October 23, 2019
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What is Hod?

Hod-2Hod (“Majesty”; הוד) in the Kabbalah of Judaism is the eighth sephira of the Kabbalistic tree of life. It is derived from hod הוד in the Hebrew language meaning “majesty” or “splendor” and denoting “praise” as well as “submission”. Hod sits below Gevurah and across from Netzach in the tree of life; Yesod is to the south-east of Hod. It has four paths, which lead to Gevurah, Tiphereth, Netzach, and Yesod.  Opposite to Netzach on the Tree of Life is Hod, “Splendor,” the sphere of Mercury. Consequently we find all its symbols definitely mercurial in quality. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 52)

All the sephiroth are likened to different parts of the body, and netzach and hod are likened to the two feet of a person: right foot and left foot. Feet are usually only the means for a person’s activity. While the hands are the main instrument of action, the feet bring a person to the place where he wishes to execute that action.

Hasidic Judaism‘s view of Hod is that it is connected with Jewish prayer. Prayer is seen as form of “submission”; Hod is explained as an analogy – that instead of “conquering” an obstacle in one’s way, (which is the idea of Netzach), subduing oneself to that “obstacle” is related to the quality of Hod.

Hod-3In a mystical sense, in which the Tree of Life is supposed to be a roadmap to “consciousness”, Hod is where form is given by language in its widest sense, being the key to the mystery of form. (Perhaps this may be an adopting of a point of view of the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan), our unconscious desires come from Netzach, and are given form in the symbolic realm by Hod, manifesting unconsciously through Yesod to Malkuth.

Hod is described as being a force that breaks down energy into different, distinguishable forms, and it is associated with intellectuality, learning and ritual, as opposed to Netzach, Victory, which is the power of energy to overcome all barriers and limitations, and is associated with emotion and passion, music and dancing.

Both these forces find balance in Yesod, foundation, the world of the unconscious, where the different energies created await expression in the lowest world of Malkuth, the Kingdom.

Hod is said to be the sphere in which the magician mostly works. An example is given by Dion Fortune. Imagine primitive man is meditating in the wilderness, and comes in contact, begins to understand, some energy that surrounds him. So he can grasp it better, he creates some form, perhaps the form of a god or a symbol, so he has something he can relate to. He then uses that statue or that symbol in future ceremonies to contact that intangible energy once again. This is the role that Hod plays in magic, while the music and dance that may be present in such a ceremony is the role that Netzach might play, providing the raw energy to reach the higher levels of consciousness.

The Astrological Correspondence: Mercury

mercuryyMercury is the smallest and closest to the Sun of the eight planets in the Solar System,[a] with an orbital period of about 88 Earth days. Seen from Earth, it appears to move around its orbit in about 116 days, which is much faster than any other planet. This rapid motion may have led to it being named after the Roman deity Mercury, the fast-flying messenger to the gods. Because it has almost no atmosphere to retain heat, Mercury’s surface experiences the greatest temperature variation of all the planets, ranging from 100 K (−173 °C; −280 °F) at night to 700 K (427 °C; 800 °F) during the day at some equatorial regions. The poles are constantly below 180 K (−93 °C; −136 °F). Mercury’s axis has the smallest tilt of any of the Solar System’s planets (about 130 of a degree), but it has the largest orbital eccentricity.[a] As such it does not experience seasons in the same way as most other planets such as Earth. At aphelion, Mercury is about 1.5 times as far from the Sun as it is at perihelion. Mercury’s surface is heavily cratered and similar in appearance to the Moon, indicating that it has been geologically inactive for billions of years.

Mercury is gravitationally locked and rotates in a way that is unique in the Solar System. As seen relative to the fixed stars, it rotates exactly three times for every two revolutions[b] it makes around its orbit.[13] As seen from the Sun, in a frame of reference that rotates with the orbital motion, it appears to rotate only once every two Mercurian years. An observer on Mercury would therefore see only one day every two years.

Because Mercury’s orbit lies within Earth’s orbit (as does Venus‘s), it can appear in Earth’s sky in the morning or the evening, but not in the middle of the night. Also, like Venus and the Moon, it displays a complete range of phases as it moves around its orbit relative to Earth. Although Mercury can appear as a very bright object when viewed from Earth, its proximity to the Sun makes it more difficult to see than Venus. Two spacecraft have visited Mercury: Mariner 10 flew by in the 1970s and MESSENGER, launched in 2004, remains in orbit.

The earliest known recorded observations of Mercury are from the Mul.Apin tablets. These observations were most likely made by an Assyrian astronomer around the 14th century BC.[96] The cuneiform name used to designate Mercury on the Mul.Apin tablets is transcribed as Udu.Idim.Gu\u4.Ud (“the jumping planet”).[f][97] Babylonian records of Mercury date back to the 1st millennium BC. The Babylonians called the planet Nabu after the messenger to the gods in their mythology.[98]

The ancient Greeks of Hesiod‘s time knew the planet as Στίλβων (Stilbon), meaning “the gleaming”, and Ἑρμάων (Hermaon).[99] Later Greeks called the planet Apollo when it was visible in the morning sky, and Hermes when visible in the evening. Around the 4th century BC, Greek astronomers came to understand that the two names referred to the same body, Hermes (Ἑρμής: Hermēs), a planetary name that is retained in modern Greek (Ερμής: Ermis).[100] The Romans named the planet after the swift-footed Roman messenger god, Mercury (Latin Mercurius), which they equated with the Greek Hermes, because it moves across the sky faster than any other planet.[101][102] The astronomical symbol for Mercury is a stylized version of Hermes’ caduceus.[103]

The Roman-Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy wrote about the possibility of planetary transits across the face of the Sun in his work Planetary Hypotheses. He suggested that no transits had been observed either because planets such as Mercury were too small to see, or because the transits were too infrequent.[104]

In ancient China, Mercury was known as Chen Xing (辰星), the Hour Star. It was associated with the direction north and the phase of water in the Wu Xing.[105] Modern Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese cultures refer to the planet literally as the “water star” (水星), based on the Five elements.[106] Hindu mythology used the name Budha for Mercury, and this god was thought to preside over Wednesday.[107] The god Odin (or Woden) of Germanic paganism was associated with the planet Mercury and Wednesday.[108] The Maya may have represented Mercury as an owl (or possibly four owls; two for the morning aspect and two for the evening) that served as a messenger to the underworld.[109]

The ancient association of Mercury with Wednesday is still visible in the names of Wednesday in various modern languages of Latin descent, e.g. mercredi in French, miércoles in Spanish, or miercuri in Romanian. The names of the days of the week were, in classical times, all related to the names of the seven bodies that were then considered to be planets.[citation needed]

In ancient Indian astronomy, the Surya Siddhanta, an Indian astronomical text of the 5th century, estimates the diameter of Mercury as 4,841 kilometres (3,008 mi), an error of less than 1% from the currently accepted diameter of 4,880 kilometres (3,032 mi). This estimate was based upon an inaccurate guess of the planet’s angular diameter as 3.0 arcminutes (50 millidegrees).[citation needed]

In medieval Islamic astronomy, the Andalusian astronomer Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī in the 11th century described the deferent of Mercury’s geocentric orbit as being oval, like an egg or a pignon, although this insight did not influence his astronomical theory or his astronomical calculations.[110][111] In the 12th century, Ibn Bajjah observed “two planets as black spots on the face of the Sun”, which was later suggested as the transit of Mercury and/or Venus by the Maragha astronomer Qotb al-Din Shirazi in the 13th century.[112] (Note that most such medieval reports of transits were later taken as observations of sunspots.[113])

In India, the Kerala school astronomer Nilakantha Somayaji in the 15th century developed a partially heliocentric planetary model in which Mercury orbits the Sun, which in turn orbits Earth, similar to the Tychonic system later proposed by Tycho Brahe in the late 16th century.[114]

Mercury (Mercury symbol.svg) is the ruling planet of Gemini and Virgo and is exalted in the latter; it is the only planet with rulership and exaltation both in the same sign (Virgo). In Roman mythology, Mercury is the messenger of the gods, noted for his speed and swiftness. Echoing this, the scorching, airless world Mercury circles the Sun on the fastest orbit of any planet. Mercury takes only 88 days to orbit the Sun, spending about 7.33 days in each sign of the zodiac. Mercury is so close to the Sun that only a brief period exists after the Sun has set where it can be seen with the naked eye, before following the Sun beyond the horizon.[citation needed]

Astrologically, Mercury represents the principles of communication, mentality, thinking patterns, rationality and reasoning and adaptability and variability. Mercury governs schooling and education, the immediate environment of neighbors, siblings and cousins, transport over short distances, messages and forms of communication such as post, email and telephone, newspapers, journalism and writing, information gathering skills and physical dexterity. The 1st-century poet Manilius described Mercury as an inconstant, vivacious and curious planet.

In medicine, Mercury is associated with the nervous system, the brain, the respiratory system, the thyroid and the sense organs. It is traditionally held to be essentially cold and dry, according to its placement in the zodiac and in any aspects to other planets. It is linked to the animal spirits.

Today, Mercury is regarded as the ruler of the third and sixth houses; traditionally, it had the joy in the first house. Mercury is the messenger of the gods in mythology. It is the planet of day-to-day expression and relationships. Mercury’s action is to take things apart and put them back together again. It is an opportunistic planet, decidedly unemotional and curious.

Mercury rules over Wednesday. In Romance languages, the word for Wednesday is often similar to Mercury (miercuri in Romanian, mercredi in French, miercoles in Spanish and “mercoledì” in Italian). Dante Alighieri associated Mercury with the liberal art of dialectic.[citation needed] In Indian astrology, Mercury is called Budha, a word related to Buddhi (“intelligence”) and represents communication.[citation needed]

in Chinese astrology, Mercury represent Water, four element. Water is communicative, intelligence and much elegance.

The Roman God Correspondance: Mercury

mercuurryyThe Roman deity attribution for Hod is Mercury. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p.11)

Mercury (/ˈmɜrkjʉri/; Latin: Mercurius About this sound listen ) is a major Roman god, being one of the Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon. He is the patron god of financial gain, commerce, eloquence (and thus poetry), messages/communication (including divination), travelers, boundaries, luck, trickery and thieves; he is also the guide of souls to the underworld.[1][2] He was considered the son of Maia and Jupiter in Roman mythology. His name is possibly related to the Latin word merx (“merchandise”; compare merchant, commerce, etc.), mercari (to trade), and merces (wages); another possible connection is the Proto-Indo-European root merĝ- for “boundary, boarder” (cf. Old English “mearc”, Old Norse “mark”, Latin “margō”, and Welsh Cymro) and Greek οὖρος (by analogy of Arctūrus/Ἀρκτοῦρος), as the “keeper of boundaries,” referring to his role as bridge between the upper and lower worlds.[citation needed] In his earliest forms, he appears to have been related to the Etruscan deity Turms, both of which share characteristics with the Greek god Hermes. In Virgil‘s Aeneid, Mercury reminds Aeneas of his mission to found the city of Rome. In Ovid‘s Fasti, Mercury is assigned to escort the nymph Larunda to the underworld. Mercury, however, fell in love with Larunda and made love to her on the way. Larunda thereby became mother to two children, referred to as the Lares, invisible household gods.

 

The mythological figure Mercury was patron of the arts and god of eloquence. Hendrick Goltzius has depicted him of one of his paintings.  Mercury can be recognized by his winged helmet, the snake entwined caduceus and a rooster. His staff looks very much like a painter’s maulstick. At Mercury’s feet lie drawing instruments, a carpenter’s square, a compass, a drawing and a book with model drawings. Behind him stands a girl sticking out her tongue and holding a rattle and a magpie. This painting also unites his intelligence and stupidity: the girl symbolizes foolish babbling.

mmeerrrccuurrryyy

Hendrick Goltzius, from the Frans Hals Museum

Mercury has influenced the name of many things in a variety of scientific fields, such as the planet Mercury, and the element mercury. The word mercurial is commonly used to refer to something or someone erratic, volatile or unstable, derived from Mercury’s swift flights from place to place. He is often depicted holding the caduceus in his left hand.

Mercury did not appear among the numinous di indigetes of early Roman religion. Rather, he subsumed the earlier Dei Lucrii as Roman religion was syncretized with Greek religion during the time of the Roman Republic, starting around the 4th century BC. From the beginning, Mercury had essentially the same aspects as Hermes, wearing winged shoes (talaria) and a winged hat (petasos), and carrying the caduceus, a herald’s staff with two entwined snakes that was Apollo‘s gift to Hermes. He was often accompanied by a cockerel, herald of the new day, a ram or goat, symbolizing fertility, and a tortoise, referring to Mercury’s legendary invention of the lyre from a tortoise shell.

Like Hermes, he was also a god of messages, eloquence and of trade, particularly of the grain trade. Mercury was also considered a god of abundance and commercial success, particularly in Gaul, where he was said to have been particularly revered.[3] He was also, like Hermes, the Romans’ psychopomp, leading newly deceased souls to the afterlife. Additionally, Ovid wrote that Mercury carried Morpheus‘ dreams from the valley of Somnus to sleeping humans.[4]

Archeological evidence from Pompeii suggests that Mercury was among the most popular of Roman gods.[5] The god of commerce was depicted on two early bronze coins of the Roman Republic, the Sextans and the Semuncia.[6]

Mercury’s temple in Rome was situated in the Circus Maximus, between the Aventine and Palatine hills, and was built in 495 BC.[13]

Because Mercury was not one of the early deities surviving from the Roman Kingdom, he was not assigned a flamen (“priest”), but he did have his own major festival, on May 15, the Mercuralia. During the Mercuralia, merchants sprinkled water from his sacred well near the Porta Capena on their heads.

Greek God Attribution: Hermes

hermes5The Greek deity attribution for Hod is Hermes. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 8) In order to give some idea of the implication of this Sephirah, an understanding of Hermes, the Greek god attributed to it, will be helpful. He is a god of prudence and cunning, shrewdness and sagacity, and its regarded as the author of a variety of inventions such as the alphabet, mathematics, astronomy, and weights and measures. He also presided over commerce and good luck, and was the messenger and herald of the Olympians. According to Virgil, the gods employed him to conduct the souls of the deceased from the upper to the lower worlds. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 52)  Hermes (/ˈhɜrmz/; Greek: Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia. He is second youngest of the Olympian gods.

Statue_Hermes_Chiaramonti

Hermes is a god of transitions and boundaries. He is quick and cunning, and moved freely between the worlds of the mortal and divine, as emissary and messenger of the gods,[1] intercessor between mortals and the divine, and conductor of souls into the afterlife. He is protector and patron of travelers, herdsmen, thieves,[2] orators and wit, literature and poets, athletics and sports, invention and trade.[3] In some myths he is a trickster, and outwits other gods for his own satisfaction or the sake of humankind. His attributes and symbols include the herma, the rooster and the tortoise, purse or pouch, winged sandals, winged cap, and his main symbol is the herald’s staff, the Greek kerykeion or Latin caduceus which consisted of two snakes wrapped around a winged staff.[4]

In the Roman adaptation of the Greek pantheon (see interpretatio romana), Hermes is identified with the Roman god Mercury,[5] who, though inherited from the Etruscans, developed many similar characteristics, such as being the patron of commerce.

The earliest form of the name Hermes is the Mycenaean Greek, *e-ma-a2 (e-ma-ha), written in the Linear B syllabic script.[6] Most scholars derive “Hermes” from Greek herma[7] (a stone, roadside shrine or boundary marker), dedicated to Hermes as a god of travelers and boundaries; the etymology of herma itself is unknown. “Hermes” may be related to Greek hermeneus (“the interpreter”), reflecting Hermes’s function as divine messenger.[8][9][10] Plato offers a Socratic folk-etymology for Hermes’s name, deriving it from the divine messenger’s reliance on eirein (the power of speech).[10] Scholarly speculation that “Hermes” derives from a more primitive form meaning “one cairn” is disputed.[9] The word “hermeneutics“, the study and theory of interpretation, is derived from hermeneus. In Greek a lucky find is a hermaion.

It is also suggested that Hermes is cognate of the Vedic Sarama.[11]

Homer and Hesiod portrayed Hermes as the author of skilled or deceptive acts, and also as a benefactor of mortals. In the Iliad he was called “the bringer of good luck,” “guide and guardian” and “excellent in all the tricks.” He was a divine ally of the Greeks against the Trojans. However, he did protect Priam when he went to the Greek camp to retrieve the body of his son Hector, and he accompanies them back to Troy.[12]

Hermes stole Apollo’s cattle when he was born. He jumped out of his crib and hid the cattle. Just when Apollo realized, Hermes jumped back into his crib and pretended to be innocent. Apollo took Hermes by the scruff of the neck and took him to his father, Zeus. Apollo said he was unhappy with the way he was being treated. Instead of punishing young Hermes, Zeus just laughed and found the matter funny.

He also rescued Ares from a brazen vessel where he had been imprisoned by Otus and Ephialtes. In the Odyssey he helped his great-grand son, the protagonist, Odysseus, informing him about the fate of his companions, who were turned into animals by the power of Circe, and instructed him to protect himself by chewing a magic herb; he also told Calypso Zeus’ order for her to free the same hero from her island to continue his journey back home. When Odysseus killed the suitors of his wife, Hermes led their souls to Hades.[13] In The Works and Days, when Zeus ordered Hephaestus to create Pandora to disgrace humanity by punishing the act of Prometheus giving fire to man, every god gave her a gift, and Hermes’s gift was lies and seductive words, and a dubious character. Then he was instructed to take her as wife to Epimetheus.[14]

Aeschylus wrote in The Eumenides that Hermes helped Orestes kill Clytemnestra under a false identity and other stratagems,[2] and also said that he was the god of searches, and those who seek things lost or stolen.[15] In PhiloctetesSophocles invokes Hermes when Odysseus needs to convince Philoctetes to join the Trojan War on the side of the Greeks, and in Euripides‘ Rhesus Hermes helps Dolon spy on the Greek navy.[2]

Aesop featured him in several of his fables, as ruler of the gate of prophetic dreams, as the god of athletes, of edible roots, and of hospitality. He also said that Hermes had assigned each person his share of intelligence.[16]

The Homeric hymn to Hermes invokes him as the one “of many shifts (polytropos), blandly cunning, a robber, a cattle driver, a bringer of dreams, a watcher by night, a thief at the gates, one who was soon to show forth wonderful deeds among the deathless gods.”[17] Hermes, as an inventor of fire,[18] is a parallel of the Titan Prometheus. In addition to the lyre, Hermes was believed to have invented many types of racing and the sports of wrestling and boxing, and therefore was a patron of athletes.[19]

Homer and Hesiod portrayed Hermes as the author of skilled or deceptive acts, and also as a benefactor of mortals. In the Iliad he was called “the bringer of good luck,” “guide and guardian” and “excellent in all the tricks.” He was a divine ally of the Greeks against the Trojans. However, he did protect Priam when he went to the Greek camp to retrieve the body of his son Hector, and he accompanies them back to Troy.[12]

Hermes stole Apollo’s cattle when he was born. He jumped out of his crib and hid the cattle. Just when Apollo realized, Hermes jumped back into his crib and pretended to be innocent. Apollo took Hermes by the scruff of the neck and took him to his father, Zeus. Apollo said he was unhappy with the way he was being treated. Instead of punishing young Hermes, Zeus just laughed and found the matter funny.

He also rescued Ares from a brazen vessel where he had been imprisoned by Otus and Ephialtes. In the Odyssey he helped his great-grand son, the protagonist, Odysseus, informing him about the fate of his companions, who were turned into animals by the power of Circe, and instructed him to protect himself by chewing a magic herb; he also told Calypso Zeus’ order for her to free the same hero from her island to continue his journey back home. When Odysseus killed the suitors of his wife, Hermes led their souls to Hades.[13] In The Works and Days, when Zeus ordered Hephaestus to create Pandora to disgrace humanity by punishing the act of Prometheus giving fire to man, every god gave her a gift, and Hermes’s gift was lies and seductive words, and a dubious character. Then he was instructed to take her as wife to Epimetheus.[14]

Aeschylus wrote in The Eumenides that Hermes helped Orestes kill Clytemnestra under a false identity and other stratagems,[2] and also said that he was the god of searches, and those who seek things lost or stolen.[15] In PhiloctetesSophocles invokes Hermes when Odysseus needs to convince Philoctetes to join the Trojan War on the side of the Greeks, and in Euripides‘ Rhesus Hermes helps Dolon spy on the Greek navy.[2]

Aesop featured him in several of his fables, as ruler of the gate of prophetic dreams, as the god of athletes, of edible roots, and of hospitality. He also said that Hermes had assigned each person his share of intelligence.[16]

The Homeric hymn to Hermes invokes him as the one “of many shifts (polytropos), blandly cunning, a robber, a cattle driver, a bringer of dreams, a watcher by night, a thief at the gates, one who was soon to show forth wonderful deeds among the deathless gods.”[17] Hermes, as an inventor of fire,[18] is a parallel of the Titan Prometheus. In addition to the lyre, Hermes was believed to have invented many types of racing and the sports of wrestling and boxing, and therefore was a patron of athletes.[19]

The Egyptian God Attribution: Anubis

aannuubbiissThe Egyptian Deity correspondence for Hod is Anubis (Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 6) In this latter capacity, the Egyptian jackal-headed Anubis is similar, since he was the patron of the dead, an dis depicted as leading the soul into the judgment of Osiris in Amenti.57 I twill help the student not a little if he remembers that the sphere of Hod represents on a very much lower plane similar qualities to those obtaining in Chokmah. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 52-53)

Of Netzach and Hod, the seventh and eighth Sephiroth, the Zohar soliloquizes that by victory and splendor is meant extension, multiplication, and force ; because all the forces which were born into the universe went out of their bosom. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 53)

Anubis (/əˈnbəs/ or /əˈnjbəs/;[2] Ancient Greek: Ἄνουβις) is the Greek name[3] for a jackal-headed god associated with mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian religion. According to the Akkadian transcription in the Amarna letters, Anubis’ name was vocalized in Egyptian as Anapa.[4] The oldest known mention of Anubis is in the Old Kingdom pyramid texts, where he is associated with the burial of the pharaoh.[5] At this time, Anubis was the most important god of the dead but he was replaced during the Middle Kingdom by Osiris.[6]

He takes names in connection with his funerary role, such as He who is upon his mountain, which underscores his importance as a protector of the deceased and their tombs, and the title He who is in the place of embalming, associating him with the process of mummification.[5] Like many ancient Egyptian deities, Anubis assumes different roles in various contexts. Anubis also attends the weighing scale in the Afterlife during the “Weighing Of The Heart”.[7] Anubis’ wife is a goddess called Anput. His daughter is the goddess Kebechet.

Anubis was associated with the mummification and protection of the dead for their journey into the afterlife. He was usually portrayed as a half human – half jackal, or in full jackal form wearing a ribbon and holding a flail in the crook of its arm.[8] The jackal [Note: recent genetic studies show that the Egyptian jackal is actually a form of the grey wolf and it has thus been renamed the “Egyptian Wolf”[9]] was strongly associated with cemeteries in ancient Egypt, since it was a scavenger which threatened to uncover human bodies and eat their flesh.[10] The distinctive black color of Anubis “did not have to do with the jackal [per se] but with the color of rotting flesh and with the black soil of the Nile valley, symbolizing rebirth.”[10] The only known depiction of him in fully human form is in the tomb of Ramesses II in Abydos.[11]

Anubis is depicted in funerary contexts where he is shown attending to the mummies of the deceased or sitting atop a tomb protecting it. In fact, during embalming, the “head embalmer” wore an Anubis costume. The critical weighing of the heart scene in the Book of the Dead also shows Anubis performing the measurement that determined the worthiness of the deceased to enter the realm of the dead (the underworld, known as Duat). New Kingdom tomb-seals also depict Anubis sitting atop the nine bows that symbolize his domination over the enemies of Egypt.[5]

One of the roles of Anubis was “Guardian of the Scales”.[12] Deciding the weight of “truth” by weighing the heart against Ma’at, who was often depicted as an ostrich feather, Anubis dictated the fate of souls. In this manner, he was a Lord of the Underworld, only usurped by Osiris.

In the Osiris myth, Anubis helped Isis mummifying Osiris.[10] Indeed, when the Myth of Osiris and Isis emerged, it was said that when Osiris had been killed by Set, Osiris’ organs were given to Anubis as a gift. With this connection, Anubis became the patron god of embalmers: during the funerary rites of mummification, illustrations from the Book of the Dead often show a priest wearing the jackal mask supporting the upright mummy.

In later times, during the Ptolemaic period, Anubis was merged with the Greek god Hermes, becoming Hermanubis.[13] The centre of this cult was in uten-ha/Sa-ka/ Cynopolis, a place whose Greek name simply means “city of dogs”. In Book XI of “The Golden Ass” by Apuleius, we find evidence that the worship of this god was maintained in Rome at least up to the 2nd century. Indeed, Hermanubis also appears in the alchemical and hermetical literature of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

Although the Greeks and Romans typically scorned Egypt’s animal-headed gods as bizarre and primitive (Anubis was known to be mockingly called “Barker” by the Greeks), Anubis was sometimes associated with Sirius in the heavens, and Cerberus in Hades. In his dialogues,[14] Plato has Socrates utter, “by the dog” (kai me ton kuna), “by the dog of Egypt”, “by the dog, the god of the Egyptians”,[15] for emphasis.

The Hindu God Attribution: Hanuman

hanuman--The Hindu god is Hanuman, represented by an ape or monkey. Blavatsky gives at great length, in The Secret Doctrine, the interesting theory that within the ape are imprisoned the human souls of a solar-mercurial nature, souls almost of the status of godhead, called Manasaputras, “Mind-born sons of Brahma” ; which may explains why the Hindu gods of mind and intelligence are represented by so, apparently, an unintelligent beast as the anthropoid.58 (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 53)

Hanuman (IPA: /hʌnʊˈmɑn/) is a Hindu god, who was an ardent devotee of Rama according to the Hindu legends. He is a central character in the Indian epic Ramayana and its various versions. He also finds mentions in several other texts, including Mahabharata, the various Puranas and some Jain texts. A vanara (monkey-like humanoid), Hanuman participated in Rama’s war against the demon king Ravana. Several texts also present him as an incarnation of Lord Shiva. He is the son of Vayu, who according to several stories, played a role in his birth.

According to astrological calculations hanuman was born 18558112 years ago. The day was Tuesday, the day of the Chaitra Purnima Figure constellation Aries Ascendant and the sum was at 6:03 in the morning.Dainik Jagran’s hindi article who prove this calculation

The Sanskrit texts mention several legends about how Hanuman got his name. One legend is that Indra, the king of the deities, struck Hanuman’s jaw during his childhood (see below). The child received his name from the Sanskrit words Hanu (“jaw”) and -man (or -mant, “prominent” or “disfigured”). The name thus means “one with prominent or disfigured jaw”.[1] Another theory says the name derives from the Sanskrit words Han (“killed” or “destroyed”) and maana (pride); the name implies “one whose pride was destroyed”.[1] Some Jain texts mention that Hanuman spent his childhood on an island called Hanuruha, which is the origin of his name.[2]

According to one theory, the name “Hanuman” derives from the proto-Dravidian word for male monkey (ana-mandi), which was later Sanskritized to “Hanuman”.

The word “Vrsakapi” or “Vrishakapi”, later used as an epithet for Hanuman, is mentioned in Rigveda (X:96). Some writers, such as Nilakantha (author of Mantra Ramayana) believe that the Vrishakapi of Rigveda alludes to Hanuman. However, other scholars believe that Hanuman is not mentioned in the Vedic mythology: the “Vrsakapi” of Rigveda refers to another deity[4] or is a common name for the monkeys.[5]

F.E. Pargiter (1852-1927) theorized that Hanuman was a proto-Dravidian deity, and the name “Hanuman” was a Sanskritization of the Old Tamil word Aan-mandhi (“male monkey”). The Hindi writer Ray Govindchandra (1976) endorsed this view, and stated that the proto-Indo-Aryans must have invented a Sanskrit etymology for the deity’s name, after they accepted Hanuman in their pantheon.[6] Murray Emeneau disagrees with this theory, and states that the word mandi, as attested in Sangam literature, can refer only to a female monkey, and therefore, the word ana-mandi makes no semantic sense.[6] Camille Bulcke, in his Ramkatha: Utpatti Aur Vikas (“The tale of Rama: its origin and development”), traces the origins of Hanuman worship to the pre-Indo-Aryan, pre-Dravidian aboriginal tribes of Central India.[4] According to him, Valmiki’s Ramayana was based on older tribal ballads.

Hanuman came to be regarded as an avatar (incarnation) of Shiva by the 10th century CE (this development possibly started as early as in the 8th century CE).[4] Hanuman is mentioned as an avatar of Shiva or Rudra in the Sanskrit texts like Mahabhagvata Purana, Skanda Purana, Brhaddharma Purana and Mahanataka among others. This development might have been a result of the Shavite attempts to insert their ishta devata (cherished deity) in the Vaishnavite texts, which were gaining popularity.[4] The 17th century Oriya work Rasavinoda by Divakrsnadasa goes on to mention that the three gods – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva – combined to the take the form of Hanuman.[7]

Hanuman became more important in the medieval period, and came to be portrayed as the ideal devotee (bhakta) of Rama. His characterization as a lifelong brahmachari (celibate) was another important development during this period.[4] The belief that Hanuman’s celibacy is the source of his strength became popular among the wrestlers in India.[8] The celibacy or brahmacharya aspect of Hanuman is not mentioned in the original Ramayana.[9]

Hanuman was born to the humanoid creatures called the vanaras. His mother Anjana was an apsara who was born on earth as a female vanara due to a curse. She was redeemed from this curse on her giving birth to a son. The Valmiki Ramayana states that his father Kesari was the son of Brihaspati and that Kesari also fought on Rama’s side in the war against Ravana.[10] Anjana and Kesari performed intense prayers to Shiva to get a child. Pleased with their devotion, Shiva granted them the boon they sought.[11] Hanuman, in another interpretation, is the incarnation or reflection of Shiva himself.

Hanuman is often called the son of the deity Vayu; several different traditions account for the Vayu’s role in Hanuman’s birth. One story mentioned in Eknath‘s Bhavartha Ramayana (16th century CE) states that when Anjana was worshiping Shiva, the King Dasharatha of Ayodhya was also performing the ritual of Putrakama yagna in order to have children. As a result, he received some sacred pudding (payasam) to be shared by his three wives, leading to the births of Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata, and Shatrughna. By divine ordinance, a kite snatched a fragment of that pudding and dropped it while flying over the forest where Anjana was engaged in worship. Vayu, the Hindu deity of the wind, delivered the falling pudding to the outstretched hands of Anjana, who consumed it. Hanuman was born to her as a result.[10][12] Another tradition says that Anjana and her husband Kesari prayed Shiva for a child. By Shiva’s direction, Vayu transferred his male energy to Anjana’s womb. Accordingly, Hanuman is identified as the son of the Vayu.

Another story of Hanuman’s origins is derived from the Vishnu Purana and Naradeya Purana. Narada, infatuated with a princess, went to his lord Vishnu, to make him look like Vishnu, so that the princess would garland him at swayamvara (husband-choosing ceremony). He asked for hari mukh (Hari is another name of Vishnu, and mukh means face). Vishnu instead bestowed him with the face of a vanara. Unaware of this, Narada went to the princess, who burst into laughter at the sight of his ape-like face before all the king’s court. Narada, unable to bear the humiliation, cursed Vishnu, that Vishnu would one day be dependent upon a vanara. Vishnu replied that what he had done was for Narada’s own good, as he would have undermined his own powers if he were to enter matrimony. Vishnu also noted that Hari has the dual Sanskrit meaning of vanara. Upon hearing this, Narada repented for cursing his idol. But Vishnu told him not repent as the curse would act as a boon, for it would lead to the birth of Hanuman, an avatar of Shiva, without whose help Rama (Vishnu’s avatar) could not kill Ravana.

The Angel and Archangel Attribution: Michael

archangel-michaelThe archangel of this sphere is Michael, and the Bene Elohim is the Angelic order.

Michael (“who is like God?“, Hebrew: מִיכָאֵל‎ (pronounced [mixåˈʔel]), Micha’el or Mîkhā’ēl; Greek: Μιχαήλ, Mikhaḗl; Latin: Michael (in the Vulgate Michahel); Arabic: ميخائيل‎, Mīkhā’īl) is an archangel in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic teachings. Roman Catholics, the Eastern Orthodox, Anglicans, and Lutherans refer to him as “Saint Michael the Archangel” and also as “Saint Michael”. Orthodox Christians refer to him as the “Taxiarch Archangel Michael” or simply “Archangel Michael”.

Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel, once as a “great prince who stands up for the children of your people”. The idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy.

In the New Testament Michael leads God’s armies against Satan‘s forces in the Book of Revelation, where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. In the Epistle of Jude Michael is specifically referred to as “the archangel Michael”. Christian sanctuaries to Michael appeared in the 4th century, when he was first seen as a healing angel, and then over time as a protector and the leader of the army of God against the forces of evil. By the 6th century, devotions to Archangel Michael were widespread both in the Eastern and Western Churches. Over time, teachings on Michael began to vary among Christian denominations.

 

 

 

Seventh-day Adventists

Seventh-day Adventists believe that Michael is another name for the Heavenly Christ, and another name for the Word-of-God (as in John 1) before he became incarnate as Jesus. “Archangel” (meaning “Chief of the Angels”) was the leadership position held by the Word-of-God as Michael while among the angels. According to Adventist theology, Michael was considered the “eternal Word”, and not a created being or created angel, and the one by whom all things were created. The Word was then born incarnate as Jesus.[63]

Seventh-day Adventists believe the name “Michael” is significant in showing who it is, just as “Immanuel” (which means “God with us”) is about who Jesus is. They believe that name “Michael” signifies “one who is God” and that as the “Archangel” or “chief or head of the angels” he led the angels and thus the statement in Revelation 12:7-9 identifies Jesus as Michael.[64]

Seventh-day Adventists believe that “Michael” is but one of the many titles applied to the Son of God, the second person of the Godhead. According to Adventists, such a view does not in any way conflict with the belief in his full deity and eternal preexistence, nor does it in the least disparage his person and work.[65] In support of the Seventh-day Adventist belief Michael is also the commander of God’s army which helped Joshua son of Nun to lead Israel in to conquering Jericho [Joshua 5:14 And he said, Nay; but as captain of the host of the LORD am I now come. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and did worship, and said unto him, What saith my Lord unto his servant?]

In the Seventh-day Adventist view, the statement in 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18: “For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven, with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God” identifies Jesus as Archangel, which is Michael.[66] And the Seventh-day Adventists believe that John 5:25-29 also confirms that Jesus and Michael are the same.[66]

The earlier Protestant scholars usually identified Michael with the preincarnate Christ, finding support for their view, not only in the juxtaposition of the “child” and the archangel in Revelation 12, but also in the attributes ascribed to him in Daniel [67]

Seventh-day Adventists believe there is and can only be one archangel and that one Archangel is named Michael and yet in Scripture is shown as doing what also applies to Christ even from the beginning, so is Christ preincarnate. There was a perception that Adventists were relegating Jesus to something less than divine or less than God but that is not valid since Seventh-day Adventism theology teaches and is expressly Trinitarian.[68][69]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Latter-day Saints (also known informally as Mormons) believe that Michael is Adam, the Ancient of Days (Dan. 7), a prince, and the patriarch of the human family and that Michael assisted Jehovah (the heavenly form of Jesus Christ) in the creation of the world under the direction of God the Father and cast Satan out of heaven.[70][71][72][73]

Esoteric traditions

The French occultist, Eliphas Levi, the German philosopher Franz von Baader, and the Theosophist Louis Claude de St. Martin spoke of 1879 as the year in which Michael overcame the dragon. This is confirmed by the esoteric writer Rudolf Steiner in a lecture in Zurich on November 13, 1917, where he states: “in 1879, in November, a momentous event took place, a battle of the Powers of Darkness against the Powers of Light, ending in the image of Michael overcoming the Dragon”.[74]

Islam

The Qur’an mentions Michael together with Gabriel in the sura Al-Baqara:

Whoever is an enemy to Allah and His angels and messengers, to Gabriel and Michael,- Lo! Allah is an enemy to those who reject Faith.

—Quran, sura 2 (Al-Baqara) ayat 97-98[75]

In Sunni Islam, Michael will be sent to bring a handful of Earth, but the Earth will not want to yield a piece of itself, some of which will burn. This is articulated by Al-Tha’labi whose narrative states that God will tell Earth that some will obey him and others not.[76]

The Ahmadiyya movement believes in Michael along with other angels such as Gabriel. They are called Mala’ikah and are described as spiritual beings who obey Allah’s command.[77]

The Chakra System Correspondence:Manipura Chakra

ManipuraIn comparing with Eastern systems, both Hod and Netzach are sometimes associated with the Manipura chakra, which is associated with the breaking down and releasing of energy, anabolism and catabolism. Manipura (Sanskrit: मणिपूर, IAST: Maṇipūra), called “city of jewels”, is the third primary chakra according to Hindu tradition. Located in the area of the solar plexus, navel, and the digestive system, the fiery third chakra is called Manipura, the “resplendent gem.” Associated with the color yellow, this chakra is involved in self-esteem, warrior energy, and the power of transformation; it also governs digestion and metabolism. A healthy spirited third chakra helps overcome inertia and jump-starts a “get-up-and-go” attitude so it is easier to take risks, assert one’s will, and assume responsibility for one’s life. This chakra is also the location of deep belly laughter, warmth, ease, and the vitality received from performing selfless service.[1]Manipura is represented by a downward pointing red triangle, the fire region, within a bright yellow circle, with 10 dark-blue or black petals like heavily laden rain clouds. The triangle has a t-shaped swastika on each of its sides. The fire region is represented by the god Vahni, who is shining red, has four arms, holds a rosary and a spear, and is making the gestures of granting boons and dispelling fear. He is seated on a ram, the animal that represents this chakra.The seed mantra is the syllable ‘ram’. Within the bindu or dot above this mantra resides the deity Rudra, who is red or white, with three eyes, of ancient aspect with a silver beard, and smeared with white ashes. He makes the gestures of granting boons and dispelling fear. He is either seated upon a tiger skin, or upon a bull. His Shakti is the goddess Lakini. She has a black or dark-blue vermillion color; three faces, each with three eyes; is four-armed; holds a thunderbolt, the arrow shot from the bow of Kama, fire; and makes the gesture of granting boons and dispelling fear. She is seated upon a red lotus.The ten petals are dark-blue or black, like heavily laden rainclouds, with the syllables dda, ddha, nna, ta, tha, da, dha, na, pa, and pha upon them in a dark-blue colour. They correspond to the vrittis of spiritual ignorance, thirst, jealousy, treachery, shame, fear, disgust, delusion, foolishness and sadness.

Manipura is considered the center of dynamism, energy, will power and achievement (Itcha shakti), which radiates prana throughout the entire human body. It is associated with the power of fire and digestion, as well as with the sense of sight and the action of movement. Manipura is “the center of etheric-psychic intuition: a vague or non-specific, sensual sense of knowing; a vague sense of size, shape, and intent of being.”[2] As such, some psychics recommend “listening” to it since it may help in making better decisions in one’s life on many different levels.[3]

Through meditating on Manipura one is said to attain the siddhis power to create (save) or destroy the world.

The position of Manipura is stated as being either behind the navel or the solar plexus. Sometimes, when it is located at the navel, a secondary chakra called Surya (sun) chakra is located at the solar plexus, whose role is to absorb and assimilate prana from the sun. Being related to the sense of sight, it is associated with the eyes, and being associated with movement, it is associated with the feet.[4]

In the endocrine system, Manipura is said to be associated with the pancreas and the outer adrenal glands; the adrenal cortex. These glands create important hormones involved in digestion, converting food into energy for the body, in the same way that Manipura radiates prana throughout the body.In kundalini yoga, different practices for arousing and balancing the energies of Manipura include various asanas which work on that part of the body, pranayama, Uddiyana bandha (exhaling and pulling back and up the abdomen and diaphragm, respectively) and agnisara kriya (practicing jalandhara bandha, and moving the abdomen in and out), as well as the practice of nauli (stomach churning), and a pranayama called the union of prana and apana, where the lower and higher winds are made to unite together.

In the Vajrayana Highest Tantra traditions, the navel wheel is extremely important as being the seat of the ‘red drop’. It is triangular, red, with 64 petals or channels that extend upwards. Inside of it is the short syllable ‘Ah’. Meditation on this syllable is the key component of the practice of Tummo, or inner heat, where the subtle winds are made to enter the central channel, and rise up to the top of the channel, in an experience akin to that of ‘raising the kundalini’ in Hindu terminology, melting the subtle white drop in the crown, and causing an experience of great bliss. This practice is considered the first and most important of the six yogas of Naropa.[5]

In Chinese qigong, there exists three Dantians, acting as furnaces to convert different energies in the body. The lower Dantian exists in the region of the stomach. Its function is to convert sexual jing energy into Qi energy (a concept similar to Indian prana).

Within the system of the Sufi Lataif-e-sitta, there are a number of Lataif on the torso, but they are not distributed vertically, like chakras, but some are to the left and some to the right. The nafs, or lower self, is a centre situated below the navel.

Western occultists make different kabbalistic associations with Manipura. For some, it relates to the sephirot of Hod and Netzach, Netzach being that quality of energy to overcome different obstacles, and Hod being the tendency to control and break down energy into different forms, the two being contending and balancing forces, like the forces of anabolism and catabolism in the human body. Hod and Netzach are associated with the left and right legs and feet of the body.[6]

The Sacred Plant Attribution: Moly

molyThe sacred plant correspondence for Yod is moly, and its vegetable drug is anhalonium lewinii59 (Aleister Crowley, 777, p.10 and p. 13) which, according to Israel Regardie, when taken internally, “causes visions of color rings and of an intellectual nature, enhancing self-analysis.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 53)   Moly (Greek: μῶλυ, [môly]) is a magical herb mentioned in book 10 of Homer’s Odyssey.[1]   In the story, Hermes gave this herb to Odysseus to protect him from Circe’s magic when he went to her home to rescue his friends.[2] These friends came together with him from the island Aiolos after they escaped from the Cyclops. “The plant ‘moly’ of which Homer speaks; this plant, it is said, had grown from the blood of the Gigante killed in the isle of Kirke; it has a white flower; the ally of Kirke who killed the Gigante was Helios (the Sun); the combat was hard (Greek malos) from which came the name of this plant”.[3] Homer also describes Moly by saying “The root was black, while the flower was as white as milk; the gods call it Moly, Dangerous for a mortal man to pluck from the soil, but not for the deathless gods. All lies within their power”.[4]  There has been much controversy as to the identification. Philippe Champault decides in favour of the Peganum harmala (of the order Rutaceae),[5] the Syrian or African rue (Greek πἠγανον), from the husks of which the vegetable alkaloid harmaline is extracted. The flowers are white with green stripes. Victor Bérard relying partly on a Semitic root,[6] prefers the Atriplex halimus (atriplex, a Latin form of Greek ἀτράφαξυς, and ἅλιμος, marine), order Chenopodiaceae, a herb or low shrub common on the south European coasts. These identifications are noticed by R. M. Henry,[7] who illustrates the Homeric account by passages in the Paris and Leiden magical papyri, and argues that moly is probably a magical name, derived perhaps from Phoenician or Egyptian sources, for a plant which cannot be certainly identified. He shows that the “difficulty of pulling up” the plant is not a merely physical one, but rather connected with the peculiar powers claimed by magicians.[7] In Tennyson‘s The Lotos-Eaters, the moly is coupled with the amaranth (“propt on beds of amaranth and moly”).[2]   Medical historians have speculated that the transformation to pigs was not intended literally but refers to anticholinergic intoxication.[8] Symptoms include amnesia, hallucinations, and delusions. The description of “moly” fits the snowdrop, a flower of the region that contains galantamine, which is an anticholinesterase and can therefore counteract anticholinergics.

The Sacred Perfume Attribution: Storax

storaxxThe  perfume correspondence for Hod is storax,60  (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 53; Crowley, 777, p. 13)   Styrax (storax) balsam is a recent natural resin isolated from the wounded bark of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. (Asia Minor) and Liquidambar styraciflua L. (Central America) (Hamamelidaceae).[1] It is often called benzoic resin, a similar but different resin obtained from the Styracaceae plant family.  Purified storax contains circa 33 to 50 % storesin, an alcoholic resin, both free and as cinnamic esters. Contains 5 to 15 % cinnamic acid, 5 to 15 % cinnamyl cinnamate (styracin), circa 10 % phenylpropyl cinnamate; small amounts of ethyl cinnamate, benzyl cinnamate, and styrene (phenylethylene), traces of vanillin. Also a volatile oil (styrol, styracin, etc.) Some sources report a resin (storesin) containing triterpenic acids (oleanolic and 3-epioleanolic acids).[2]     Solvent extraction of the balsam gives styrax resinoid, which has a sweet balsamic, slightly grasslike odor and is used in perfumery as a fixative. The balsam may be steam distilled to give styrax oil, which is used in perfumes. An IFRA recommendation exists.[1] Storax absolute is obtained by alcoholic extraction of the resinoid. The resinoid and its derivatives are also used as flavoring agents.[3]   According to Pliny (Natural History 12:81) and Dioscorides (De Materia Medica 1:79) storax was extracted from trees growing wild in Syria and the vicinity.[4]     Linnaeus, who determined the scientific names of plants, thought that storax was extracted from the tree called in modern Hebrew livneh refu’i which he termed Styrax officinalis. However in the light of tests made in Israel it is very doubtful if a sap with medicinal or aromatic qualities can be extracted from this tree. The storax of the ancients was probably extracted from a different tree, seemingly from the Liquidambar orientalis which grows wild in northern Syria and may even have been grown in Israel; from it is extracted an aromatic sap with healing qualities called storax liquidis. This may possibly be the biblical balm, though other sources conclude that the biblical balm is Balsam (opobalsamum).[4]  Styrax officinalis is a more humid Asian species, reported from India, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Java, Sumatra, and Malaysia. Thus, this species historically would have needed to be imported from outside Israel.[5]    In the nineteenth century, styrene was isolated by distillation of storax balsam.[6]

The Sacred Color Attribution: Orange

FF9900The sacred color correspondence for Hod is Orange. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 7) Its color orange is derived from the red of Geburah and the yellow of Tiphareth  (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 53)  In the Empress scale it goes to yellowish brown, flecked white and in the Emperor scale red-russet. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 7)   Orange is a color located between red and yellow on the spectrum of light, and in the traditional color wheel used by painters. Its name is derived from the orange fruit.   In optics, orange is the colour seen by the eye when looking at light with a wavelength between approximately 585–620 nm. It has a hue of 30° in HSV colour space.  Orange is a tertiary colour numerically halfway between gamma-compressed red and yellow, as can be seen in the RGB colour wheel.  In the traditional colour wheel used by painters, orange is the range of colours between red and yellow, and painters can obtain orange simply by mixing red and yellow in various proportions; though these colours will never be as vivid as a pure orange pigment

In Europe and America, orange is commonly associated with amusement, the unconventional, extroverts, fire, activity, danger, taste and aroma, the autumn season, and Protestantism. In Asia, it is an important symbolic color of Buddhism and Hinduism.[1]

The color orange is named after the appearance of the ripe orange fruit.[2] The word comes from the Old French orenge, from the old term for the fruit, pomme d’orenge. That name comes from the Arabic naranj, through the Persian naranj, derived from the sanskrit naranga.[3] The first recorded use of orange as a colour name in English was in 1512,[4][5] in a will now filed with the Public Record Office.

Before this word was introduced to the English-speaking world, the color was referred to as ġeolurēad (yellow-red).

In ancient Egypt, artists used an orange mineral pigment called realgar for tomb paintings and other uses. It was also used later by Medieval artists for the coloring of manuscripts. Pigments were also made in ancient times from a mineral known as orpiment. Orpiment was an important item of trade in the Roman Empire and was used as a medicine in China although it contains arsenic and is highly toxic. It was also used as a fly poison and to poison arrows. Because of its yellow-orange color, it was also a favourite with alchemists searching for a way to make gold, both in China and the West.

Before the late 15th century, the color orange existed in Europe, but without the name; it was simply called yellow-red. Spanish and Portuguese merchants brought the first orange trees to Europe from Asia in the late 15th and early 16th century, along with the sanskrit name “naranga,” which gradually became “orange” in English. In parts of Germany, the Netherlands, and Russia, the orange fruit was and is still called the Chinese apple.The family of the Prince of Orange eventually adopted the name and the colour orange. The colour came to be associated with Protestantism, due to participation by the House of Orange on the Protestant side in the French Wars of Religion.

In the 18th century, orange was sometimes used to depict the robes of Pomona, the goddess of fruitful abundance; her name came from the pomon, the Latin word for fruit. Oranges themselves became more common in northern Europe, thanks to the 17th century invention of the heated greenhouse, a building type which became known as an orangerie. The French artist Jean-Honoré Fragonard depicted an allegorical figure of “inspiration” dressed in orange.

n Britain, orange became highly popular with the Pre-Raphaelites and with history painters. The flowing red-orange hair of Elizabeth Siddal, the wife of painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti, became a symbol of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, Lord Leighton, the President of the Royal Academy, produced Flaming June, a painting of a sleeping young woman in a bright orange dress, which won wide acclaim. Albert Joseph Moore painted festive scenes of Romans wearing orange cloaks brighter than any the Romans ever likely wore. In the United States, Winslow Homer brightened his palette with vivid oranges.

In France, painters took orange in an entirely different direction. In 1872, Claude Monet painted Impression Sunrise, a tiny orange sun and some orange light reflected on the clouds and water in the centre of a hazy blue landscape. This painting gave its name to the impressionist movement.

Orange became an important colour for all the impressionist painters. They all had studied the recent books on colour theory, and they know that orange placed next to azure blue made both colours much brighter. he post-impressionists went even further with orange. Paul Gauguin used oranges as backgrounds, for clothing and skin colour, to fill his pictures with light and exoticism. But no other painter used orange so often and dramatically as Vincent van Gogh. He created his own oranges with mixtures of yellow, ochre and red, and placed them next to slashes of sienna red and bottle green, and below a sky of turbulent blue and violet. He put an orange moon and stars in a cobalt blue sky. He wrote to his brother Theo of “searching for oppositions of blue with orange, of red with green, of yellow with violet, searching for broken colours and neutral colours to harmonize the brutality of extremes, trying to make the colours intense, and not a harmony of greys.”[7]

In Confucianism, the religion and philosophy of ancient China, orange was the colour of transformation. In China and India, the colour took its name not from the orange fruit, but from saffron, the finest and most expensive dye in Asia. According to Confucianism, existence was governed by the interaction of the male active principle, the yang, and the female passive principle, the yin. Yellow was the colour of perfection and nobility; red was the colour of happiness and power. Yellow and red were compared to light and fire, spirituality and sensuality, seemingly opposite but really complementary. Out of the interaction between the two came orange, the colour of transformation.[18]

A wide variety of colours, ranging from a slightly orange yellow to a deep orange red, all simply called saffron, are closely associated with Hinduism and Buddhism, and are commonly worn by monks and holy men across Asia.

In Hinduism, the divinity Krishna is commonly portrayed dressed in yellow or yellow orange. Yellow and saffron are also the colours worn by sadhu, or wandering holy men in India.

In Buddhism, orange (or more precisely saffron) was the colour of illumination, the highest state of perfection.[19] The saffron colours of robes to be worn by monks were defined by the Buddha himself and his followers in the 5th century BC. The robe and its colour is a sign of renunciation of the outside world and commitment to the order. The candidate monk, with his master, first appears before the monks of the monastery in his own clothes, with his new robe under his arm. and asks to enter the order. He then takes his vows, puts on the robes, and with his begging bowl, goes out to the world. Thereafter, he spends his mornings begging and his afternoons in contemplation and study, either in a forest, garden, or in the monastery.[20]

According to Buddhist scriptures and commentaries, the robe dye is allowed to be obtained from six kinds of substances: roots and tubers, plants, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits. The robes should also be boiled in water a long time to get the correctly sober colour. Saffron and ochre, usually made with dye from the curcuma longa plant or the heartwood of the jackfruit tree, are the most common colours. The so-called forest monks usually wear ochre robes and city monks saffron, though this is not an official rule.[21]

The colour of robes also varies somewhat among the different “vehicles,” or schools of Buddhism, and by country, depending on their doctrines and the dyes available. The monks of the strict Vajrayana, or Tantric Buddhism, practiced in Tibet, wear the most colourful robes of saffron and red. The monks of Mahayana Buddhism, practiced mainly in Japan, China and Korea, wear lighter yellow or saffron, often with white or black. Monks of Hinayana Buddhism, practiced in Southeast Asia, usually wear ochre or saffron colour. Monks of the forest tradition in Thailand and other parts of Southeast Asia wear robes of a brownish ochre, dyed from the wood of the jackfruit tree.[20][22]

In Europe and America, orange and yellow are the colours most associated with amusement, frivolity and entertainment. In this regard, orange is the exact opposite of its complementary colour, blue, the colour of calm and reflection. Mythological paintings traditionally showed Bacchus (known in Greek mythology as Dionysus), the god of wine, ritual madness and ecstasy, dressed in orange. Clowns have long worn orange wigs. Toulouse-Lautrec used a palette of yellow, black and orange in his posters of Paris cafes and theatres, and Henri Matisse used an orange, yellow and red palette in his painting, the Joy of Living.[23]

Religion

(See Orange in Hinduism and Buddhism above)

Metaphysics

  • The “New Age Prophetess”, Alice Bailey, in her system called the Seven Rays which classifies humans into seven different metaphysical psychological types, the “fifth ray” of “Concrete Science” is represented by the colour orange. People who have this metaphysical psychological type are said to be “on the Orange Ray”.[29]
  • Orange is used to symbolically represent the second (Swadhisthana) chakra.[30]

 

The Sacred Animal Attribution: The Jackal or Hermaphrodite

jackalThe sacred animal correspondence for Hod is the Jackal or the mythic creature known as hermaphrodite. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 10)

Although the word jackal has often been used historically to refer to many small- to medium-sized species of the wolf genus of mammals, Canis, today it most properly[clarification needed] and commonly refers to three species: the black-backed jackal, the side-striped jackal of sub-Saharan Africa, and the golden jackal of northern Africa and south-central Eurasia. The black-backed and side-striped jackals are more closely related to each other than they are to the golden jackal, which is closer to wolves, dogs, and coyotes. The English word “jackal” derives from Turkish çakal,[2] via Persian شغال shaghāl.[3][4]

Jackals and coyotes (sometimes called the “American jackal”[1]) are opportunistic omnivores, predators of small- to medium-sized animals and proficient scavengers. Their long legs and curved canine teeth are adapted for hunting small mammals, birds, and reptiles, and their large feet and fused leg bones give them a physique well-suited for long-distance running, capable of maintaining speeds of 16 km/h (9.9 mph) for extended periods of time. Jackals are crepuscular, most active at dawn and dusk.

Their most common social unit is that of a monogamous pair which defends its territory from other pairs by vigorously chasing intruding rivals and marking landmarks around the territory with their urine and feces. The territory may be large enough to hold some young adults which stay with their parents until they establish their own territories. Jackals may occasionally assemble in small packs, for example, to scavenge a carcass, but they normally hunt either alone or in pairs. The taxonomy of the jackals has evolved with scientific understanding about how they are related on the canid family tree.

  • Like foxes and coyotes, jackals are often depicted as clever sorcerers in the myths and legends of their regions.
  • Anubis (Ancient Greek: Ἄνουβις) is the Greek name for a jackal-headed god associated with mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian religion.
  • The jackal (likely the golden jackal, given its present range) is mentioned approximately 14 times in the Bible. It is frequently used as a literary device to illustrate desolation, loneliness and abandonment, with reference to its habit of living in the ruins of former cities and other areas abandoned by humans.
  • Serer religion and creation myth posits the jackal was among the first animals created by Roog, the supreme deity of the Serer people.[12]
  • Pablo Neruda‘s poem “I Explain a Few Things” describes Francisco Franco and his allies as “…Jackals that the jackal would drive off…”.
  • In Rudyard Kipling‘s collection of stories The Jungle Book, the mad cowardly jackal Tabaqui feasts on the scraps of Shere Khan and the Seeonee wolf tribe.
  • In the King James translation of the Bible, Isaiah 13:21 refers to ‘doleful creatures’, which some commentators suggest are either jackals or hyenas.[13]
  • Literature in India and Pakistan compares jackal with lion in terms of courage. A famous saying is “One day life of a lion is better than hundred years life of jackal (Tipu Sultan)”.

The Precious Stone Attribution: Opal

OpalThe precious stone correspondence for Hod is Opal and especiallu the fire Opal. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p.  10 ; Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 53)   Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica; its water content may range from 3% to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6% and 10%. Because of its amorphous character it is classed as a mineraloid, unlike the other crystalline forms of silica which are classed as minerals. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone, rhyolite, marl and basalt. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia, which produces 97% of the world’s supply.[4] This includes the production of the state of South Australia, which accounts for approximately 80% of the world’s supply.[5]   The internal structure of precious opal makes it diffract light; depending on the conditions in which it formed, it can take on many colors. Precious opal ranges from clear through white, gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, magenta, rose, pink, slate, olive, brown, and black. Of these hues, the reds against black are the most rare, whereas white and greens are the most common. It varies in optical density from opaque to semi-transparent.   Common opal, called “potch” by miners, does not show the display of color exhibited in precious opal.[6]  Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors and even though it is a mineraloid, it has an internal structure. At micro scales precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. These ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the opal.[8] It is the regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres that determines the quality of precious opal.   For gemstone use, most opal is cut and polished to form a cabochon. “Solid” opal refers to polished stones consisting wholly of precious opal. Opals too thin to produce a “solid,” may be combined with other materials to form attractive gems. An opal doublet consists of a relatively thin layer of precious opal, backed by a layer of dark-colored material, most commonly ironstone, dark or black common opal (potch), onyx or obsidian. The darker backing emphasizes the play of color, and results in a more attractive display than a lighter potch. An opal triplet is similar to a doublet, but has a third layer, a domed cap of clear quartz or plastic on the top. The cap takes a high polish and acts as a protective layer for the opal. The top layer also acts as a magnifier, to emphasize the play of color of the opal beneath, which is often of lower quality. Triplet opals therefore have a more artificial appearance, and are not classed as precious opal.

Besides the gemstone varieties that show a play of color, there are other kinds of common opal such as the milk opal, milky bluish to greenish (which can sometimes be of gemstone quality); resin opal, which is honey-yellow with a resinous luster; wood opal, which is caused by the replacement of the organic material in wood with opal;[9] menilite, which is brown or grey; hyalite, a colorless glass-clear opal sometimes called Muller’s Glass; geyserite, also called siliceous sinter, deposited around hot springs or geysers; and diatomite or diatomaceous earth, the accumulations of diatom shells or tests.

The word opal is adapted from the Roman term opalus, but the origin of this word is a matter of debate. However, most modern references suggest it is adapted from the Sanskrit word úpala.[28]

References to the gem are made by Pliny the Elder. It is suggested it was adapted it from Ops, the wife of Saturn and goddess of fertility. The portion of Saturnalia devoted to Ops was “Opalia”, similar to opalus.

Another common claim that the term is adapted from the Greek word, opallios. This word has two meanings, one is related to “seeing” and forms the basis of the English words like “opaque”, the other is “other” as in “alias” and “alter”. It is claimed that opalus combined these uses, meaning “to see a change in color”. However, historians have noted that the first appearances of opallios do not occur until after the Romans had taken over the Greek states in 180 BC, and they had previously used the term paederos.[28]

However, the argument for the Sanskrit origin is strong. The term first appears in Roman references around 250 BC, at a time when the opal was valued above all other gems. The opals were supplied by traders from the Bosporus, who claimed the gems were being supplied from India. Before this the stone was referred to by a variety of names, but these fell from use after 250 BC.

In the Middle Ages, opal was considered a stone that could provide great luck because it was believed to possess all the virtues of each gemstone whose color was represented in the color spectrum of the opal.[29] It was also said to confer the power of invisibility if wrapped in a fresh bay leaf and held in the hand.[29][30] Following the publication of Sir Walter Scott‘s Anne of Geierstein in 1829, however, opal acquired a less auspicious reputation. In Scott’s novel, the Baroness of Arnheim wears an opal talisman with supernatural powers. When a drop of holy water falls on the talisman, the opal turns into a colorless stone and the Baroness dies soon thereafter. Due to the popularity of Scott’s novel, people began to associate opals with bad luck and death.[29] Within a year of the publishing of Scott’s novel in April 1829, the sale of opals in Europe dropped by 50%, and remained low for the next twenty years or so.[31]

Even as recently as the beginning of the 20th century, it was believed that when a Russian saw an opal among other goods offered for sale, he or she should not buy anything more since the opal was believed to embody the evil eye.[29]

Opal is considered the birthstone for people born in October or under the sign of Scorpio and Libra.

The Yetziratic Title: The Absolute or Perfect Intelligence

The Yetziratic title for hod is “The Absolute or Perfect Intelligence.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 53; Aleister Crowley, 777, p. 4)

The Tarot Card Attribution: The Four Eights

the-four-eigthsThe tarot cards attributions for Hod are the four Eights. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 53; Aleister Crowley, 777, p.  4)

Eight  is the number of Strength in the Tarot and The Four Suits must now find a way to access their own particular Strength if they wish to make real progress on their JourneyThe Four Suits show the different approaches to finding or accessing Strength. The Wands stand for the Strength experienced when their energy is allowed to flow freely, the Cups find the Strength to leave an emotionally un-fulfilling situation in search of personal happiness, the Swords struggle to find the psychological Strength to liberate themselves from limiting, negative and restrictive mindsets and attitudes while the Pentacles showcase their Strength of commitment and determination.

The Four Suits have certainly been through their ups and downs and each came up against their most recent challenges either internally or externally in the Seven.  Now, they must all access their personal Inner-Strength to move them past any obstacles and set-backs experienced in the Seven.  In the Eight, The Four Suits experience a sudden release of their Elemental Energy.  For some, it will feel like they have the wind in their sails, as life begins to speed up with activity and the much longed for positive change.  For others, the sudden release of their Elemental Energy may feel more overwhelming than anything else.  One thing is for certain, the Four Suits will really have their eyes opened to the sheer force and Strength of their Governing Element once released from its shackles.

For the Wands, the sudden release of their Elemental Fire Energy explodes into their life and brings with it excitement, activity, fast movement and rapid change.  For the Wands to be caged in, as they were in the Seven, the arrival of the Eight and the Freedom it brings couldn’t come a minute too soon.  They do not feel any fear of their Element but rather want to jump right on board and experience the thrill of the ride.  Their life has certainly livened up once more and in the Eight, we will experience them at their very best, for this will be the highlight of their journey, and how they would like all days to be.

A healthy,  balance of Water being released to the Cups, provides enough of a strong current to carry them forward and out of the stagnant and murky water of the Seven.  Once in this current of their own Element, they will allow and trust it to deliver them to where they are meant to be.  For the often slow-moving Cups, this sudden movement and change may initially fill them with fear of the unknown. Regardless of how anxious they might feel,  the Water only flows one-way now.  Therefore they must commit to moving forward until they find what they are looking for. They have identified the need for change in their life and so the Universe has sent their own Element, in gushing strength, to rescue them from their emotionally un-fulfilling environment or life.

The sheer force of the Air Element being released on the Swords will be very hard to control.  The Swords badly need to be freed from all their accumulated stress, tension and conflict.  They have made attempts in the past to escape it, but even though they badly need to catch up with the other Suits to experience the thrill and amazing strength of their Governing Element, they still seem to have a heavy horse dragging behind them.  They need to change and make rapid progress with the rest, but their Sword can cut two ways.  In the Eight, the Strength of their Element Air can empower their Sword to slice and sever anything that binds them to negativity and a dysfunctional mind. Like a machete, it will clear a pathway through the dense undergrowth of their mind and allow them to see daylight and taste the potential of freedom.  That is, of course reliant on the Sword being handled correctly.  If not, the Force of Air can turn the extra-strenghtened Sword on its handler, causing further damage and destruction. The Swords then multiply and surround their owner.  It is a difficult one to call, but depending on the individual, the Eight can herald the dawn of a new era and understanding or the death knell of a struggling and rapidly breaking down mind.  For the Swords, it is really make or break time for them in the Eight if they stand any chance coming out of this in once piece.  All the stress and torment must stop here, but are they strong enough to handle their Element? As we all know at this stage, The Swords can be their own worst enemy.

The Force of The Earth Element being released on the Pentacles is what they have been waiting for, for a long time.  The stabilising, grounding and rock-steady strength of Earth appears like a landslide and dumps its load right at their feet.  This is what the Pentacles want for they can build with and on Earth thereby strengthening their position.  They can now throw themselves wholeheartedly into their journey for they know that they have enough Earth to go the distance and are confident they will have much show when they cross the finish line in the Ten.  The Eight empowers the Pentacles because the number Eight is also a magical number for business, trade and commerce.  With the Eight Energy supporting them, they can feel the success within.  Now they just want to be allowed to get on  with becoming the Masters and Experts of their Field of Earth. Hard work but happy days.

In the Eight, the Four Suits shift into a higher gear and movement speeds up for most, if not for all (Those poor Swords). The Eights bring a buzz of excitement and activity in their wake and a sense of real progress being made.  Things are beginning to happen and everyone seems to be mobilising once more with a building sense of anticipation as they move ever closer to the finish line.  The Eight’s mission is to free them from their limiting circumstances so that they can be what they want to be.  A number must be very strong to do that.  The Eight has it all.  The number Eight also symbolises solidity of foundations, firm balance and harmony and as mentioned above, Eight is a very lucky number in business and all financial dealings.

On the Kabbalistic Tree of Life, The Four Eights reside in the 8th  Sephira –  Hod  (Splendor)It supplies the force or strength necessary to break down energy into different, distinguishable forms and is associated with mental energy, communication, reasoning, action, movement.  Hod allows the diversity and expression of energy in its many forms.  It provides structure, balance and foundation. Astrologically – Corresponds with Mercury

In The Major Arcana, The Four Eights correspond very appropriately with Strength (VIII).  Strength speaks for itself and is there to remind us that no matter how hard the struggle, how difficult the journey, how high the obstacle, how painful the feeling, we all have an Inner-Strength that can be called upon to bring us through life’s ordeals.  It is our natural survival instinct and when our Inner-Strength is put to the test, it can move mountains, walk through raging fire, swim in shark infested waters, battle against terminal cancer and stand up to intimidation and injustice . It is fearless in the face all known terror.  It props us up and helps us to come out fighting each day, refusing to let us give up or give in. Strength is deaf to the cries of ‘I can’t’ or ‘ I am not able’ , ‘I won’t’ or ‘I am afraid’ for it only speaks in positives.  Each of The Four Suits accesses Strength in their own way to overcome the challenges that come their way.  The biggest challenge they most often encounter is the challenge from within, when they begin to lose heart, their self-confidence and self-belief.

The Star in The Major Arcana, Card XVII 1+7=8 also corresponds with The Four Eights and Strength promising balance and harmony to The Four Suits should they find the Strength to overcome their obstacles or fear. The Star has survived the Onslaught of the Tower, the greatest challenge of all, by calling on her Inner-Strength during her darkest hours. Her reward is true peace and the freedom to be who she wants to be. The Four Suits can find likewise should they decide to following her advice.

A single Eight in a Reading can highlight an area of your life where you are beginning to overcome personal issues, challenge or difficulty.  It can also suggest an area of your life that you are making progress in or mastering. The situation involved is bound to have been more long-term than short-term as the Eight brings results after hard effort.

If the Single Eight in a Reading is the Eight of Swords, then there is bound to be a lack of harmony or stability for the Querant. In fact this single Card can be influencing every aspect of their life.  Sort this out and the rest will miraculously fall into place. The Upright Eight of Swords will bring a mighty challenge to overcome but it can be done if enough effort is applied.

Several Eights appearing in a Spread can suggest that your Inner-Strength is being tested but that you have sufficient ability or power to deal with the situation. However the Eights do have a very positive effect on a Reading and can suggest that there is much activity and excitement for the Querant.  The more Eights in a Reading the busier life gets, not with boring or tedious things but rather a sense of positive things beginning to happen all round.  Several Eights can herald the end of a stagnant time in life by rushing in powerful energy to stir things up.  An abundance of Eights will bring travel, positive change, a whirlwind of social activity and productivity at work.  Life will certainly be worth looking forward to and very interesting. Great progress can be made with several Eights.

When a Single Eight appears Reversed in a Reading it can suggest an area of your life that is certainly dragging you down. Reversed Eights return you to the challenges and set-backs of the Seven because they have not been properly dealt with.  It can suggest a lack of courage and faith in one-self to face up to problems. The Querant can become stuck, making very little effort to free themselves.

The appearance of a Reversed Eight of Swords can have again cut both ways.  Either the Sword is used to sever the bonds that tie or the Sword is plunged in to the heart.  Freedom or Dysfunctional Psychological  Enslavement.

Several Reversed Eights can highlight an even worse scenario then the One Eight appearing.  There is bound to be a very noticeable sign of lack of Inner-Strength or courage coupled with a sense of doom and failure.  Weakness of spirit and confidence can cause terrible negativity.  Several Eights appearing  can also be a sign that nothing much is happening in life at present or that the Querant is finding it hard to get anything off the ground.  The Social Diary is bound to be empty and there may be a sense of boredom.  Nothing exciting is happening except the same old, same old. Energy levels may be low with a lack of motivation .

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