground to a fine powder and placed on the tongue, it was believed by some ancient cultures to cure blood diseases, stop bleeding, ensure good health, bring peace, and treat indigestion. In England, it was used for coronation rings and to this day enjoys popularity among royalty. Ruby is the birthstone of July. Since Ruby represents romance and devotion, it is an excellent choice for an engagement ring. A Ruby is a traditional gift for 40th wedding anniversaries; the ruby frequently is given in celebration of the birth of a daughter. Ruby was traditionally associated with health and long life. The alchemists adopted the “perfect ruby” as a symbol of the philosopher’s stone or elixir of life. In Indian culture, from where rubies originally originated, the ruby is not only a symbol of love, but a symbol of immortality. A Hindu legend says that the red ruby appeared when one queen was murdered and her blood covered the gems she had. Nowadays, some people believe that ruby can improve blood circulation and the functioning of our heart. Some cultures also associated the vibrancy of the red colored ruby as a blessing to the wearer of health, wealth, wisdom and success in love. Often associated to heat and passion, the ruby is known for maintaining our body and soul’s health.Rubies have also been associated with charity, divine power, and royalty. In Burma, a ruby brings invulnerability and protection against spears, guns and swords.
The Drug Correspondence: Stimulants
The drug correspondence for Héh, the fifth path of the Qabalistic Tree of Life includes “all cerebral excitants.” What we’re talking about here is a class of drug called “stimulants” (also referred to as psychostimulants) which are psychoactive drugs which induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical function or both. Examples of these kinds of effects may include enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion, among others. Due to their effects typically having an “up” quality to them, stimulants are also occasionally referred to as “uppers”. Stimulants (analeptics) produce a variety of different kinds of effects by enhancing the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Common effects, which vary depending on the substance in question, may include enhanced alertness, awareness, wakefulness, endurance, productivity, and motivation, increased arousal, locomotion, heart rate, and blood pressure, and the perception of a diminished requirement for food and sleep. Many stimulants are also capable of improving mood and relieving anxiety, and some can even induce feelings of euphoria. Those drugs include nicotin, cafein, amphetamin, ecstasy, cocaine, ritallin, etc.
 Stephen, A. Hoeller, The Fool’s Pilgrimage, Kabbalistic Meditations on the Tarot, p. 105.
 Goethe, Faust, part 2. Cited in Stephen, A. Hoeller, The Fool’s Pilgrimage, Kabbalistic Meditations on the Tarot, p. 105.
 This description concerns mainly the Marseille Tarot deck and is at odd with the Rider-Waire deck where the Emperor wears a robe but does not form the sigil of sulphur.
 Sulphur (along with Mercury and Salt) is one of the Three Principles of alchemy, which exists in all things.
 Stephen, A. Hoeller, The Fool’s Pilgrimage, Kabbalistic Meditations on the Tarot, p. 104.
Kurt A. Raaflaub, War and Peace in the Ancient World (Blackwell, 2007), p. 15.
Michael Lipka, Roman Gods: A Conceptual Approach (Brill, 2009), p. 88.
 Isidore, The Etymologies, 7th century AD, p. 247.
 2.1143-45; Seaton 1912.
Joanna Watters (2003), Astrology for Today, London: Carroll & Brown, p.13.
Marilyn Reid (2007), Mythical Star Signs, p.15.
Alan Leo, Astrology for All (L. N. Fowler & Co., 1899), p 11
 According to Isidore of Seville, “The battering ram (aries) gets its name from its appearance, because like a fighting ram (aries) it batters a wall with its impetus. A head of iron is fashioned on a strong and knotty tree-trunk, and, suspended by ropes, the ram is driven against a wall by many hands, and then drawnback it is aimed again with a greater force. Finally, beaten with frequent blows, the side of the wall gives way, and the battering ram breaks through where it has caved in, and makes a breach.” (Isidore of Seville, The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville, p.364.)
 “The ram (aries) is either named after the word Ares, that is, after ‘Mars‘ – whence we call the males in a flock ‘males‘ (mas, genitive maris) – or because this animal was the first to be sacrificed on altars (ara, genitive aris) by pagans. So, the ‘ram’ because it was placed on the altar; whence also this (Sedulius, PaschalPoem 1.115: The ram is offered at the altar.” (Isidore, The Etymologies, 7th century AD, p.247.)
 “But ‘husband’ (maritus) without an additional term means a man who is married. ‘Husband’ comes from ‘masculine‘ (mas, adjective) as if the word were mas (i.e. ‘male,’ noun), for the noun is the primary form, and it has masculus as a diminutive form; maritus is derived from this” (Isidore, The Etymologies, 7th century AD, p.210.)
Deacy, Susan, and Alexandra Villing. Athena in the Classical World. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2001
 Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 72.
 Thomas Bulfinch, Bulfinch’s Mythology, p. 110.
Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary (Fourth revised and enlarged ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, p. 919; Swee also Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1996). A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, p. 314.
Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1996). A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, p. 314.
For use of the term śiva as an epithet for other Vedic deities, see: Chakravarti, Mahadev (1994). The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through The Ages (Second Revised ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p. 28.
Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary (Fourth revised and enlarged ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. 927.
For the definition “Śaivism refers to the traditions which follow the teachings of Śiva (śivaśāna) and which focus on the deity Śiva… ” See Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 149.
Zimmer, Heinrich (1946). Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, p.124.
Tattwananda, Swami (1984). Vaisnava Sects, Saiva Sects, Mother Worship. Calcutta: Firma KLM Private Ltd..First revised edition, p. 45.
For evolution of this story from early sources to the epic period, when it was used to enhance Shiva’s increasing influence, see: Chakravarti, Mahadev (1994). The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through The Ages (Second Revised ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p.46.
For the Tripurāntaka form, see: Sivaramamurti, C. (1976). Śatarudrīya: Vibhūti of Śiva’s Iconography. Delhi: Abhinav Publications, pp. 34, 49.
For description of the nataraja form see: Jansen, Eva Rudy (1993). The Book of Hindu Imagery. Havelte, Holland: Binkey Kok Publications BV, pp. 110-11. For an interpretation of the naṭarāja form see: Zimmer, Heinrich (1946). Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, pp. 151-157.
For names Nartaka (Sanskrit नर्तक) and Nityanarta (Sanskrit नित्यनर्त) as names of Shiva, see: Sharma, Ram Karan (1996). Śivasahasranāmāṣṭakam: Eight Collections of Hymns Containing One Thousand and Eight Names of Śiva. Delhi: Nag Publishers, p. 289.
For prominence of these associations in puranic times, see: : Chakravarti, Mahadev (1994). The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through The Ages (Second Revised ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p. 62.
Florence Nightingale; Gérard Vallée (2003). Florence Nightingale on Mysticism and Eastern Religions. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. p. 242
 See Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York: 1930–McGraw Hill Color Sample of Scarlet: Page 25 Plate 1 Color Sample L12 (Scarlet is shown as being one of the colors on the right and bottom of the plate representing the most highly saturated colors between red and orange at a position one-fourth of the way between red and orange.)
Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930–McGraw Hill Page 204; Color Sample of Scarlet: Page 25 Plate 1 Color Sample L12.
 Gen. 22:13 Abraham looked up and there in a thicket he saw a ram(n) caught by its horns. He went over and took the ram and sacrificed it as a burnt offering instead of his son. 14 So Abraham called that place The Lord Will Provide. And to this day it is said, “On the mountain of the Lord it will be provided.”
Deacy, Susan, and Alexandra Villing. Athena in the Classical World. 1st ed. Koninklijke Brill NV,Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2001. Print.
Marija Gimbutas, The Living Goddesses, University of California Press, 2001, p 158
Connolly, Peter (1981). Greece and Rome at War. London: Macdonald Phoebus. p. 89.
M. Cary and A. D. Nock, Magic Spears, The Classical Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 3/4 (Jun. – Oct., 1927), pp. 122-127
Crossley-Holland, Kevin (1982). The Norse Myths. London: Penguin. pp. 51,197
Siegfried, Act I, Scene 2
”Lance, Holy” The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Ed. E. A. Livingstone. Oxford University Press, 2006.
James McKillop. A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Lúin” Oxford University Press.
Frazer, James G. (1890), The Golden Bough, p.?
Casson, L. 1989. The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Princeton University Press, pp. 69, 168-170.
 Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 72.
Max Bauer, Precious Stones, Volume I , p. 2
 Stephen, A. Hoeller, The Fool’s Pilgrimage, Kabbalistic Meditations on the Tarot, p. 58.