August 15, 2018
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SOLAR-APOLLOApollo (AtticIonic, and Homeric GreekἈπόλλωνApollōn ; LatinApollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religionand Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun, truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry, and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu.  As the patron of Delphi (Pythian Apollo), Apollo was an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. In Hellenistic times, especially during the 3rd century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with HeliosTitan god of the sun, and his sister Artemis similarly equated with Selene, Titan goddess of the moon.[1] In Latin texts, on the other hand, Joseph Fontenrose declared himself unable to find any conflation of Apollo with Sol among the Augustan poets of the 1st century, not even in the conjurations of Aeneas and Latinus in Aeneid XII (161–215).[2] Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 3rd century CE.

Helios is sometimes identified with Apollo: “Different names may refer to the same being,” Walter Burkert observes, “or else they may be consciously equated, as in the case of Apollo and Helios.”[6]

In HomerApollo is clearly identified as a different god, a plague-dealer with a silver (not golden) bow and no solar features.

The earliest certain reference to Apollo identified with Helios appears in the surviving fragments of Euripides‘ play Phaethon in a speech near the end (fr 781 N²), Clymene, Phaethon’s mother, laments that Helios has destroyed her child, that Helios whom men rightly call Apollo (the name Apollo is here understood to mean Apollon“Destroyer”).

By Hellenistic times Apollo had become closely connected with the Sun in cult. His epithet Phoebus, Phoibos “shining”, drawn from Helios, was later also applied by Latin poets to the sun-god Sol.

The identification became a commonplace in philosophic texts and appears in the writing of ParmenidesEmpedoclesPlutarch and Crates of Thebes among others, as well as appearing in some Orphic texts. Pseudo-Eratosthenes writes about Orpheusin Catasterismi, section 24:

“But having gone down into Hades because of his wife and seeing what sort of things were there, he did not continue to worship Dionysus, because of whom he was famous, but he thought Helios to be the greatest of the gods, Helios whom he also addressed as Apollo. Rousing himself each night toward dawn and climbing the mountain called Pangaion, he would await the sun’s rising, so that he might see it first. Therefore Dionysus, being angry with him, sent the Bassarides, as Aeschylus the tragedian says; they tore him apart and scattered the limbs.”[7]

Dionysus and Asclepius are sometimes also identified with this Apollo Helios.[8]

Classical Latin poets also used Phoebus as a byname for the sun-god, whence come common references in later European poetry to Phoebus and his car (“chariot”) as a metaphor for the sun. But in particular instances in myth, Apollo and Helios are distinct. The sun-god, the son of Hyperion, with his sun chariot, though often called Phoebus (“shining”) is not called Apollo except in purposeful non-traditional identifications.[9]

Despite these identifications, Apollo was never actually described by the Greek poets driving the chariot of the sun, although it was common practice among Latin poets.. Therefore, Helios is still known as the ‘sun god’ – the one who drives the sun chariot across the sky each day.

Apollo the Charioter

apolloAnother attribution for this 18th path is “Apollo in his role of the charioteer.”[14] The Charioteer of Delphi, also known as Heniokhos (the rein-holder), is one of the best-known statues surviving from Ancient Greece, and is considered one of the finest examples of ancient bronze statues. The life-size statue of a chariot driver was found in 1896 at the Sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi. It is now in the Delphi Archaeological Museum. The statue was erected at Delphi in 474 BC, to commemorate the victory of a chariot team in the Pythian Games, which were held at Delphi every four years in honor of Pythean Apollo. It was originally part of a larger group of statuary, including the chariot, four (possibly six) horses and two grooms. Some fragments of the horses were found with the statue. When intact, it must have been one of the most imposing works of statuary in the world. It is certain that the statue is Apollo because, in addition to the fact that there were Artemis statues with it (perhaps from a common temple of the twin gods), the statue has Apollo’s classic hairstyle as it is known from other renditions in sculpture and painting.On the Melian amphora in the Archaeological Museum, and on the white lekythos in the Metropolitan Museum, Apollo is fully dressed as a charioteer, and this is also true of one of the Dioskours, who is pictured clothed in an ample tunic (xystis). There is another representation which, although it could be interpreted thus, is probably not the god Dionysos as a clothed charioteer.Apollo’s chariot was pulled by swans, and Apollo flew towards the north on it in autumn, and returned in spring. People celebrated his departure and arrival with melancholy or joyful songs, accordingly. Other gods and heroes had winged chariots as well, such as Helios – the Sun, Zeus, Poseidon, Hermes, Artemis, Demeter, and Triptolemos. The chariot (difros) was “invented in the East,” and its precious load was the charioteer, and sometimes a companion (a warrior or athlete). It had two wheels attached to a shaft, a platform, and a barrier that was usually covered with leather and reached as high as the knees of the charioteer. The rudder (steering column) in the middle of the shaft projected up to the waist of the charioteer, and there the horses’ yoke and the reins were fastened.

apolloooA list found in a weapons storeroom at Knossos cited 1000 sets of wheels and 340 chariots. The Riders usually got onto the chariot with their left foot, and grasped the upper part of the barrier to make their ascent easier. They usually stood upright. (There were a few exceptions to this.) The chariot was pulled by either two or four horses, and was called a biga or quadriga accordingly. Sometimes, however, the chariot was pulled by one horse, or three. The quadriga appeared in the 7th century B.C., and was used in chariot races, which were considered essential during Panhellenic festivities. Later on quadrigas would decorate the pediments of temples. It is interesting to know that in antiquity there were very few owners of chariots: only officials and the rich could buy and keep horses.

Apollo the Diviner

apolllloApollo also is a correspondence for this seventeenth path of the qabalistic Tree of Life (zayin), but “only in that aspect of him as the Diviner, having the power to communicate the gift of prophecy to both gods and men.”[28] Nietzsche, in his marvellous book, Birth of the Tragedy, says that Apollo not only is he a god of all shaping energies, but that he is also the soothsaying god: “He who (as the etymology of the name indicates) is the “shining one,” the deity of light, also rules over the fair appearance of inner world of fantasies. The higher truth, the perfection of these states in contrast to fantasies. The higher truth, the perfection of these states in constrast to the only partially intelligible everyday world, ay, the deep consciousness of nature, healing and helping in sleep and dream, is at the same time the symbolical analogue of the faculty of soothsaying and, in general of all the arts, through which life is made possible and worth living.”[29]

Tree of Life Attributions

Ra, Hellos, Apollo, and Surya are all gods of the solar disk. (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 87)

The Greek Deity correspondances, according to Aleister Crowley, are Iacchus, Appolo and Adonis. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p.8) The Sixth Sephiroth : Tiphareth

The Roman Deity correspondance for Tiphareth, according to Crowley, is Apollo. (Aleister Crowley, 777, p.11)  The From Walter Pater’s Greek Studies we learn that : Apollo the “spiritual form” of sunbeams, easily becomes (the merely physical element in his constitution being almost wholly suppressed) exclusively ethical – the “spiritual form” of inward or intellectual light, in all its manifestations. He represents all those specially European ideas of a reasonable polity ; of the sanity of soul and body… his religion is a sort of embodied equity, its aim being the realization of fair reason and just consideration of the truth of things everywhere. ” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 49)  We can find a parallel conception in that section of the Zohar entitled Idra Zuta :49, Israel Regardie tells us, where it is said that Tiphareth is “the highest manifestation of ethical life, the sum of all goodness ; in short, the ideal.” (Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 49)

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[14] Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p. 75.

[28] Israel Regardie, A Garden of Pomegrenates, p.

[29] Frederich Nietzsche, Birth of the Tragedy from the Spirit of Music. Penguin Books, 1994.

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billwallace

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